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PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ROCK AVENUE 21-E DUMP
WINCHESTER, MIDDLESEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS


APPENDIX A: FIGURES AND TABLES

Table I: Surface Soil Samples (on-site)

Table II: Surface Soil Samples (residential)

Table III: Exposure Pathway Table

Figure 1: Site Location Map

Figure 2A: Site Diagram and Sample Location Map - Residential Samples

Figure 2B: Site Diagram and Sample Location Map - Site Samples

Figure 3: ATSDR Intro Map


Table I: Surface soil contaminants detected during EPA sampling investigation, May 7, 1999. Samples taken from 9 locations on the Rock Avenue Dumpsite.


Surface Soil -- Dump Site Samples
Chemical Range of Contamination (mg/kg) Comparison Value (mg/kg)
Pyrene 0.038 - 19.0 2,000 RMEG
Benz(a)anthracene 0.07 - 11.0 7.8 RBC
Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.089 - 0.84 410 RBC
Benzo(b)fluoranthene 0.1 - 13.0 7.8 RBC
Dibenzofuran 0.047 - 1.1 8200 RBC
Benzo(k)fluoranthene 0.04 - 4.3 78 RBC
N-nitrosodiphenylamine 0.048 100 CREG
Benzo(a)pyrene 0.08 - 11.0 0.1 CREG
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 0.065 - 1.3 7.8 RBC
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 0.062 - 0.38 0.78 RBC
Benzo(ghi)perylene 0.07 - 3.3 NONE
Fluoranthene 0.06 - 21.0 20,000 EMEG(child)
Acenaphthene 0.064 - 1.2 30,000 EMEG(child)
Acenaphthylene 0.056 - 1.2 NONE
Fluorene 0.045 - 1.3 20,000 EMEG (child)
Phenanthrene 0.53 - 16.0 5,000 EMEG (child)
Anthracene 0.091 - 3.6 50,000 EMEG (child)
Carbazole 0.050 - 0.95 290 RBC
Chrysene 0.68 - 10.0 10,000 RMEG (child)
Dibutylphthalate 0.039 - 0.053 30,000 EMEG (child)
Napthalene 0.038 - 0.66 1,000 EMEG (child)
2-methylnapthalene 0.044 - 0.57 41,000RBC
alpha chlordane 4.3 - 21.0 30 EMEG (child)
gamma chlordane 3.8 - 17.0 30 EMEG (child)


Table II: Surface soil contaminants detected during EPA sampling investigation, May 7, 1999. Samples taken from two locations in residents yard located approximately 50 yards from dumpsite boundary.


Surface Soil - Residential Samples
Chemical Range of Contamination (mg/kg) Comparison Value (mg/kg)
Pyrene 0.37 2,000 RMEG
Benz(a)anthracene 0.12 - 0.20 0.87 RBC
Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.37 - 0.80 410 RBC
Benzo(b)fluoranthene 0.25 - 0.41 0.87 RBC
Benzo(k)fluoranthene 0.081 - 0.15 8.7 RBC
Benzo(a)pyrene 0.15 - 0.27 0.1 CREG
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 0.084 - 0.14 0.87 RBC
Benzo(ghi)perylene 0.075 - 0.12 NONE
Fluoranthene 0.26 20,000 EMEG (child)
Acenaphthene 0.062 30,000 EMEG (child)
Phenanthrene 0.12 - 0.18 5,000 RMEG (child)
Anthracene 0.069 50,000 EMEG(child)
Dibutylphthalate 0.081 - 0.13 30,000 EMEG (child)
alpha chlordane 5.1 - 9.8 30 EMEG (child)
gamma chlordane 2.7 - 5.6 30 EMEG (child)
4,4'- DDE 8.0 - 10 1.9 RBC
4,4'-DDT 19.0 - 24.0 30 EMEG (child)

CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
RBC Risk Based Concentrations


Table III: Potential exposure pathways associated with the Rock Avenue Dumpsite


Pathway Name Source Environmental Medium Point of Exposure (Exposed Population) Route of Exposure Time of Exposure Comments
Soil Soil cover on dumpsite Surface soil (0-3 inches bgs) Trespassers direct contact Dermal
Ingestion
Inhalation
Past
Present
Future
Near surface soil indicate contaminant levels not associated with health effects.
Sediment
Runoff
Soil cover on dumpsite Surface soil runoff from dumpsite Residents living near dumpsite Dermal
Ingestion
Inhalation
Past
Present
Future
Near surface soil indicate contaminant levels not associated with health effects
Fugitive dusts from dumpsite surface soil from dumpsite Fugitive dusts/wind dispersion Residents living near dumpsite Dermal
Ingestion
Inhalation
Past
Present
Future
Near surface soil samples taken at a nearby residence indicate that contaminant levels are not associated with health effects.
Biota Surface soil Bio-uptake of surface soil contaminants by local edible vegetation Resident living near dumpsite Ingestion Past
Present
Future
Near surface soil samples taken at a nearby residence indicate that contaminant levels are not associated with health effects.
Ambient Air Methane-producing dumpsite materials disposed on site. Soil gas migration Residents of houses in the nearby vicinity of site. Inhalation Past
Present
Future
Soil gas sampling at the perimeter of the site above LEL. No methane detected at elevated level in nearby basement.

Indoor methane data are limited to one sample from one nearby basement.

Indoor Air Methane producing dumpsite materials disposed of on-site Soil gas migration Basements of nearby residents Physical Future Soil gas sampling at the perimeter of the site above LEL.

Indoor methane data are limited to one sample from one nearby basement.

LEL = Lower Explosive Limit
CREG = Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
EMEG = Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
RMEG = Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
1 Data based on MIT soil samples at 6 inches below the surface; no surface soil data (i.e., 0 to 3 inches) are available.


Figure 1. Site Location Map


Figure 2a. Site Diagram and Sample Location Map - Residential Samples


Figure 2b. Site Diagram and Sample Location Map - Site Samples


Figure 3. ATSDR Intro Map



APPENDIX B: ATSDR METHODOLOGY

Methods of Evaluation Potential Public Health Implications
Based on available scientific data, much of which ATSDR has collected in its toxicological profiles, ATSDR has determined concentrations of chemicals that can reasonably (and conservatively) be regarded as harmless. The resulting comparison values generally include ample safety factors to ensure protection of sensitive populations. They are used to screen contaminant concentrations at a site, and to select "chemicals of concern" that warrant closer scrutiny by agency health assessors and toxicologists. A "chemical of concern" is defined as any chemical that is detected in air, water, or soil at concentrations that exceed one or more of ATSDR's comparison values.

The derivation of a comparison value uses conservative exposure assumptions, resulting in values that are much lower than exposure concentrations observed to cause adverse health effects; thus, insuring the comparison values are protective of public health in essentially all exposure situations. That is, if the concentrations in the exposure medium are less than the CV, the exposures are not of health concern and no further analysis of the pathway is required. However, while concentrations below the comparison value are not expected to lead to any observable health effect, it should not be inferred that a concentration greater than the comparison value will necessarily lead to adverse effects. Depending on site-specific environmental exposure factors (for example, duration of exposure) and activities of people that result in exposure (time spent in area of contamination), exposure to levels above the comparison value may or may not lead to a health effect. Therefore, ATSDR's comparison values are not used to predict the occurrence of adverse health effects. ATSDR's comparison values and health guidelines are not thresholds of toxicity. While concentrations at or below the relevant comparison value is considered safe, it does not necessarily follow that any concentration exceeding a comparison value is expected to produce adverse health effects. Highly conservative, health-based standards and guidelines are used to assist health professionals in recognizing and resolving potential public health problems before that potential is realized.

Risk estimates were calculated using an age adjustment formula to account for children's exposures and estimating a 30-year exposure duration. An exposure frequency of 1 was used for residential exposure and 0.1 for a trespassing exposure. Maximum contaminant concentrations were used. Results are expressed as estimated increases in risk above background for developing cancer.

Benzo(a)pyrene

residential:
0.27 mg/kg x 200 mg/day x 1E-06 x 6 years x 7.3 oral slope factor x 1Exposure Frequency = 2E-06
                                             15 kg x 70 years

                                                                      +

0.27 mg/kg x 100 mg/day x 1E-06 x 24 years x 7.3 oral slope factor x 1Exposure Frequency = 1E-06
                                                             70 kg x 70 years

                                                                                                                                                            = 3E-06

trespassing:
same as above except using 11. mg/kg and 0.1 Exposure Factor = 1E-05

DDD

same as above except using 10 mg/kg and 3.4E-01 OSF = 5E-06

DDT

same as above except using 24 mg/kg and 3.4E-01 OSF = 1E-05

Chlordane

15.4 mg/kg and 0.35 OSF for residential = 9E-06

38 mg/kg and 0.35 OSF and 0.1 EF for trespassing = 2E-06

ATSDR definitions of risk categories:

Category Exponential
No Increased Risk <1E-06
No Apparent
Increased Risk
1E-05
Low Increased Risk 1E-04
Moderate
Increased Risk
1E-03
High Increased Risk 1E-02
Very High
Increased Risk
>1E-01

* ATSDR Decision Statement TOX.14. Draft QAA-27. Revised October 21, 1991.


APPENDIX C: GLOSSARY

Acute
Occurring over a short time, usually a few minutes or hours. An acute exposure can result in short-term or long-term health effects. An acute effect happens a short time (up to 1 year) after exposure.

Chronic
Occurring over a long period of time (more than 1 year).

Comparison Values
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, give a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.

Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.

Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) Where it is not normally found.

Dermal
Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.

Environmental Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.

Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

Hazard
A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.

Health Consultation
A response to a specific question or request for information pertaining to a hazardous substance or facility (which includes waste sites ). It often contains a time-critical element that necessitates a rapid response; therefore, it is a more limited response than an assessment.

Ingestion
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.

Inhalation
Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.

Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other part of the environment that can contain contaminants.

No Public Health Hazard
Sites for which data indicate no current or past exposure or no potential for exposure and therefore no health hazard.

Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX D: PUBLIC COMMENTS

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) issued the public health assessment draft for a 30-day public comment period ending December 27, 1999. A summary of the comments received and ATSDR responses on the Public Comment Petitioned Health Assessment for the Rock Avenue 21-E Dumpsite, dated November 15, 1999, are summarized below:

Comment: ATSDR concluded that the site represented an "indeterminate public health hazard" due solely to the lack of adequate soil gas data describing the distribution and magnitude of methane in the soil gas at and around the site. Sufficient information already exists to eliminate this concern from additional consideration.

In 1993, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts promulgated environmental standards based on a soil gas to indoor air exposure pathway (GW'2", 310 CMR 40.0932. The method used to describe the GW-2 exposure pathway is the "Heuristic" model developed by Johnson and Ettinger ("Heuristic Model for Technology, 1991(25, 1445-1452).) The MADEP application of this model assumes an "attenuation coefficient (AC)" of 0.005 (indoor air concentration/soil gas concentration) and has determined that this attenuation coefficient is reasonably protective of public health concerns for the soil gas to indoor air exposure pathway.

As indicated in the ATSDR report, some soil gas samples from the site have yielded readings of 50% of the LEL. While LEL readings of this magnitude would be cause of concern if they had been obtained in basement spaces or subsurface utility lines, the MADEP specified attenuation coefficient for soil gas to indoor air partitioning would indicate that the resulting indoor air concentrations would be well below any level representing explosion concerns.

ATSDR Response: ATSDR concluded that soil gas migration could still be of future public health concern due to the lack of adequate characterization of the soil gas pathway. ATSDR does not solely rely on models to insure the protection of public health when actual data could be obtained. Although no dangerous methane concentrations were observed in nearby residences, methane has been detected, and future gas migration through subsurface soil may be influenced by many physical factors such as pressure of the gas, cracks, fissures, and non-homogeneous soil conditions. ATSDR believes there are too many unknowns in soil conditions to completely rule out the soil gas pathway. ATSDR recommends monitoring of methane gas periodically in houses located in the vicinity of the site to eliminate this concern.

The indeterminate public health hazard category is used for sites when a professional judgement on the level of health hazard cannot be made because information critical to such a decision is lacking. This category is used for sites in which "critical" data are insufficient with regard to extent of exposure and/or toxicologic properties at estimated exposure levels.



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