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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CENEX SUPPLY AND MARKETING, INCORPORATED
(a/k/a WESTERN FARMERS, INCORPORATED)
QUINCY, GRANT COUNTY, WASHINGTON
EPA FACILITY ID: WAD980726269

March 1, 2002

Prepared by:

The Washington State Department of Health
Under a cooperative agreement with the
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry


TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

GLOSSARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

PURPOSE AND HEALTH ISSUES

BACKGROUND

DISCUSSION

CHILD HEALTH/DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS

HEALTH OUTCOME DATA EVALUATION FOR QUINCY

COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

CONCLUSIONS

RECOMMENDATIONS

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

PREPARER OF REPORT

REFERENCES

APPENDIX A - DATA TABLES

APPENDIX B - FIGURES

APPENDIX C - EXPOSURE ASSUMPTIONS

APPENDIX D - EXPOSURE DOSE FORMULAS

APPENDIX E - INTERIM CRITERIA OF ACTIONS FOR LEVELS OF PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

APPENDIX F - RESPONSE TO COMMENTS ON THE DRAFT PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CERTIFICATION PAGE


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Cancer incidences reported and expected for the Quincy area (1992-1998)

Table A1. 1993 EPA & 1995 Cenex site soil VOC concentrations

Table A2. 1993 EPA & 1995 Cenex site soil/sludge herbicide/pesticide concentrations

Table A3. Maximum Cenex site soil metal concentrations

Table A4. 1993 EPA Cenex site soil phenoxyherbicide concentrations

Table A5. Maximum groundwater VOC, nitrate, and ammonia concentrations

Table A6. Soil VOC & metal concentrations, June 1997

Table A7. Soil pesticide/herbicide, ammonia & nitrate concentrations, June 1997

Table A8. Cenex site soil gas VOC concentrations

Table A9. Maximum modeled and measured site ambient air VOC concentrations

Table A10. Quincy high school air monitoring results (1,2-DCP); Feb.18-23, 1998

Table A11. Cenex site child exposure dose estimates and reference doses

Table A12. Cenex site adult exposure dose estimates and reference doses

Table A13. Estimated child cancer and noncancer risks

Table A14. Estimated adult cancer and noncancer risks

Table A15. Modeled Cenex site dust inhalation cancer and noncancer risks


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. 1990 population demographics for Quincy

Figure 2. Location of Grant County, Washington

Figure 3. Quincy and vicinity

Figure 4. Map of Quincy with location of the Cenex facility

Figure 5. Former rinsate pond & Cenex fumigant plant site

Figure 6. Location of Cenex facility & neighboring facilities

Figure 7. Hydrostratigraphic cross section, SE from MW-1 to MW-12

Figure 8. Location of Quincy municipal wells


ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

ABBREVIATIONS/ACRONYMS

ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
CREG ATSDR cancer risk evaluation guide
CSMI Cenex Supply and Marketing, Inc.
CV comparison value
WDOH Washington State Department of Health
1,1-DCE 1,1-dichloroethylene
1,2-DCP 1,2-dichloropropane
Ecology Washington State Department of Ecology
EMEG ATSDR environmental media evaluation guide
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
LOAEL lowest observed adverse effect level
MCL Safe Drinking Water Act maximum contaminant level
MCLG Safe Drinking Water Act maximum contaminant level goal
MRL ATSDR minimal risk level
µg microgram
mg milligram
MTCA Department of Ecology Model Toxics Cleanup Act regulation
NOAEL no observed adverse effect level
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
PAHs polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PHA public health assessment
RfD oral reference dose
RMEG ATSDR reference dose media evaluation guide
RI remedial investigation
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
SVE soil vapor extraction
USGS United States Geological Survey
VOC volatile organic compound


GLOSSARY

Acute:
Occurring over a short period of time. An acute exposure is one which lasts for less than 2 weeks.


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR):
The principal federal public health agency involved with hazardous waste issues, responsible forpreventing or reducing the harmful effects of exposure to hazardous substances on human health andquality of life. ATSDR is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Aquifer:
An underground formation composed of materials such as sand, soil, or gravel that can store and/or supply groundwater to wells and springs.


Cancer risk evaluation guide (CREG):
The concentration of a chemical in air, soil, or water that is expected to cause no more than oneexcess cancer in 1 million persons exposed over a lifetime. The CREG is a comparison value usedto select contaminants of potential health concern and is based on the cancer slope factor (CSF).


Cancer slope factor :
A number assigned to a cancer-causing chemical that is used to estimate its ability to cause cancer inhumans.


Carcinogen:
Any substance that can cause or contribute to the production of cancer.


Chronic :
A long period of time. A chronic exposure is one which lasts for a year or longer.


Comparison value :
A concentration of a chemical in soil, air, or water that, if exceeded, requires further evaluation as acontaminant of potential health concern. The terms comparison value and screening level are oftenused synonymously.


Contaminant :
Any chemical that exists in the environment or living organisms that is not normally found there.


Dose :
A dose is the amount of a substance that gets into the body through ingestion, skin absorption, orinhalation. It is calculated per kilogram of body weight per day.


Environmental media evaluation guide (EMEG) :
A concentration in air, soil, or water below which adverse noncancer health effects are not expectedto occur. The EMEG is a comparison value used to select contaminants of potential health concernand is based on ATSDR's minimal risk level (MRL).


Epidemiology :
The study of the occurrence and causes of health effects in human populations. An epidemiologicalstudy often compares two groups of people who are alike except for one factor, such as exposure to achemical or the presence of a health effect. The investigators try to determine if any factor (i.e., age,sex, occupation, economic status) is associated with the health effect.


Exposure :
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skinor eyes). Exposure might be short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic).


Groundwater :
Water found underground that fills pores between materials such as sand, soil, or gravel. In aquifers,groundwater often occurs in quantities where it can be used for drinking water, irrigation, and otherpurposes.


Hazardous substance :
Any material that poses a threat to public health and/or the environment. Typical hazardoussubstances are materials that are toxic, corrosive, ignitable, explosive, or chemically reactive.


Indeterminate public health hazard :
Sites for which no conclusions about public health hazard can be made because data are lacking.


Ingestion rate :
The amount of an environmental medium which could be ingested typically on a daily basis. Unitsfor IR are usually liter/day for water, and mg/day for soil.


Inorganic :
Compounds composed of mineral materials, including elemental salts and metals such as iron, aluminum, mercury, and zinc.


Lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) :
LOAELs have been classified into "less serious" or "serious" effects. In dose-response experiments,the lowest exposure level at which there are statistically or biologically significant increases in thefrequency or severity of adverse effects between the exposed population and its appropriate control.


Maximum contaminant level (MCL) :
A drinking water regulation established by the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. It is the maximumpermissible concentration of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet of theultimate user of a public water system. MCLs are enforceable standards.


Media:
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other part of the environment that can contain contaminants.


Minimal risk level (MRL) :
An amount of chemical that gets into the body (i.e., dose) below which health effects are notexpected. MRLs are derived by ATSDR for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures bythe inhalation and oral routes.


Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA) :
The hazardous waste clean-up law for Washington State.


Monitoring wells :
Special wells drilled at locations on or off a hazardous waste site so water can be sampled at selecteddepths and studied to determine the movement of groundwater and the amount, distribution, andtype of contaminant.


No apparent public health hazard :
Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but theexposure is below a level of health hazard.


No observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) :
The dose of a chemical at which there were no statistically or biologically significant increases infrequency or severity of adverse effects seen between the exposed population and its appropriatecontrol. Effects might be observed at this dose but were judged not to be "adverse."


No public health hazard :
Sites for which data indicate no current or past exposure or no potential for exposure and thereforeno health hazard.


Oral reference dose (RfD) :
An amount of chemical ingested into the body (i.e., dose) below which health effects are notexpected. RfDs are published by EPA.


Organic :
Compounds composed of carbon, including materials such as solvents, oils, and pesticides, whichare not easily dissolved in water.


Parts per billion (ppb)/Parts per million (ppm) :
Units commonly used to express low concentrations of contaminants. For example, 1 ounce oftrichloroethylene (TCE) in 1 million ounces of water is 1 ppm. 1 ounce of TCE in 1 billion ouncesof water is 1 ppb. If one drop of TCE is mixed in a competition-size swimming pool, the water willcontain about 1 ppb of TCE.


Plume :
An area of contaminants in a specific media such as groundwater.


Reference dose media evaluation guide (RMEG) :
A concentration in air, soil, or water below which adverse noncancer health effects are not expectedto occur. The EMEG is a comparison value used to select contaminants of potential health concernand is based on EPA's oral reference dose (RfD).


Remedial investigation :
A study designed to collect the data necessary to determine the nature and extent of contamination ata site.


Route of exposure :
The way in which a person might contact a chemical substance that includes ingestion, skin contact,and breathing.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) :
Established in 1970 to bring together parts of various government agencies involved with the controlof pollution.


Volatile organic compound (VOC) :
An organic (carbon-containing) compound that evaporates (volatilizes) easily at room temperature. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents.


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