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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PORT HADLOCK DETACHMENT
NAVAL ORDNANCE CENTER,
PACIFIC DIVISION
INDIAN ISLAND, WASHINGTON



Table 1.

Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name Potential Source of
Contamination
Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed
Population
Comments
Consumption of Contaminated Shellfish Located Adjacent to Site 10 and Along Boggy Spit Site 10
North End Landfill
Shellfish Shellfish beds adjacent to Site 10 and along Boggy Spit Ingestion Past: Prior to 1988, Native American tribal members and Naval employees fished in these shellfish beds.
Current: No one is being exposed to the shellfish. (A ban prohibiting shellfishing in these beds has been in place since 1988. No trespassers have been caught violating the ban.)

Future: The beds could be reopened in the future.

Past: Exposure to contaminated shellfish may have posed a health hazard to subsistence fishers and recreational fishers.
Current: The current ban reduces public health hazards by preventing consumption of potentially contaminated shellfish. Although it is impossible to conclusively state that no one is trespassing and violating the ban, the Navy's security has never reported any occurrences of trespassing. Signs are posted to inform people of the bans in these areas. Additional signs in several languages will be posted in the near future. If the ban were not in place, shellfish contaminants could pose a health hazard to subsistence and recreational fishers. ATSDR recommends that people adhere to the shellfish harvesting ban to reduce potential exposures to shellfish contamination.
Future: Measures taken by the Navy will prevent future health hazards by (1) minimizing further contamination of the marine environment, and (2) ensuring that the beaches remain closed until the contaminant concentrations decrease to levels that do not pose a health hazard.
Consumption of Contaminated Shellfish Along the North-Northwestern Shores of Marrowstone Island Unknown Shellfish Shellfish beds along the northern and northwestern shores of Marrowstone Island Ingestion Past, Current and Future: The shellfish beds were (past scenario) and are (current scenario) used for shellfishing. There are currently no restrictions planned for the future. Past, Current and Future: Based on limited sampling data, ATSDR concludes that shellfish consumed along the north-northwestern shores of Marrowstone Island may have posed a past health hazard. Current and future consumption of these shellfish is not expected to pose health hazards, however.
Exposure to Groundwater Potentially Impacted by Site 21 Site 21
Central Island disposal site
Groundwater Water from backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal
Past: People on base may have used backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 between 1941 and 1945.
Current: No one is being exposed to groundwater in the vicinity of Site 21 (Backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 are closed).

Future: Backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 could be reopened in the future. Additionally, a new well could be installed in the future.

Past: Past exposures to groundwater cannot be evaluated. (Water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 may have been used from 1941 to 1945, however, data are not available to address possible exposures to groundwater contamination during this 4-year period.)
Current: No production wells are being used in the vicinity of Site 21. Because there is no potential for exposures, Site 21 does not pose a health hazard.
Future: It is highly unlikely that future consumption of groundwater in the vicinity of Site 21 will pose a public health hazard. The Washington Department of Ecology, EPA, and the Navy are analyzing groundwater monitoring data collected from the area. If these agencies decide that contaminant concentrations pose a public health hazard, backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 will be abandoned and deed restrictions will be implemented to prevent the installation of future wells.

Tables 2 - 4 were not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch, E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333

Table 5.

Shellfish Data From The North/Northwestern Shores of Marrowstone Island Collected By ATSDR in April 1998 Marrowstone Island, Washington
Contaminant Maximum
Concentration (ppm)a
Shellfish
Species
EPA Region III Risk-Based
Concentration (ppm)

Sample Location #1b

Arsenic 0.115c
0.012c
HC
NLN
0.0021d
Benzo(e)pyrene 0.0038 NLN 0.00043e
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 0.00278 NLN 54f
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 0.0025 NLN 0.00043
Indeno (1,2,3-cd)pyrene 0.00349 NLN 0.0043
Perylene 0.00278 NLN 0.00043e
Sample Location #2b
Arsenic 0.0162c
0.0226c
NLN
cockles
0.0021d
Benzo(a)pyrene 0.0029 NLN 0.00043
Sample Location #3b
Arsenic 0.0171c
0.0162c
NLN
cockles
0.0021d
PCB 28
PCB 52
PCB 52
0.00044
0.00085
0.00149
NLN
cockles
NLN
0.0016
Sample Location #4b
Arsenic 0.0154c
0.0193c
NLN
cockles
0.0021d
PCB 52 0.00083 NLN 0.0016
Sample Location #5b
Arsenic 0.020c
0.004
NLN
HC
0.0021d
Benzo(a)pyrene 0.0030 NLN 0.00043
Sample Location #6b
Arsenic 0.019c cockles 0.0021d
PCB 28 0.00047 cockles 0.0016
Sample Location #7b
Arsenic 0.035c NLN 0.0021d
Perylene 0.0035 NLN 0.00043e
Sample Location #8b
Arsenic 0.016c
0.012c
NLN
oyster
0.0021d
Fluoranthene 0.011 oyster 5.4
Benzo(a)anthracene 0.0023 oyster 0.0043
Chrysene 0.0047 oyster 0.43
Pentachlorophenol 0.0019 oyster 0.026
PCB 118
PCB 153
PCB 138
0.00037
0.00102
0.00417
oyster
oyster
oyster
0.0016
Sample Location #9b
Arsenic 0.0252c
0.0321c
NLN
cockles
0.0021d
Sample Location #10b
Arsenic 0.122c
0.0152c
HC
cockles
0.0021d

Note: Contaminants highlighted in bold were detected above Region III RBCs.

a
Data provided by ATSDR 1998b
b Sample locations are depicted on Figure 8.
c This value represents measured inorganic arsenic concentrations. In nature, arsenic exists in organic and inorganic forms. While organic forms are relatively non-toxic, inorganic forms can produce a variety of adverse health effects. Therefore, health assessors consider the inorganic component when evaluating the potential for health hazards.
d

This RBC is for total arsenic (organic concentration + inorganic concentration).

e

Because no RBCs are available for the PAHs benzo(e)perylene and perylene and these PAHs have not been classified for carcinogenicity, ATSDR used the benzo(a)pyrene RBC as a conservative (protective) screening value.

f No RBC is available for benzo(g,h,i)perylene. Like naphthalene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene is a PAH that exerts noncarcinogenic effect. Therefore, ATSDR used naphthalene's RBC (54 ppm) as a screening value.

ppm parts per million
RBC Risk-based concentration
HC Horse clams
NLN Native little neck clams

Table 6 was not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch, E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333


Figure 1. Area Map


Figure 2. Site Map


Figure 3. Locations of Beaches in the Vicinity of Site 10


Figure 4. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process


Figure 5. Site 10


Figure 6. 1987 and 1988 Shellfish Sampling Locations


Figure 7. RI/FS Shellfish Sampling Locations


Figure 8. Shellfish Sampling Locations


Figure 9. Site 21


Figure 10. Long Spit


Figure 11. Sediment Location #12


Figure 12. Shellfish Monitoring Locations





Appendix A.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated With the 16 Port Hadlock Sites
Port
Hadlock
Site
Site Description/Waste Disposal
History
Investigational Results/
Environmental Monitoring
Results
Corrective Activities and Current
Status
ATSDR's Evaluation of Public Health
Hazards
Site 10
(North End
Landfill)
The landfill was used from 1945 to the mid-1970s. Materials reportedly disposed include zinc sludges, waste paints and thinners, solvents, strippers, waste petroleum oil and lubricants, sandblasting paint residues, waste oil, batteries, unidentified liquid waste, bomb ordnance and incinerator ash, asbestos, submarine nets, polyurethane resins, and residential trash.

Contaminants from Site 10 have been introduced to the marine environment via direct erosion, surface water runoff, and groundwater discharge.

Soil: Metals, PCBs, and SVOCs detected.
Groundwater: Metals, pesticides, and SVOCs detected.
Sediments adjacent to Site 10: Results suggest a link to Site 10 contaminants.
Shellfish adjacent to Site 10, along Boggy Spit, and along the north/northwestern shore of Marrowstone Island: Metals, ordnance compounds, pesticides, and SVOCs detected.
Corrective Activities:
  • A shellfish ban was issued in 1988.
  • A landfill cap and erosion protection measures were constructed in 1997.

  • A groundwater, sediment, and shellfish monitoring program is ongoing.
  • Institutional controls (e.g., land use restrictions for residential and farming use, deed restrictions in the event of property transfer) will be installed.
  • A maintenance/inspection plan will be implemented.
  • Current Status:
  • Remedial activities are ongoing.
  • Areas adjacent to Site 10 and along Boggy Spit are closed to shellfishing.
  • Soil: Access to Site 10 was highly restricted and past exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Exposures to workers did not pose a public health hazard because exposures were infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Current and future exposures are prevented by the landfill cap.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. Wells will not be installed in the future because groundwater under Site 10 is not potable.
    Sediments: Exposures do not pose a public health hazard because (1) sediment concentrations are low, and (2) the exposures would be infrequent.
    Shellfish located adjacent to Site 10 and along Boggy Spit: Past exposures may have posed a public health hazard. A shellfish ban prevents current exposures. The ban will remain in place until future sampling indicates that the contaminants have been reduced to concentrations that do not pose a hazard.
    PCB = Polychlorinated biphenyls
    SVOC = Semivolatile Organic Compound
    PPE = Personal Protective Equipment
    Site 11
    (Walan Point)
    Site 11 was used for ordnance disposal in the late 1940s. Soil: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene detected.
    Groundwater collected prior to corrective activities: Cadmium, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene detected.
    Groundwater collected after corrective activities: Some metals detected at concentrations that are slightly above health guidelines.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Soil excavated in 1994 and 1995. (Approximately 4,600 tons of metal slag, ordnance debris, bomblets, and soils were screened and 1,500 tons were properly disposed offsite.)
  • Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities further reduced the hazards associated with potential current and future exposures.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    Site 12
    (Griffin
    Street)
    Between the 1940s and 1950s, Site 12 was used for ordnance disposal. Soil: No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements. (No contaminants above Model Toxics Control Act [MTCA] criteria.)
    Groundwater collected prior to corrective activities: Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, manganese, and nickel detected above health guidelines.
    Groundwater collected after corrective activities: Several metals detected. Only manganese detected above health guidelines.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Soil excavated in 1994 and 1995. (Approximately 1,800 tons of metal slag, ordnance debris, bomblets, and soils were screened and 320 tons were properly disposed offsite.)
  • Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities further reduced the hazards associated with potential current and future exposures.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    PPE = Personal Protective Equipment
    Site 13 (Gas Station) In 1992, a 3,000 gallon tank leaked (<500 gallons was lost). The tank was repaired, but failed a precision tightness test later in 1992. Soil: Soil contaminated with petroleum. Corrective Activities:
  • Tank removed.
  • Contaminated soil excavated and disposed offsite.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities further reduced the hazards associated with potential current and future exposures.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    Site 15
    (North Slab
    Storage)
    Between the 1940s and 1970s, Site 15 was used as a storage area for paints, solvents, and unknown wastes. Soil Gas and Soil: No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements. (No MTCA exceedences for SVOCs or VOCs). Current Status:
  • No remedial efforts required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site. No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements.
    Site 16 USTs were located in Site 16. No record of sampling activities. Corrective Activities:
  • USTs removed in 1992.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    UST= Underground Storage Tank • VOC= Volatile Organic Compound • MTCA= Model Toxics Control Act • SVOC= Semivolatile Organic Compound
    PPE= Personal Protective Equipment
    Site 17 (Imhoff tanks) Two 5,000 gallon Imhoff tanks were located in this area. Gas: Field monitoring detected combustible gas at explosive concentrations within the buried tank. Corrective Activities:
  • Tanks removed and gas vented in 1987.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    Site 18
    (Net Depot)
    Between the 1940s and 1950s, Site 18 was used as a building and repair area for submarine nets. Soil Gas and Soil: No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements. (No MTCA exceedences of SVOCs or VOCs.)
    Storm Sewer sediments collected prior to corrective activities: PAHs detected.
    Storm sewer sediments collected after corrective activities: Some VOCs and SVOCs detected, but at concentrations that do not pose a health hazard.
    Groundwater: Tetrachloroethylene detected.
    Corrective Activities:
  • Sediments excavated in August 1994. (Approximately 0.5 cubic foot of sediments removed from storm drain catch basin and properly disposed.)
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities further reduced the hazards associated with potential current and future exposures.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    Site 19
    (Former
    Public Works)
    Between the 1940s and 1970s, Site 19 was used to facilitate public-works-related activities. Soil Gas and Soil: No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements. (No MTCA exceedences of SVOCs or VOCs.) Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site. No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements.
    PPE= Personal Protective Equipment • VOC= Volatile Organic Compound • MTCA= Model Toxics Control Act • SVOC= Semivolatile Organic Compound
    PCB = Polychlorinated biphenyls • PAH = Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
    Site 20
    (Upper and Lower Bone-yards)
    Site 20 was used as storage areas (all uncovered) for primarily inert materials. One storage area was used for oil and solvent drums in the 1940s to the 1970s. Soil Gas and Soil: No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements. (No MTCA exceedences of SVOCs or VOCs.) Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site. No contaminants were detected above regulatory requirements.
    Site 21
    (Central Island disposal site)
    Site 21 was used as a disposal site for waste oils, solvents, electrical equipment, and paint.

    Backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 could potentially be impacted by the activities at Site 21.

    Soil: Metals detected.
    Groundwater under Site 21:
    Results from 1995 RI/FS: Metals, hexachlorobutadiene, BEHP, and benzene were detected.
    Results from 2-year monitoring program: BEHP, arsenic, and manganese detected above ATSDR comparison values.
    Groundwater in backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2: No sampling data are available to indicate the quality of the water between 1941 and 1945.
    Corrective Activities:
  • An additional monitoring well was installed in 1995.
  • A 2-year groundwater monitoring program was recently completed.
  • The Washington Department of Ecology, EPA, and the Navy are analyzing groundwater monitoring data to determine if future remedial actions are necessary.
    Current Status:
  • Agencies are reviewing recent data.
  • Backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 are not in service.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE.
    Groundwater (see applicable section in this PHA): Past exposures to potentially impacted groundwater could have occurred between 1941 and 1945 via consumption of groundwater from backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2. No groundwater data are available to determine whether these exposures posed a health hazard. Current exposures are not occurring. The Washington Department of Ecology, EPA, and the Navy are analyzing groundwater monitoring data collected from the area. If these agencies decide that contaminant concentrations pose a public health hazard, backup water supply wells Nos. 1 and 2 will be abandoned and deed restrictions will be implemented to prevent the installation of future wells.
    Site 22
    (Old Bomb Overhaul Area)
    Site 22 was used to recondition bombs from the 1940s to 1970s. Soil: Subsurface arsenic concentrations exceeded MTCA Method B standards but was within Puget Sound levels. Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • No public health hazard is associated with this site. All contaminant concentrations were within regulatory requirements or within background concentrations.
    PPE= Personal Protective Equipment • VOC= Volatile Organic Compound • MTCA= Model Toxics Control • SVOC= Semivolatile Organic Compound
    RI/FS= Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study • BEHP= Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate • EPA= U.S. Environmental Protection Agency • PHA= Petitioned Health Assessment
    Site 30 Site 30 has contaminated soils. Soil: Diesel and heavy oils detected. Corrective Activities:
  • Contaminated soil excavated.
  • Confirmation samples indicate that the area is clean.
    Current Status:
  • No further action required.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities further reduced the hazards associated with potential current and future exposures.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    Site 33 (Old Rifle Range) Site 33 was previously used as a rifle range. Soil: Lead detected. Corrective Activities:
  • A removal action is planned.
    Current Status:
  • Investigations are ongoing. (A site hazard assessment is going to be performed in the future.)
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities planned for the future will further reduce the hazards associated with future exposures.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.
    PPE= Personal Protective Equipment
    Site 34 Ordnance Burn/Ordnance Detonation (OB/OD) Area
    and North Satellite Area
    From the late 1970s to approximately 1990, the OB/OD area was used to burn and detonate military energetic materials (i.e., ammunition and explosives). From the 1970s to 1988, operations at the OB/OD area were conducted in open, unlined pits. The OB/OD area is still used for occasional emergency burning and detonation of ordnance. The North Satellite area may have been used for testing ordnance and for training activities. Soil: Lead, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and PAHs were detected at high levels. Groundwater and Surface Water: Site 34 contaminants do not impact groundwater or surface water. Corrective Activities:
  • Soil removal activities were completed in the fall of 1996.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE. Excavation activities further reduced the hazards associated with potential current and future exposures.
    Groundwater and Surface Water: No public health hazards are associated with these media. Site 34 contaminants do not impact groundwater or surface water.
    Site 35 Site 35 consists of an old shed that was previously used to store solvents. The shed has a drain at the bottom. The drain is suspected to discharge directly to the ground. Sampling activities are planned for the future. Current Status:
  • Investigations are ongoing.
  • Soil: Access has always been highly restricted and it will continue to be so in the future. Past, current, and future exposures to the general public, therefore, are unlikely. Past, current, and future exposures to workers do not pose a public health hazard because visits are infrequent and/or conducted with PPE.
    Groundwater: No drinking water wells are located in this area. Past and current exposures to groundwater, therefore, have not occurred. It is unlikely that production wells will be installed in the future.

    PAH=Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons • PPE= Personal Protective Equipment

    Sources: ATSDR 1998a; EFA Northwest 1995, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1996d, 1996e 1997a, 1997b; Ecology 1998; EPA, 1989, 1991, 1997, 1998; FDA 1993; Foster Wheeler 1996a, 1996b, 1997; Navy 1996; SCS Engineers 1987; Toy 1996;URS 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 1997; WDOH 1991


    Appendix B - Glossary

    Background Level
    A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.

    Carcinogen
    Any substance that might produce cancer.

    CERCLA
    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This is the legislation that created ATSDR.

    Comparison Values
    Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.

    Concentration
    The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.

    Contaminant
    Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.

    Dermal
    Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.

    Dose
    The amount of substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.

    Environmental contamination
    The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.

    EPA's cancer slope factors
    The additional risk of cancer posed by the ingestion of 1 milligram of a substance, per kilogram of body weight, per day, over a lifetime.

    EPA's chronic oral reference dose (RfD)
    An estimate (uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a daily exposure (milligram per kilogram per day [mg/kg/day]) to the general public (including sensitive subgroups) that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of harmful effects during a lifetime exposure or exposure during a limited time interval.

    Exposure
    Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

    Hazard
    A source of risk that does not necessarily imply potential for occurrence. A hazard produces risk only if an exposure pathway exists, and if exposures create the possibility of adverse consequences.

    Ingestion
    Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.

    Inhalation
    Breathing. Exposure can occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.

    Media
    Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

    Minimal Risk Level (MRL)
    An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organs of effect or the most sensitive health effects for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based on noncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.

    Model Toxics Control Act (MTCA)
    MTCA is Washington State's equivalent to Superfund. MTCA standards are as stringent or more stringent than those used by EPA.

    National Priorities List (NPL)
    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites have the greatest for need for cleanup activity.

    No Apparent Public Health Hazard
    Sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring, or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.

    Ordnance Compounds
    Compounds that are used in military weapons.

    Personal Protective Equipment
    Clothing (including coveralls, gloves, protective footwear and headware) and/or respirators worn by workers to prevent exposures to known or potentially hazardous materials.

    Pesticides
    Any organic or inorganic substance used to destroy or inhibit the action of plant or animal pests, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, miticides, fumigants, and repellants. All pesticides are toxic to humans to some degree. Pesticides vary in biodegradability.

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
    A group of synthetic organic chemicals that contain 209 individual chlorinated biphenyl compounds (known as congeners). There are no known natural sources of PCB in the environment. PCBs are either oily liquids or solids. Because they do not burn easily and are good insulating materials, PCBs have been used widely as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment. The manufacture of PCBs stopped in the United States in October 1977 as a result of evidence that they build up in the environment and cause harmful effects.

    Public Health Assessment
    The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.

    Public Health Hazard
    Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.

    Risk
    In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.

    Route of Exposure
    The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.

    Superfund
    Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.

    Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)
    The 1986 legislation that broadened ATSDR's responsibilities in the areas of public health assessments, establishment and maintenance of toxicologic databases, information dissemination, and medical education.

    Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs)
    A class of organic (containing carbon) chemicals similar to VOCs, but that evaporate or volatilize less rapidly.

    Slag
    A man-made sediment that looks like black sand, but has a high metal content.

    Sludges
    Any solid, semisolid, or liquid waste generated from a municipal, commercial, or industrial waste water treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or an air pollution control facility.

    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
    Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).


    Appendix C: Public Comments On the Port Hadlock Public Health Assessment

    The Port Hadlock Public Health Assessment was released for public comment on April 21, 1998. The comment periodended on June 1, 1998. Comments were received from community members.

    1. Comment: One Marrowstone Island community member objected to the PHA's statement that "it is unlikely thatcontaminants found on the north-northwestern shores of Marrowstone Island are attributable to Port Hadlock's Site10." The community member noted that the data presented in the PHA showed a correlation between Site 10contaminant concentrations and concentrations detected along the north-northwestern shores of Marrowstone Island.Such agreement, he noted, could be evidence that the two could be related and from the same source. The resident,who has lived on Kilisut Harbor since 1936, continued by noting that very strong tides exist in the area and arecapable of carrying sediment long distances. Specifically, he reported, he has seen sediment being carried form theBoggy Spit area to Mystery Bay.

      Response: ATSDR noted the community member's observations within the main body of the text. (SeeConsumption of Contaminated Shellfish Along the North-Northwestern Shores ofMarrowstone Island.) In the interest of public health, ATSDR performed additional shellfish sampling alongMarrowstone Island to determine if there were levels of contaminants which could result in adverse health effects. Based on this investigation, current and future consumption of shellfish is not expected to pose health hazards.

    2. Comment: Two community members expressed concern about potential health hazards associated withconsuming shellfish along the north-northwestern shores of Marrowstone Island.

      Response: In April 1998, ATSDR collected shellfish samples from the Marrowstone Island shores (See Figure 8).These data were unavailable when this PHA was initially released. In August 1998, ATSDR's ExposureInvestigation and Consultation Branch released the results. These results have been added to the PHA. (See Table 5and Consumption of Contaminated Shellfish Along the North-Northwestern Shores ofMarrowstone Island.) The results indicate that current and potential future shellfish exposures are unlikely tobe associated with public health hazards.

    3. Comment: One Marrowstone Island community member questioned ATSDR's decision to discuss the possibilityof Marrowstone Island drinking wells becoming impacted by Port Hadlock's contaminants. Specifically, thecommunity member objected to the statement that "[r]esidents on Marrowstone Island report that their drinkingwater wells are impacted by salt water intrusion." The community member said that data do not support this claimand asked where ATSDR first learned of this community concern.

      Response: ATSDR included a discussion on this topic because the agency is mandated to address all communityconcerns. ATSDR read about this community concern in a Navy document (Navy, 1996). An EFA Northwestrepresentative confirmed that the community had expressed concern about potential impacts to Marrowstone Islanddrinking water wells (EFA, Northwest, 1996c).

    4. Comment: One community member concurred with ATSDR's statement that no information is availablesubstantiating the claim that oil leaked from ships. The community member noted that he has lived on a KilisutHarbor beach since 1936. Although the beach has been dug repeatedly, he continued, no evidence of an oil leak hasbeen reported.

      Response: ATSDR appreciates this input from the community.

    5. Comment: One community member disagreed with ATSDR's statement that people could wade fromMarrowstone Island to Boggy Spit during low tide. The resident noted that the water is much to deep to enablewalking between the two islands even during the lowest tides.

      Response: ATSDR modified Appendix A to reflect the resident's comments.

    6. Comment: One community member asked whether children wading on the shores of Port Townsend could beadversely affected by Port Hadlock's contaminants.

      Response: Given the dynamic nature of waves, ATSDR cannot say, with absolute certainty, that Site 10contaminants have not migrated to Port Townsend. It does appear to be highly unlikely, however. Shorelineanalyses indicate that Site 10 sediments accumulate in Boggy Spit and the broad underwater sandbar locateddirectly offshore (See Figure 10). It is unlikely, therefore, that Site 10 sediments are carried to Port Townsend. Itis also unlikely that dissolved contaminants are carried to Port Townsend via waves. Long Spit, which consists ofSandy Spit and Rat Island (see Figure 10), is located immediately offshore of Port Hadlock's Site 10. For themost part, Long Spit serves as a wave barrier between Port Townsend Bay and Site 10 (Foster Wheeler 1996b). Asmall gap is located between Sandy Spit and Rat Island, however. If contaminants did travel to Port Townsend,they would be greatly diluted and likely not of health concern.

    7. Comment: One community member noted that nuclear materials are transported via train from BangorSubmarine Base to Port Hadlock. The community member asked whether nearby residents could be adverselyeffected by materials released to the air.

      Response: The Department of Transportation has specific rules and regulations regarding the transport ofhazardous materials. These rules and regulations are designed to prevent any releases of hazardous materials intothe environment. ATSDR has forwarded this comment to the health assessors working on the Bangor SubmarineBase.

    8. Comment: One community member noted that he owns an active clam bed at the entrance ofKilisut Harbor. According to the community member, his bed is located at sediment samplelocation #12 (see Figure 11). The community member provided sediment sampling data forthis location and asked ATSDR to (1) evaluate the sediment data and (2) collect shellfishsamples from his bed.

      Response: ATSDR evaluated the sediment data provided by this community member. NoSVOCs, pesticides, or PCBs were detected. Nine metals, including arsenic and cadmium,were detected at low concentrations that are not likely associated with health effects if peoplewere to contact these sediments. (ATSDR compared the contaminant concentrations againstATSDR's soil comparison values. Only a couple metals exceeded health guidelines. Soilcomparison values were used because sediment comparison values do not exist. Using soilcomparison values as a screen is a conservative (or protective) approach because ATSDR'ssoil comparison values are generated assuming that people will have regular exposure to soilsfor long periods of time. Exposures to sediment are typically much more sporadic thanexposures to soil. At sediment location #12 it is unlikely that people regularly contact thesubmerged sediment.)

      The community member's concern regarding shellfish contamination in this area is moredifficult to address. No shellfish samples have been collected at sediment location #12 andnot enough data are available to predict shellfish contaminant concentrations based onsediment data. (Determining the correlation between sediment concentrations and shellfishcontaminant concentrations is complicated by many factors [e.g., bioaccumulation].) TheNavy has recently collected samples from the Boggy Spit area as part of their shellfishmonitoring program. These shellfish samples are in the proximity of sediment location #12and believed to contain similar contaminant concentrations. ATSDR has reviewed the tentativeresults and plans to evaluate the Navy's data more closely when the Navy report is finalized and all data havereceived the necessary quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC). It would be premature to initiateadditional sampling in the area until these recent Navy data are thoroughly evaluated.

      In the absence of shellfish data for location #12, ATSDR carefully reviewed shellfish datathat have been collected in the vicinity of location #12. Historical data for shellfish location#15 (see Figure 7) was provided in the RI/FS. Although several constituents were detected inthe sample, arsenic was the only contaminant detected above Region III RBCs and itsconcentration--0.6 ppm--was not high enough to pose a health hazard. More recently, theNavy collected samples from the Boggy Spit area as part of their shellfish monitoringprogram. Figure 12 shows sampling locations. The locations do not correspond exactly withsediment location #12 (figure 11), but shellfish sample location #15 and #101 are in relativeclose proximity.

      The Navy collected their samples in 1998 and analyzed them for SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs,explosive compounds, and metals. Preliminary results have been generated, but have not beenevaluated for QA/QC. Although these data are unpublished, the Navy allowed ATSDR toreview the results for locations # 15 and 101.

      Because these results are preliminary, ATSDR hesitates to draw firm conclusions, butpresents the most notable findings. Five SVOCs and four pesticides were detected, but atconcentrations that were too low to pose health hazards. Total arsenic (13.9 -18.6 ppm) andcadmium (1.90-2.02 ppm) were detected above EPA's Region III RBCs. These arsenic andcadmium concentrations are about 5-30 times higher than those recorded in sample 15 duringthe RI/FS (arsenic: 0.6 ppm and cadmium: 0.37 ppm).It is unclear if the Navy's arsenic and cadmiumconcentrations are representative of actual shellfish conditions in the area. Again, the Navy's data are preliminaryand have not been documented in a report. In addition, some uncertainties regarding the representativeness israised by the fact that the data for Samish Bay, an area thought to be relatively pristine and uninfluenced by PortHadlock activities, differs between the RI/FS and the Navy data. While the background arsenic concentration wasreported as 0.19 ppm during the RI/FS, the concentration reported in the Navy's preliminary data was 14.8 ppm.ATSDR plans to evaluate the Navy's data more closely when the Navy report is finalized and all data havereceived the necessary QA/QC. It would be premature to initiate additional sampling in the area until these recentNavy data are thoroughly evaluated.

    1. The maximum concentration for pentachlorophenol represents the reported detection limit. Although the laboratory reported a "nondetect" for this chemical, ATSDR included it in the evaluation because the detection limit concentration is above the EPA RBC.



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