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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER (NUWC) DIVISION
(a/k/a NAVAL UNDERSEA WAREFARE ENGINEERING STATION)
KEYPORT, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON


CONCLUSIONS

The most recent information presented to ATSDR does not indicate that people residing near orliving or working at NUWC Keyport have been or are being exposed to site-related contaminantsat levels that could result in adverse health effects. ATSDR's conclusions from evaluating the mostcurrently available environmental data and information are presented below.

  • Exposures to contaminants in shellfish harvested from marine waters surrounding NUWCKeyport pose no apparent past or current public health hazard. Shellfish in the marine watersaround NUWC Keyport have been sampled and contaminants were not found at levelsexpected to cause adverse health effects. ATSDR cannot determine the future public healthhazard of consuming seafood from these areas or the likelihood for contaminants levels toincrease or decrease over time due to inconsistencies in the analyses of the June 2000 data.

    1. Based on samples of shellfish tissue and other marine biota collected from Dogfish Bay and the Tide Flats, past and current exposures to base-related contaminants from Area 1 (Keyport Landfill) pose no apparent public health hazard.

    2. The Shallow Lagoon, which is adjacent to Area 3, contains few species of ediblefish/shellfish. Based on tissue samples collected from the lagoon, the shellfish do notcontain harmful levels of contaminants and pose no apparent past, current, or future public health hazard.

    3. Contaminant levels in shellfish samples collected from shallow portions of Liberty Bayaround the NUWC Keyport peninsula (Area 9) were not found to be at levels expected toresult in adverse health effects. Therefore, exposure to contaminants from shellfish poseno apparent past or current health hazard to people who eat commonly harvested shellfish,such as native littleneck and rough piddock clams, from around Areas 8 and 9.

  • Past, current, and future exposures to groundwater contaminants in private wells screened inthe upper (shallow) aquifer and intermediate aquifer located west, northwest, and north of theKeyport Landfill pose no public health hazard. An inventory and sampling of private wells tothe west, northwest, and north of OU 1 was conducted by the Navy between March 1996 andMay 1997. Groundwater samples collected from private wells did not show any site-relatedcontaminants and groundwater flow data indicate that private wells in the inventory area are located upgradient and away from the Keyport Landfill.

  • Past, current, and future exposures to contaminants in on-base drinking water supply wellspose no public health hazard. Groundwater flow from the Keyport Landfill is towards thewest and away from BW 5, minimizing any potential contamination of the drinking watersource. Furthermore, the drinking water well for the base is screened in the deep aquifersbelow the Clover Park Aquitard. It is very unlikely that site-related contaminants havemigrated or will migrate below the confining layer to contaminate the deeper aquifers.

  • Past exposure to VOCs from indoor air in modular offices at OU 1- Keyport Landfill did notpose a public health hazard. ATSDR used the most conservative exposure scenario for pastexposure to VOCs in the indoor air of modular offices. Even assuming individuals wereexposed to the highest concentrations of VOCs detected in indoor air, it is very unlikely thatsuch exposures would have resulted in any adverse health effects. The maximum exposuredoses of VOCs from indoor air were several orders of magnitude lower than concentrationsthat are known to cause health effects in animals or humans.

  • Current and future exposure to VOCs from indoor air in modular offices at OU 1 - KeyportLandfill are not a concern because the offices were removed or are no longer occupied.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The public health action plan (PHAP) for NUWC Keyport contains a description of actions to betaken by ATSDR and other government agencies at and in the vicinity of the site upon completionof this public health assessment. The PHAP is designed to ensure that this public health assessmentnot only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate andprevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in theenvironment. The public health actions completed and to be implemented are as follows:

Actions Completed

  1. ATSDR completed and released a Health Consultation in August 1995. The HealthConsultation was requested by the Suquamish Tribe and evaluated the safety of consumingshellfish taken from waters bordering, adjacent to, and within the boundaries of NUWCKeyport. ATSDR requested PCB and lead analysis be conducted on shellfish from this area.The Navy collected the requested data and ATSDR evaluated the new data in a follow-uphealth consultation of shellfish dated February 1997. (Appendix D).

  2. NUWC Keyport released the ROD for OU 2 (Area 2, Area 3, Area 5, Area 8, and Area 9) in September 1994.

  3. In November 1995, as part of the recommended remedy in the OU 2 ROD, the first round ofannual groundwater sampling for Area 2 and Area 8 occurred. In addition, confirmatorygroundwater sampling in Area 5 occurred in November 1995. The results showed that the no-action decision outlined in the OU 2 ROD was appropriate.

  4. In November 1995, as part of the remedial action outlined in the OU 2 ROD, sedimentsamples were collected and bioassay toxicity testing was conducted at four locations in LibertyBay (Area 9). One sediment sample was taken at four different stations. The results werebelow the criteria specified in the ROD for no action.

  5. In February 1997, ATSDR completed a follow-up to the original Health Consultation. Thefollow-up addressed the consumption of shellfish taken from areas in Dogfish Bay and theTide Flats area.

  6. NUWC Keyport released the ROD for OU 1 (Area 1 - Keyport Landfill) in September 1998.

  7. In accordance with the selected remedy outlined in the OU 2 ROD, Phase I and Phase II soil removal actions for Area 8 (Plating Shop Waste/ Oil Spill) were completed in May 1999.

  8. As outlined in the OU 1 ROD, the selected remedies for Area 1 (Keyport Landfill) have beencompleted. These actions included planting poplar trees (phytoremediation), upgrading thetide gate, and removing sediment containing PCBs.

  9. A basewide Institutional Control Plan to ensure that site-related contaminants do not pose future hazards was finalized in May 2000.

Actions Planned

  1. As described in the Area 8 LTM Report (and the Area 1 LTM Repot), the Navy will be usingwet weight methodology for analysis for VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides and PCBs. For metals, theNavy will be using both wet and dry weight methods.

  2. The Navy employs control measures during remediation activities to prevent sediments orsoils from being stirred-up and releasing additional landfill contaminants into the Tide Flatsand Dogfish Bay. The Navy currently employs general control measures during allremediation activities.

Recommendations

  1. As a precautionary measure, ATSDR recommends that the Navy continue monitoring (at leastevery five years) contaminant levels in seafood from marine waters surrounding NUWCKeyport for a minimum of three consecutive sampling periods. Analyses for inorganics, PCBs,and SVOCs, should be made using wet weight methodology and should be lipid adjusted forindividual fat content.

  2. ATSDR recommends that NUWC Keyport periodically sample existing monitoring wellssurrounding Keyport Landfill to assure landfill contaminants are not migrating off base. Amonitoring schedule should be established and seasonal variation in groundwater flow should be considered.

  3. ATSDR will evaluate any new site-related environmental or toxicologic data that may impactthe conclusions of this public health assessment and determine the need for additional actions at NUWC Keyport.

  4. A basewide Institutional Control Plan to ensure that site-related contaminants do not posefuture hazards is being drafted by the Navy and should be completed next year.

  5. A Contingency Action Plan for Drinking Water is being drafted by NUWC Keyport. This planwill outline what actions will be taken if it is determined that contaminants from NUWCKeyport are impacting or threaten drinking water sources near the base.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Carole D. Hossom
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


REVIEWERS OF REPORT

Diane Jackson
Environmental Engineer
Chief, Section B
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Sandra G. Isaacs
Chief, Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1992. Toxicological Profile for 1,3-Butadiene. July 1992.

ATSDR. 1993. Toxicological Profile for Di (2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate (Update). April 1993.

ATSDR. 1994a. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride. May 1994.

ATSDR. 1994b. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethene. May 1994.

ATSDR. 1995. Health Consultation: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Keyport. August1995.

ATSDR. 1997a. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. September 1997.

ATSDR. 1997b. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform. September 1997.

ATSDR. 1997c. Health Consultation Follow-up: Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division,Keyport. February 1997.

ATSDR. 1998a. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. August 1998.

ATSDR. 1998b. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride. September 1998.

ATSDR. 1998c. Toxicological Profile for Chloromethane. December 1998.

ATSDR. 1998d. Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dichlorobenzene. December 1998.

ATSDR. 1999. Toxicological Profile for Pentachlorophenol (Update). August 1999.

EA Engineering, Science and Technology (EA Engineering). 1999. Final Post-ROD GroundwaterMonitoring Report for Operable Unit 2, Area 8 Plating Shop/Oil Spill Area, Fall 1998. March1999.

EPA. 1989. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Volume 1 Human Health EvaluationManual (Part A). United States Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA. 1991. Memorandum: Human Health Evaluation Manuel, Supplemental Guidance: StandardDefault Exposure Factors. United States Environmental Protection Agency. March 1991.

FDA. 1993. Guidance Document for Arsenic in Shellfish. Food and Drug Administration. January1993.

Kitsap Public Utility District (PUD). 1996. Water Quality Report, Keyport Water System. October1996.

Stearns, Conrad and Schmid (SCS) Engineers and Landau Associates. 1984. Initial AssessmentStudy of Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering Station Keyport, Washington. September 1984.

SCS Engineers. 1987. Current Situation Report Naval Undersea Warfare Engineering StationKeyport and Indian Island, Washington. December 1987.

Suquamish Tribe: The official web site of the Suquamish Tribe of Washington.http://www.suquamish.nsn.us

Toy. 1996. A Fish Consumption Survey of the Tulalip and Squaxin Island Tribes of the PugetSound Region. Toy, K.A., Polissar, N.L., Liao, S., and Mittelstaedt, G.D., Tulalip Tribes,Department of Environment. October 1996.

URS Consultants, Inc. (URS). 1993a. Final Remedial Investigation Report. Volumes I and VI.October 25, 1993.

URS Consultants, Inc. (URS) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). 1993b.Final Baseline Risk Assessment Report Human Health risk Assessment for the ComprehensiveLong-Term Environmental Action Navy (Clean) Northwest Area. October 25, 1993.

URS. 1994. Final Record of Decision for OU 2, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Keyport.September 1994.

URS and SAIC. 1997a. Community Relations Plan for Operable Units 1 and 2 Naval UnderseaWarfare Center Division Keyport. February 1997.

URS. 1997b. Final Summary Data Assessment Report for OU 1. November 1997.

URS. 1997c. Final Focused Feasibility Study For OU 1. November 1997.

URS and SAIC. 1998. Record of Decision For OU 1 Naval Undersea Warfare Center DivisionKeyport. September 1998.


TABLE

Table 1.

Exposure Pathways
Pathway

Name

Source of

Contamination

Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population Comments

Completed and Potential Exposure Pathways

Food chain Waste disposal activities at Area 1 - Keyport Landfill, Area 3 - Otto Fuel Leak Area, and Area 9 - Liberty Bay Shellfish and other edible marine fish Marine habitats, including the Tide Flats area, Dogfish Bay, and Liberty Bay Ingestion Members of the Suquamish Indian Tribe and other subsistence fishers around NUWC Keyport who harvest and consume shellfish and other marine fish on a frequent basis. Approximately between 550 - 1500 people. Past and Current:

The contaminants that were detected in shellfish tissue samples (e.g., arsenic, PCBs, and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), were not detected at harmful levels and therefore pose no public health hazard.

Future:

Evaluation of future sampling data is needed to determine trends in contaminant concentrations.

Groundwater:

Off-site private drinking water wells to the west, northwest, and north of OU 1 (Area 1 -Keyport Landfill).

OU 1 - Keyport Landfill Groundwater Local private residential wells Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation Potentially exposed residents living to the west, northwest, and north of NUWC Keyport (approximately 50 - 75 residents) who rely on shallow or intermediate depth private wells for drinking water, cooking, and bathing. Past, Current, and Future:

Sampling of private wells to the west, northwest, and north of Area 1 did not identify any contaminants that were at levels likely to cause adverse health effects. This pathway does not pose a public health hazard.

Groundwater:

Keyport drinking water supply well (base well 5)

Area 1- Keyport Landfill and other base-wide areas of contamination Groundwater Supply well and connecting water distribution system across the plant Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation Potentially exposed- Approximately 1,100 individuals (1,000 employees and 100 residents) who use the well water for drinking, cooking, or bathing. Past, Current, and Future:

The base supply well is not down gradient of Area 1 and the groundwater is drawn from deep aquifers that are not likely to be impacted by environmental contamination on the base. Therefore, the Keyport drinking water supply does not pose any past,

current, or future public health hazards.

Groundwater:

Off-site municipal drinking water wells to the north and northwest of NUWC Keyport (Keyport public utility district (PUD) wells 1 and 2).

OU 1 - Keyport

Landfill

Groundwater All residents who are connected to the municipal water supply Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation No known or potential exposure to residents around NUWC Keyport (approximately 350 people) who obtain their drinking water from the PUD wells (Keyport well # 1 and 2) north and northwest of NUWC Keyport. Past, Current, and Future:

These PUD wells are very deep and are screened below the Clover Park Aquitard. The most recent drinking water monitoring tests from 1996 met state and federal drinking water standards. Therefore, drinking water from the municipal wells does not pose any past, current, or future public health hazard.

Indoor Air Area 1 - Keyport Landfill Indoor air Modular buildings constructed on the Keyport Landfill Inhalation NUWC Keyport employees who worked in modular offices at Area 1. Less than 60 people. Past: Maximum exposure dose estimates of VOCs in indoor air were several orders of magnitude lower than concentrations that are known to cause health effects in animals or humans, therefore, past exposure to VOCs pose no public health hazard.

Current and Future:

The modular buildings have either been removed or are no longer occupied. This exposure pathway does not pose a current or future public health hazard.



FIGURES

Site Location
Figure 1. Site Location

Demographic Statistics
Figure 2. Demographic Statistics



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