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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

USA DEFENSE DEPOT MEMPHIS
MEMPHIS, SHELBY COUNTY, TENNESSEE




CONCLUSIONS

  1. ATSDR has identified the Defense Depot Memphis Tennessee (DDMT) NPL site as a no apparent public health hazard for people living around DDMT from 1989 to the present. This conclusion is based on available sampling data and descriptions of facility operations.

    Currently, no known exposures exist off-site to site contaminants that could result in health effects. The Rozelle neighborhood, which is that portion of Rozelle Street just west of Dunn Field, is a possible exception to this conclusion. Soil sampling needs to be done in that neighborhood to identify whether DDMT contaminants, possibly deposited in the area from past overflows of surface water and sediment, might still be present.

    An increased chance of cancer could have existed for individuals and workers with daily exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from around the south side of Building 249, between Buildings 689 and 690, or around the west side of Building 629.

  2. ATSDR considers the public health hazard status of DDMT before 1989 to be indeterminate. This means that insufficient information is available to state whether a health hazard existed. This is because of a general lack of environmental data before 1989.
  3. Three surface water drainages are the only exposure pathways where residents of the area around DDMT could have experienced long-term exposure to site contaminants. These 3 drainages are: (1) the ditches that run through the Rozelle neighborhood west of Dunn Field, (2) the Tarrent Branch which flows through the neighborhood west of the Main Facility, and (3) the 4 ditches that flow south from the southeast corner of the Main Facility. About 2 - 10% of the population within a mile of DDMT live close enough (100 - 500 feet) to have had contact with water or sediment from these drainages because the ditches are relatively small and could affect only the area immediately around the ditch.

    The current contaminant levels in these surface water drainages are too low to cause health effects. No data exist on contaminant levels in surface water and sediment before 1989.

  4. Short-term exposure to DDMT contaminants in the air has occurred at least once. This documented incident occurred in 1988 when a building collapsed during a thunderstorm, releasing some of the chemicals stored within. These chemicals moved off-site but whether anyone experienced health effects from exposure to them is not known. Little indication exists in the data available to ATSDR that long-term exposure to site contaminants of all or most of the residents around DDMT occurred via the air.
  5. Exposure of area residents to DDMT contaminants in ground water does not appear to have occurred because an opportunity to drink contaminated ground water was lacking. Everyone around DDMT appears to have been on public water before the ground water was contaminated.
  6. Exposure of area residents to DDMT contaminants in soil does not appear to have occurred due to the lack of an opportunity for area residents to contact soil on DDMT. DDMT reportedly has been fenced and guarded since it opened in 1942.

ATSDR CHILD HEALTH INITIATIVE

As part of ATSDR's Child Health Initiative, the possibility of health effects in children due to exposures to site contaminants was carefully considered in this public health assessment. This evaluation indicates that, since 1989, health effects in children exposed to site contaminants are unlikely because exposure levels were too low to cause harm or because children couldn't access contaminated areas. Before 1989, the possibility of health effects can't be determined because of a lack of environmental data.

ATSDR's Child Health Initiative recognizes that the unique vulnerabilities of infants and children demand special emphasis in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. Children are at a greater risk than are adults from certain kinds of exposures to hazardous substances emitted from waste sites and emergency events. They are more likely to be exposed because they play outdoors and they often bring food into contaminated areas. They are more likely to come into contact with dust, soil, and heavy vapors close to the ground. Also, they receive higher doses of chemical exposure because of their lower body weights. The developing body systems of children can sustain permanent damage if toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages.




PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A major purpose of this public health assessment is to identify actions needed to protect public health, evaluate whether exposure is occurring or could occur, or identify whether site-related health effects exist. The following public health actions and recommendations were identified.

Completed Public Health Actions

ATSDR has completed the following public health actions for DDMT: [1] with this public health assessment, the reevaluation of the 1995 PHA, [2] evaluation of the cancer occurrence in the area around DDMT by the Tennessee Department of Health and ATSDR, and [3] establishment of the Greater Memphis Environmental Justice Work Group.

Planned Public Health Actions

1) ATSDR is working with the DDMT Concerned Citizens Committee (CCC) and other local residents, MSCHD, DDMT, and others to develop a program to inform and educate area residents about DDMT.

2) ATSDR is planning a program to sample soil and other media in areas around DDMT. ATSDR will coordinate the planning and execution of this sampling with EPA, DDMT and its contractors, the Tennessee Department of Environmental Conservation, MSCHD, DDMT-CCC, and community members of the DDMT RAB.

3) ATSDR is working with the Health Resources Services Administration (HRSA), Memphis/Shelby County Health Department (MSCHD), and Meharry Medical College to enhance the environmental medicine capabilities of the existing HRSA clinic in Memphis.

Recommended Public Health Actions

1) Upon request, ATSDR will review additional sampling data for DDMT.




PREPARER OF REPORT

John R. Crellin, Ph.D.
Senior Environmental Epidemiologist
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Regional Representative

Ben Moore
Regional Representative
Region IV
Regional Operations
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry




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