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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FAIRCHILD AIR FORCE BASE
SPOKANE, SPOKANE COUNTY, WASHINGTON


APPENDIX A: FIGURES


Figure 1. Fairchild Air Force Base Site Location Map


Figure 2. Fairchild Air Force Base Satellite Facilities


Figure 3. Fairchild Air Force Base Hazardous Waste Sites


Figure 4. Demographics for Fairchild Air Force Base and Surrounding Area


Figure 5. Craig Road Landfill and Surrounding Area


Figure 6. Craig Road Landfill Plume and Well Locations


Figure 7. Well Locations for Sites WW-1, FT-1 and West Thorpe Road Area Residences



APPENDIX B:

Table B1.

Hazardous Waste Sites at Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington
SITEDESCRIPTIONDATE OF OPERATIONACTIONS TAKEN/DATE
SW-1Landfill1949-1957/1958LTM/12-93
SW-8Craig Road Landfill1957/1958-late 1970sGeotextile liner/?
Pump-and-treat /9-95
LTM/12-93
WW-1Industrial Wastewater LagoonsCirca 1942-presentPump-and-treat /2-96
LTM/12-93
FT-01Fire Training Area1970-1991Soil bioventing/6-97
Groundwater air sparging/6-97
IS-1French Drain System1978-1992LTM/12-93
PS-1POL Bulk Storage Area1951-presentLTM/12-93
Soil bioventing/5-97
PS-3Pumphouse1951-presentNFA
PS-4/PS-9Aircraft Crash SitesPS-4: Dates Unknown
PS-9: Crashed in 1987
NFA
PS-5Former Fuel Oil Storage TankAreaUnknown-1985LTM/12-93
PS-7Underground Fuel Oil StorageTanksUnknown-1988LTM/12-93
SW-6Radioactive Waste Disposal AreaEarly 1950s-not presently usedNFA
SW-10Disposal AreaUnknownNFA
SW-11Aircraft Salvage andReclamation AreaEarly 1940s-Early 1980s(Not used as a salvageyard since 50s or 60s)Soil cover seeded withgrass/3-92
SW-12 Disposal AreaUnknownNFA
SW-13EOD RangeUnknown-1989NFA
IS-3Building has been used formany purposes includingEngine Test Cell and Storageof PCB materials1942-present (buildinghas been pickled and is nolonger in operation)Institutional controls/1-96
IS-4Jet Engine Test Cell1953-1988Soil LTM/12-93
Institutional controls/1-96
PS-2Refueling Pit Area
(OU-1)
Circa 1942-presentLTO Groundwater/12-93
LTM/12-93
SW-2Waste Disposal AreaEarly 1940s-late 1940sNFA
SW-3Waste Disposal AreaOperated in mid-1960sNFA
SW-4Coal Storage Area1940sNFA
SW-5Incinerator1940s-1960sNFA
SW-7Asphalt Disposal Area1958-late 50s/early 60sNFA
SW-9Radioactive Waste Disposal AreaUnknownNFA
PS-8Fuel Line AreaCirca 1942-presentLTM/12-93
PS-6Defueling Tank AreaCirca 1942-presentNFA
WW-2Wastewater Treatment PlantEarly 1960s-presentNFA
IS-2Civil Engineer Storage FacilityDecontamination materialsremoved in 1979NFA
PS-10Discharge Ditch from FuelTruck Maintenance;historically a liquid oxygenand nitrogen facility andcorrosion control and paintshop building1959-present (nodischarge into ditch since1987)Soil removal/8-96
LTM/?
FT-2Former Fire Training AreaUnknownSoil LTM/1-96
Institutional controls/1-96
AOC-1Vehicle maintenance facility1942-presentNFA
AOC-2Propulsion shop at Building 21631953-presentNFA
SS-33
(AOC#3)
Waste storage area at Building1419Circa 1960-presentSoil removal/7-97
SD-34
(AOC#4)
Waste fuel operations at Buildings1012 and 1037Early 1960's-presentSoil removal/7-97
ST-35
(AOC#5)
Fuel transfer facility at Building21651942-presentSol removal/7-97
WP-36
(AOC#6)
Holding lagoon and Imhoff tank1952-presentSoil LTM/3-97
Institutional controls/3-97
SD-37
(AOC#7)
Basewide oil/water separatorsUnknown-presentUpgraded w/ soilremoval/1995
SD-38
(AOC#8)
Basewide ditches piping andculverts discharging to thelagoons

Circa 1950-present

Soil removal/6-97
SS-39Orphan TCE plume (Basewide)UnknownInterim removal action/9-97

APPENDIX C: CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN

The tables below list the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each exposure pathway. The arecriteria used for listing a chemical as a COC include: 1) exceedance or lack of media specifichealth comparison values, 2) noted community health concerns and 3) the quality and extent ofsampling data. For metals, background values are also used since these elements occurnaturally. If the metal does not exceed its 90th percentile background value for the SpokaneBasin as determined by Ecology, then it is not a contaminant of concern. In some cases, site-derived background values are used if an Ecology value is not available. Also, any contaminantlisted in one medium will by default be listed in all other media in which it is detected. Ingeneral, a contaminant is compared with a screening value to see if it is occurring at a highenough level to warrant further consideration. If the contaminant exceeds the screening value, itis evaluated under the Pathways Analysis section.

Media-specific health comparison values are contaminant concentrations in specific media (i.e.,air, soil and water) used to select contaminants for further evaluation. If a contaminant exceedsthese health comparison values, this does not mean that a public health concern exists but rathersignifies the need to consider the chemical further which is done in the Public Health Implicationssection of the public health assessment. The health comparison values used in this public healthassessment include environmental media evaluation guides (EMEGs), cancer risk evaluationguides (CREGs), reference dose media evaluation guides (RMEGs), maximum contaminantlevels (MCLs), lifetime health advisories (LTHAs) and ambient water quality criteria (AWQCs).

EMEGs are media-specific health comparison values used to select contaminants of concern athazardous waste sites. EMEGs are derived from the minimal risk levels (MRLs) presented in theATSDR Toxicological Profiles. An MRL is an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemicalthat is likely to be without a substantial risk of harmful (non-cancerous) effects over a specifiedduration of exposure. RMEGs are media-specific health comparison values derived from EPA'sreference dose (RfD) that are used when EMEGs are not available. RfDs estimate the dailyexposure to a contaminant below which adverse health effects are not anticipated. CREGs areestimated contaminant concentrations in a specific medium that are anticipated to result in oneexcess cancer in one million persons exposed over a lifetime. CREGs are calculated from EPA'scancer slope factors (CSFs), also known as cancer potency factors. CSFs are cancer potencyestimates derived for chemicals shown to be carcinogenic in either animals or humans. MCLs arecontaminant concentrations in water derived by EPA to be protective of public health(considering the availability and economics of water treatment technology) over a lifetime (70years) at an ingestion exposure rate of 2 liters of water per day. MCLs are enforceable,regulatory values. LTHAs are non-enforceable guidelines derived for a lifetime ingestionexposure to a contaminant in drinking water. They are calculated for non-carcinogeniccompounds from Drinking Water Equivalent Levels (DWELs) which in turn are based on oralRfDs. LTHAs do consider the contribution of other media to the overall exposure. Humanhealth-based AWQCs are derived for both carcinogens and non-carcinogens based on EPA'sCSFs and RfDs, respectively. Two values are derived based on either ingestion of water (2liters/day) or ingestion of both water and organisms (2 liters/day and 6.5 grams of fish/day). AWQCs used in this public health assessment include a consideration of both pathways unlessotherwise noted.

Also, included in the COC tables are EPA's weight-of-evidence cancer classification for eachcontaminant. This classification scheme will be revised in the near future but currently consistsof six groups: 1) Group A - Known Human Carcinogen, 2) Group B1 - Probable HumanCarcinogen with sufficient animal data and limited human data, 3) Group B2 - Probable HumanCarcinogen with sufficient animal data and inadequate or no human data, 4) Group C - PossibleHuman Carcinogen, 5) Group D - Not Classifiable as to Human Carcinogenicity and 6) Group E-Evidence of Non-carcinogenicity in Humans

Completed Exposure Pathways

Pathway 1a: Craig Road Landfill --> Groundwater --> Vietzke Village Residents/Airway Heights Residents/Scafco Employees

Table C1.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway 1a: Craig Road Landfill --> Groundwater --> Vietzke Village Residents/Airway Heights Residents/Scafco Employees


Max/MaxR
(ppb)
Location
(Well #)
Date
ContaminantVietzke
Village
Airway
Heights
ScafcoVietzke
Village
Airway
Heights
ScafcoVietzke
Village
Airway
Heights
ScafcoComparison Value
ppb Source
TCE80/593.2/0.763/0.7RW-9/
RW-11
RW -1&4RW-7A/
RW-7A
7-89/
6-91
2-95
/6-97
11-95/
3-96
3CREG
Nitrate10,500NANA? NANA1-86NANA10,000MCL
Max = Maximum value ever detected.
NA = Not applicable
Max R = Most recent maximum value detected.
NOTE: TCE was formerly classified as a B2 probable human carcinogen by EPA. This classification has sincebeen withdrawn and is currently under review.

Pathway 1b: Craig Road Landfill --> Air --> Vietzke Village Residents

No ambient air monitoring data are available for any locations on or off base. Soil gasconcentrations at the Craig Road Landfill were used with EPA's SCREEN air model to estimatelevels of TCE, benzene, and methylene chloride at the perimeter of the base. See the PathwaysAnalysis section for a discussion of ambient contaminants originating from the Craig Road Landfill.

Pathway 2: Lagoons and Fire Training Area --> Groundwater --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

Table C2.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway 2: Lagoons and Fire Training Area --> Groundwater --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents
ContaminantMax/
MaxR
(ppb)
Location
(Well #)
DateComparison
Value
ppb Source
EPA
Cancer
Class
Comments
TCE1.5/1.1RW-13/RW-232-95/6-973CREGB2Selected as a COCbased on potential forincrease in residentialwells.
Max = Maximum value ever detected.
Max R = Most recent maximum value detected.
Bold indicates that EPA cancer classification has been withdrawn

Pathway 3: No-Name Ditch (Fairchild Easement) --> Sediment/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

Table C3.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway : No-Name Ditch (Fairchild Easement) Sediment/Surface Water West Thorpe Road Area Residents

ContaminantMaximumaComparison ValueBackgroundEPA Cancer
Class
Sediment
(ppm)
SurfaceWater
(ppb)
Soil
(ppm) Source

Surface
Water
(ppb) Source

Soilb
(ppm)

Surface
Water
(ppb)
Aluminum218002040NANANANA21376NANA
Antimony24.9NDNANANANA8.1NANA
Arsenic42.930.5CREG0.018AWQC c9.3NAA
Magnesium1390018000NANA100AWQC d3415NANA
Manganese667305NANA100AWQC d664NANA
Molybdenum86262300RMEGNANA2NANA
TPH86022,000200MTCANANANANANA
a = Values are given for off-base ditch sampling only. On-base ditch levels may be higher.
b = 90th percentile background soil values for Spokane Basin taken (Ref. 29).
c = AWQC is for fish consumption only.
d = AWQC is based on exposure via water water and fish consumption.
NA = Not available
NOTE: Most recent sampling of No-Name Ditch in 10/95 did not detect TPH.

Pathway 4: Picloram --> Groundwater/Soil/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents

Table C4.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway 4: Tordon --> Groundwater/Soil/Surface Water --> West Thorpe Road Area Residents
MediaMaximum
Tordon
Concentration
(ppb)
LocationComparison Valuea
(ppb) Source
Date
Surface Water0.16Fairchild
Easement
NANA1/5/79
Soil15.0Residential
Garden
NANANA
Groundwater13.2Residential
Well
500MCL1/3/79
Cow's MilkNDResidenceNANA1/18/79

Pathway 5: On-Base Workers Sediment/Surface Soil Fairchild Personnel

Table C5.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway 5: On-Base Activities --> Sediment/Soil --> Base Personnel
ContaminantBasewide
Maximum
(ppm)
SiteComparison
Value
ppm Source
BackgroundaEPA
Cancer
Class
Comments
1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane2050SD-374CREGNACExcavated soil from Tank2447. Soil replaced.
2-Hexanone400SD-37NANANANAExcavated soil from Tank2447. Soil replaced.
2-Methylnaphthalene46.4FT-2NANANANA
Acetone7450SD-375000RMEGNADExcavated soil from Tank2447. Soil replaced.
Alkylbenzenes c73FT-2NANANANA
Benzene300SD-3720CREGNAAExcavated soil from Tank2447. Soil replaced.
Butanone3100SD-37NANANANAExcavated soil from Tank2447. Soil replaced.
Methylene chloride
(Dichloromethane)
1500SD-3730CREGNAB2Excavated soil from Tank2447. Soil replaced.
TCE581PS-1060CREGNAB2Soil removal action inAugust, 1996.
TPH36000PS-10200MTCA-ANANASoil removal action inAugust, 1996.
INORGANIC SUBSTANCES
Aluminum28700SW-11NANA21376NASW-11 surface soilmaximum = 24,600
Antimony42.6IS-120RMEG8.1 bNA
Arsenic238SD-380.5CREG9.3ADrainage basin.
Beryllium0.89SW-10.2CREG0.8B2
Cadmium372IS-140c-EMEG0.72B2SW-11 surface soil = 31.1SW-11 overall = 158
Chromium627IS-1300RMEG17.8A
Cobalt38.1WW-1NANA11NA
Lead1564FT-2250MTCA-A14.9B2SW-11 surface soil = 1,340
Magnesium11300WW-1NANA3415NA
Thallium43.1WW-14RMEG2.5 bNA
a = 90th percentile background soil values for Spokane Basin taken (Ref. 29).
b = High normal background soil values derived from on-base samples (Ref. 4).
c = Sum of all alkybenzenes detected.
NA = Not available.
Bold indicates that EPA cancer classification has been withdrawn

Potential Exposure Pathways

Pathway 1: Future Off-Base Development --> Groundwater --> Off-Site Residents

Table C6.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway 1: Future Off-Base Development --> Groundwater --> Off-Site Residents
ContaminantOff-Base
Concentration
(ppb)
Overall
Max MaxR
Comparison
Value
ppb Source
Date
Overall
Max MaxR
Location
(Site/Well)
Overall
Max MaxR
EPA
Cancer
Class
Comments
Benzene a91911CREG6/976/97FT-1/
MW-247
FT-1/
MW-247
A
TCE4904803CREG1/903/97CRL/
MW-118
CRL/
MW-118
B2
Vinyl Chloride2.22.20.2c-EMEG6/976/97WW-1/
MW-241
WW-1
MW-241
AMax of 14 ppb inFT-1 perimeterwell MW-226.
cis-1,2-DCE343470LTHA6/976/97WW-1/
MW-241
WW-1/
MW-241
CLow levels alsodetected inresidential wells
a = Not detected off-base. Data taken from perimeter wells.
CRL = Craig Road Landfill.
MaxR = Most recent maximum detected.
Bold indicates that EPA cancer classification has been withdrawn.

Pathway 2: Future On-Base Development --> Soil/Groundwater --> Future Residents

Table C7.

Contaminants of Concern for Fairchild Air Force Base, Washington

Pathway 2: Future Base Development --> Soil/Groundwater a --> Future Residents
ContaminantGroundwater
Concentration (ppb)
Overall 1996b
Max Max
Comparison
Value
ppb Source
Date
Overall 1996
Max Max
Site
Location
Overall 1996
Max Max
EPA
Cancer
Class
Comments
1,1-DCE31.20.06CREG19916/96FT-1WW-1C
Benzene26002901CREG199112/96PS-2FT-1A
cis-1,2-DCE83062070LTHA1993-943/96PS-10WW-1D
Ethylbenzene1200430700LTHA19919/96PS-2PS-2D
trans-1,2-DCE<100110100LTHANA3/96NAWW-1NA
TCE28002503CREG4/913/96CRLWW-1B2No data located forCRL in 1996.
TPH110,00052001000MTCA1991-923/96PS-1PS-1NA
PCE2ND0.7CREG1995NASD-37NAC
Naphthalene170ND20LTHA1991-92NAPS-1NAD
p-Isopropytoluene35NDNANA1991-92NAPS-1NANA
n-Propylbenzene78NDNANA1991-92NAPS-1NANA
1,2,3-trichlorobenzene130NDNANA1991-92NAPS-1NANA
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene620NDNANA1995NASD-37NANAOil/water separator1012
1,3,5-trimethylbenzene380NDNANA1991-92NAPS-1NANA
1-methylnaphtthalene52NDNANA1991-92NAPS-1NANA
2-methylnaphthalene41NDNANA1991-92NAPS-1NANA
Isopropylbenzene40NDNANA1995NASD-37NANAOil/water separator1012
Dimethyl phthalate34NDNANA1993-94NAPS-7DNA
Benzyl alcohol30NDNANA1993-94NAPS-7NANA
sec-Butylbenzene26NDNANA1995NASD-37NANAOil/water separator1012
1,1-DCA8NDNANA1993-94NAFT-2NAC
1,2-DCA36.2NDNANA11/86NAFT-1NAB2
Chloromethane5.65.63LTHA9/969/96WW-1WW-1C
Chloroform7.5ND6CREG1993-94NAPS-7NAB2
Bromodichloromethane1.8ND0.6CREG1993-94NAPS-7NAB2
Bis (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate30ND3CREG1991NAIS-1NAC
Hexachlorobutadiene24ND0.4CREG1991-92NAPS-1NAC
Vinyl chloride96960.2c-EMEG3/963/96WW-1WW-1AFT-1 max at 92ppb in 3/96.
Xylenes500027342000i-EMEG199112/96PS-2FT-01D
INORGANIC SUBSTANCES cBackground d
(ppb)
Aluminum335000NANANA1991NAWW-1NANA6.5
Antimony1400NA4RMEG7/89NAWW-1NANA0.38
Arsenic760NA0.02CREG7/89NAWW-1NAA0.003
Barium3100NA700RMEG2/91NAFT-1NANA0.88
Beryllium200NA0.008CREG4/91NAFT-1NAB20.002
Cadmium160NA7cEMEG7/89NAWW-1NAB2NA
Chromium800NA100LTHA2/91NAWW-1NAA0.028
Cobalt330NANANA2/91NAWW-1NANA0.047
Lead2900NA15ActionLevel1991NAFT-1NAB20.009
Magnesium140000NANANA1991NAFT-1NANANA
Manganese19000NA50RMEG1991NAFT-1NANA1.5
Molybdenum4700NA40LTHA7/89NAWW-1NANA0.26
Nickel380NA100LTHA1991NAWW-1NANA0.067
Thallium3.3NA0.4LTHA1991NAFT-1NANA0.15
Vanadium830NA30iEMEG1991NAWW-1NANA0.030
a = The COCs for soil are equivalent to those given in Table 4 for on-base workers exposed to on-base soil (Pathway ).
b = No inorganic analysis is available since 1991.
c = Unfiltered samples.
d = Background values (upper 95% confidence limit) derived from unfiltered on-base well samples located away from known source areas (Ref 4).
Bold indicates that EPA cancer classification has been withdrawn.

Pathway 3: Base Supply Well #2 --> Groundwater --> Base Personnel
There are no COCs for this pathway. Base Supply Well #2 is discussed under the Pathways Analysis section as potential exposure pathway 3.



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