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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER (NUWC) DIVISION
(a/k/a NAVAL UNDERSEA WAREFARE ENGINEERING STATION)
KEYPORT, KITSAP COUNTY, WASHINGTON


APPENDICES

Appendix A.

Site Summary Evaluation at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington
Site Name and Location Site Description/

Waste Disposal History

Investigation Results/

Environmental Monitoring Results

Summary of Investigations and Corrective Activities ATSDR's Evaluation of Public Health Hazards

Operable Unit 1

Area 1

Keyport

Landfill

The former landfill is located between Bradley Road and Keys Road on the western side of the base.

This landfill is approximately 9 acres and was the primary industrial waste disposal area from the mid-1930s until 1973.

Materials reportedly placed in this landfill include paints, paint wastes (e.g., solvents and thinners), plating baths containing copper, cadmium, nickel, and lead, cutting oils, liquid torpedo fuel residue, and pesticide rinsate.

Groundwater:

Groundwater underneath the landfill was found to be contaminated.

Some metals (e.g., arsenic [10 ppb], lead [21 ppb], and manganese [6,270 ppb]) were detected above safe drinking water standards.

VOCs that were detected above safe drinking water standards included benzene (8.5 ppb), 1,1-dichloroethylene (680 ppb), 1,2-Dichloroethene (1,2-DCA) (15 ppb), 1,2-dichloroethylene (cis) (14,000 ppb), 1,2-dichloroethylene (trans) (520 ppb), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) (5,600 ppb), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (6.7 ppb), trichloroethylene (TCE) (5,614 ppb), and vinyl chloride (12,000 ppb).

Total PCBs (0.41 ppb), Arochlor 1254 (2.1 ppb), and heptachlor (0.015 ppb) were also detected.

The following sampling was conducted for the remedial investigation (RI):

Soil samples were collected in 1991 and analyzed for organic compounds and inorganics.

Groundwater sampling took place in June/July 1991, January 1992, and June/July 1992.

Marine water samples were collected in June 1991, August 1991, and January 1992.

Marine sediment tissue samples were collected in 1989.

Shellfish tissue was collected in 1989, 1996, and 2000.

Ambient and indoor air samples were

There are no supply wells used for drinking water within the perimeter or downgradient of the landfill. Base Well 5, NUWC, Keyport's only drinking water source, is not downgradient of the landfill and is screened below the Clover Park Aquitard. Therefore, groundwater poses no public health hazard for past, current, or potential future exposures.
Area 1 (continued) Marine Water:

Some metals were detected above background concentrations.

VOCs including TCE (5 ppb), vinyl chloride (22 ppb), and 1,2-dichloroethene (total) (39 ppb) were detected in the Marsh and Tide Flats. One SVOC, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (B2EHP) (10 ppb), was detected.

Marine Sediment:

Some metals were detected above their background concentrations in marine sediment. Some chlorinated pesticides and DDE were also detected at very low concentrations.

Marine Tissue:

Some metals were detected above background concentrations in shellfish tissue samples. One SVOC, B2EHP (32 ppm), one pesticide, methyl parathion (0.03 ppm), and PCBs (0.013 ppm)were detected in shellfish tissue.

The record of decision (ROD) for OU 1 was released in September 1998. The selected remedy for Area 1 involves the following actions:
  • Phytoremediation - planting of poplar trees


  • Removal of PCB-contaminated soil from Marsh Creek


  • Upgrade of the tide gate in order to protect the landfill from flooding


  • Upgrade and maintenance of the landfill cover


  • Long-term monitoring


  • Contingent actions for off-base domestic wells


  • Institutional controls
Exposures to marine surface water and shellfish did not pose a past public health hazard and pose no current public health hazard because of chemicals detected in tissue samples were not found at harmful levels. In order to evaluate the likelihood for contaminant levels to change over time, wet weight methodology should be use when analyzing tissue samples.
Area 1 (Continued) Ambient and Indoor Air:

VOCs detected include benzene (6 ug/m3), 1,3-butadiene (0.42 ug/m3), carbon tetrachloride (25 ug/m3), chloroform (6.3 ug/m3), chloromethane (1,800 ug/m3), 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,923 ug/m3), 1,1-dichloroethene (6 ug/m3), methylene chloride (521 ug/m3), and 1,2,4-trimethyl-benzene (12.8 ug/m3).

Since 1993, all buildings on the landfill have either been removed or are no longer occupied. Past exposure to VOCs in indoor air did not pose a public health hazard because they were not present at concentrations that were harmful.

No public health hazard exists for current and future exposures to indoor air because the buildings have either been removed or are no longer occupied.

Operable Unit 2

Area 2

Van Meter Road Spill/Drum Storage Area

This area is southeast of the Van Meter Road and Westfall Road intersection near an intermittent creek that flows into the shallow lagoon.

This storage area, covering approximately 1.3 acres, includes three distinct waste disposal areas:
1) the Van Meter Road spill area; 2) the former Building 957 drum storage area; and 3) the former Building 734 drum storage area. Drum storage areas at Buildings 957 and 734 were used from the 1940s through the 1960s to store drums for reuse or recycling.

In 1976, between 2,000 and 5,000 gallons of plating shop wastes leaked through a tank truck and spilled onto the ground and into the creek.

Surface Soil:

Some metals (e.g., arsenic [16 ppm]) were detected above background concentrations.

Groundwater:

Groundwater underneath Area 2 has been contaminated with some metals (e.g., manganese [2,500 ppb]) and VOCs (e.g., TCE [40 ppb] and vinyl chloride [5 ppb]).

Air:

No air contaminants exceeded background concentrations.

For the RI, surface soil samples were collected in 1990 and 1991. Groundwater sampling took place in June/July 1991, January 1992, and June/July 1992.

A ROD for OU 2 was released in September 1994. The selected remedial action for Area 2 includes institutional controls and groundwater monitoring. Institutional controls will be used to exclude residential use of the site and prevent construction of domestic wells in the future. Three new monitoring wells, referred to as investigative wells, will be installed as part of the groundwater monitoring remedy.

This site does not pose a past, current, or future public health hazard. Contaminants in soil were not present at harmful levels. Institutional controls will prevent current and future residential use of the site.

Groundwater underneath Area 2 is not used as a source of drinking water and the prevailing groundwater flow will keep any contaminants from migrating off site to the south, where some shallow domestic wells are located.

Area 3

Otto Fuel Leak Area

This area is located near the shallow lagoon in front of buildings 106 and 483.

A small pipeline leak was discovered in the early 1970s. The spill was estimated to involve around 10 gallons of a liquid torpedo fuel referred to as Otto fuel. The primary ingredient in Otto fuel is propylene glycol dinitrate. Surface Soil:

No surface soil contaminants were detected above levels of health concern.

Groundwater:

No groundwater contaminants were detected above levels of health concern. Propylene glycol dinitrate (3.9 ppb) was detected during the 1993 RI in samples collected near the inactive Otto fuel sump.

Marine Surface Water and Sediment:

Some metals(e.g., thallium [33 ppb]), were detected above background concentrations in marine surface water. Some metals (e.g., arsenic [13 ppm]), were detected above background concentrations in marine surface sediment.

Marine Tissue:

Some metals (e.g., arsenic [0.97 ppm]), were detected above background concentrations.

Contaminated soil was removed and disposed of off site. The site area was paved over during the early 1970s.

A ROD released for OU 2 in September 1994 indicated that no remedial actions are necessary.

This site does not pose a public health hazard because contaminants are not present at harmful levels.
Area 5

Former Sludge Disposal Area

This area is located east of Building 94 in the northeastern part of the facility.

This area, covering about 0.4 acre, was active from the 1940s until the mid-1970s. The western half of the area is covered by asphalt and the remainder is a grassy sloped area where a small recreational area is located.

Approximately 5,000 gallons of sludge from the sewage treatment plant was spread on the land. The sludge was probably contaminated with cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, and zinc.

Surface Soil:

No contaminants were detected at levels of health concern.

Groundwater:

No groundwater samples were collected at this site.

No groundwater samples were taken at Area 5 during the RI because no source of contamination was identified. A plan to install a shallow well was discontinued because the contractor encountered till, which is a confining layer and not conducive to well installation and groundwater collection.

The selected remedial action for Area 2 outlined in the September 1994 OU 2 ROD was no action. Confirmatory sampling will be conducted to verify that contaminants are not present above appropriate screening values.

This site does not pose a public health hazard because no contaminants were present at levels of health concern.
Area 8

Plating Shop Waste/Oil Spill Area

This area is located in a heavily industrialized area. The area of contamination surrounds Building 72, the plating shop, in the eastern portion of the base.

The area covers about 1 acre surrounding the plating shop. The area is mostly paved or covered by buildings. A chromate spill occurred at Building 71 during the 1970s releasing approximately 75 pounds of chromate salts into the environment. In 1987, petroleum compounds were discovered prior to construction of Building 1019. In 1988, it was discovered that plating wastes from Building 72 were discharged into a concrete utility trench along the western side of the plating shop.

The primary source of VOCs identified at this site is believed to be solvents used in Building 72. Some VOCs may have also migrated from other buildings.

Groundwater in Area 8 discharges into Liberty Bay.

Surface Soil:

No surface soil was sampled.

Subsurface Soil:

Some metals, including cadmium (193 ppm), chromium (total) (2,600 ppm), lead (549 ppm), and arsenic (12.9 ppm) were detected above background concentrations.

Groundwater:

Groundwater underneath Area 8 has been contaminated by VOCs and metals.

VOCs detected include TCE (3,100 ppb), PCE (130 ppb), 1,1-DCE (94 ppb), benzene (28 ppb), carbon tetrachloride (8.4 ppb), chloroform (10.8 ppb), 1,2-DCA (5 ppb), 1,1-dichloroethene (94 ppb), 1,1,1-TCA (2,500 ppb), and 1,1,2 -trichloroethane (89 ppb).

Metals detected include cadmium (1,780 ppb), chromium (hexavalent) (5,000 ppb), manganese (5,380 ppb), nickel (3,550 ppb), thallium (40 ppb), lead (17.8 ppb), and arsenic (68 ppb).

Most of the chromate solution spilled during the 1970s was discharged into Liberty Bay. Prior to the construction of Building 1019, oil, groundwater, and soil from an observation test pit was removed and disposed of off site. In February 1988, the trench was cleaned and all trench sludge was removed.

In May 1992, soil on the east side of Building 72 was removed, along with sumps, pipelines, and a drainage trench.

A ROD for OU 2 Area 8 was released in September 1994.

Remedial actions to be taken include continued groundwater monitoring, sediment and tissue monitoring, institutional controls to restrict residential use of the site, and removal of contaminated soil above and below the water table for off-site disposal.

Area 8 does not pose a public health hazard because the area is mostly paved and contaminated surface soil was removed during the 1988 and 1992 corrective actions.

Area 8 is not in close proximity or upgradient of any drinking water wells on or off site.

The contaminants that were discharged into Liberty Bay during the 1970s have not contaminated the foodchain.

Area 9

Liberty Bay

This area comprises approximately 5,000 feet of shoreline around the NUWC Keyport peninsula including nearshore areas around the two large industrial piers.

The primary sources of contamination to Liberty Bay include the former wastewater treatment plant, a storm sewer at the east end of First Street, discharges from the plating shop, and past discharges from the pier areas.

Historical discharges to Liberty Bay included metal and cyanide wastes, paint strippers and thinners, solvents, waste paint, and waste Otto fuel.

Marine Surface Water and Sediment: Some metals, (e.g., arsenic [13 ppm], were detected above background concentrations.

Marine Shellfish Tissue:

A few metals, (e.g., arsenic [4.9 ppm], were detected above background concentrations.

Two semivolatile organic compounds, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (5.7 ppm) and pentachlorophenol (4.3 ppm) were detected.

The final ROD for OU 2 Area 9, released in September 1994, did not recommend any cleanup actions for this area. Additional sediment sampling was proposed to confirm previous sampling results. This site poses no public health hazard because there were no contaminants detected at harmful levels.

Source Areas at NUWC, Keyport Investigated During the Initial Assessment Study: Not Included as Part of OU 1 or OU 2

Area 4

Main Gate Otto Fuel Spill

This site is located just inside Gate No. 1.

In 1973, an Otto fuel tank truck spilled approximately 700 gallons of fuel just northeast of the main gate. No sampling was conducted at this site. The spill was washed down with water.

A confirmation study was not recommended for this site.

This site poses no public health hazard because the fuel spill was very localized and was diluted with water at the time of the incident. The site is no longer contaminated.
Area 6

Old Sewage Filtration Beds

This site is located east of Building 478.

These beds covered an area of approximately 50ft X 200ft.

These beds were used from 1915 through the 1920s to help clarify sanitary and industrial wastewater prior to being discharged to Liberty Bay.

No sampling was conducted in this area. A confirmation study was not recommended for this area. This site poses no public health hazard because the source of contamination no longer exists. No contaminants are expected to be present at levels of health concern.
Area 7

Peninsula Fill

This area is located

on the north side of the industrial area north of second street and east of Dedrick Drive.

This area was originally a shallow backwater of Liberty Bay and was filled in stages beginning in the 1930s. The last major fill took place in 1972. The total fill area is approximately 9 acres. Most of the fill material consists of either dredge spoils from around pier 1, excavation materials from Building 478, and soils and gravel from an off-site gravel pit. Some of the fill materials may contain heavy metals. No sampling was conducted in this area. Clean fill was placed over the existing materials and most of the fill has been paved over or built on.

A confirmation study was not recommended for this area.

This site poses no public health hazard because clean fill was placed over contaminated soils and pavement covers much of the area.
Area 23

Dabob Bay

This area is located northwest of NUWC, Keyport on Hood Canal.

From the 1950s to the present,

this area has been used as a torpedo test range.

A total of 3,000 to 5,000 gallons of test fuel (Otto fuel) was jettisoned from torpedoes during tests in the mid- to late-1960s. During the same period, 72,000 pounds of lead counterweight were also dropped from the test torpedoes.

Otto fuel was not detected in Dabob Bay.

An EPA sediment analysis for lead from Debob Bay showed lead concentrations ranging from 1.8 to 23.1 ppm. These were comparable to background samples from Puget Sound sediments (range = 6.0 to 31.0 ppm)

The lead is believed to be isolated at the bottom of Debob Bay.

No confirmation study was recommended for this site.

This site poses no public health hazard because Otto fuel was not detected in Debob Bay and lead was not detected at levels of health concern.
Sources: EA Engineering, 1999; URS, 1993a; and 1993b.


APPENDIX B: GLOSSARY

Background Level:
An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or, amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.


Comparison Values:
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated.


Concentration:
How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, or food.


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person may be exposed, usually on a daily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per body weight per day".


Environmental Contaminant:
A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or the environment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, or what would be expected.


Environmental Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.


Exposure:
Coming into contact with a chemical substance.(For the three ways people can come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)


Ingestion:
Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Media:
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.


Minimal Risk Level (MRL):
An estimate of daily human exposure - by a specified route and length of time -- to a dose of chemical that is likely to be without a measurable risk of adverse, noncancerous effects. An MRL should not be used as a predictor of adverse health effects.


National Priorities List (NPL):
The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S.Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandonedhazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where exposure to site-related chemicals may have occurred in the past or is still occurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.


No Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where there is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.


Parts per Billion (ppb)/ Parts per Million (ppm):
Units commonly used to express low concentrations of contaminants. As example of each, one part per billion (ppb) of trichloroethylene (TCE) equals one drop of TCE mixed in a competition-size swimming pool and one part per million (ppm) equals one ounce of trichloroethylene (TCE) in one million ounces of water.


Potentially Exposed:
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presence of contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans (i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of those persons have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminated water, breathing contaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).


Public Health Assessment:
A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.


Public Health Hazard:
Sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.


Reference Dose (RfD):
An estimate, with safety factors (see safety factor) built in, of the daily, life-time exposure of human populations to a possible hazard that is not likely to cause harm to the person.


Route of Exposure:
The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposure routes:
- breathing (also called inhalation),
- eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
- or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).


Safety Factor:
Also called Uncertainty Factor. When scientists don't have enough information to decide if an exposure will cause harm to people, they use "safety factors" and formulas in place of the information that is not known. These factors and formulas can help determine the amount of a chemical that is not likely to cause harm to people.


Volatile organic compounds (VOCs):
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX C: ATSDR Health Consultation for Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Keyport, Shellfish Exposure, August 21, 1995

Appendix C was not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. Obtain a hard copy, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333


APPENDIX D: ATSDR Health Consultation Follow-up for Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division, Keyport, Shellfish Exposure, February 5, 1997

Appendix D was not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. Obtain a hard copy, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333



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