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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PALMETTO WOOD PRESERVING, INC.
CAYCE, LEXINGTON COUNTY, SOUTH CAROLINA


CONCLUSIONS

We classify this site as an indeterminate public health hazard since insufficient data are available to adequately characterize the site. This classification is based on sampling data gaps and no available community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health. Current private well samples and on-site and off-site surface soil samples are needed in order to better characterize the extent of contamination from the PWP site. Currently available information indicate that persons are not being exposed to levels of contaminants at this site that could result in adverse health effects. This classification may change if additional data should show contaminants of concern have reached the population living in the vicinity of the site.

Past exposures to chromium from one private drinking well have been documented for a household in the immediate vicinity of the site; however, the length of exposure and nature of exposures are not known and cannot be estimated. When chromium was detected, an alternate water supply was used. The house has been abandoned and no current or future exposures from this well are anticipated. Municipal water is available.

Contamination at the Palmetto Wood Preserving site has occurred as the result of the general spillage and uncontrolled dripping of wood treating solutions during the period that the site was operational. Since operations ceased in 1985, there is no new source of contamination at the site. The soil remediation was completed for this site in 1989, and groundwater remediation is underway. It is not likely that air contamination is a problem.

A health concern regarding the site is from exposure to contaminated groundwater. Groundwater flow at the site is sufficient to transport contaminants off-site and we consider this to be the most potential pathway for exposure to the population in the vicinity of PWP. We cannot assess past health effects due to exposures to contaminants because of lack of data. Three local residences are still utilizing private wells and we cannot determine the extent of contamination because the last sampling done of private wells showed no contamination in these wells. However, no current data exist.


RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Additional soil sampling, especially surface soil sampling (0" - 3"), on-site and off-site is needed to better characterize the vertical extent or the areal limits of contamination in and around the site. We recommend these samples be taken from the same general areas as were the initial soil samples collected during the RI/FS. In addition, samples should be collected from residential yards and dirt roads located to the southeast of the site.
  2. Additional surface water monitoring off-site, particularly from the drainage path from the site, to better characterize the extent of contaminant migration. During the RI, lack of sufficient rainfall inhibited sampling personnel from obtaining an ideal representation of site runoff conditions.
  3. Additional on-site and off-site groundwater sampling to update the contamination information for this public health assessment and to better characterize the extent of contamination on-site and off-site. Sampling should be conducted in off-site areas that could be affected by groundwater flow from the site and on-site locations to ascertain the extent of contamination from the site at this time.
  4. Additional monitoring data from existing temporary wells is needed, especially from off-site wells to better characterize the extent of contaminant migration. The data collected during the RI was questionable and additional data is needed to evaluate the concentrations of contaminants found.
  5. Additional private well sampling, particularly from the properties located to the southeast of the site, to better characterize off-site contaminant migration. The residents may be utilizing private wells as their water supply source. Private well PW01 should be permanently closed to prevent future human exposure to contaminants in the well water.
  6. Review all sampling data to determine which contaminants of concern are site related and which are not. If some contaminants are not site related, an attempt should be made to identify all possible sources of contamination in the area.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations

    In accordance with CERCLA, as amended, the data and information contained in the Palmetto Wood Preserving, Inc. Public Health Assessment have been evaluated by the ATSDR Health Activities Recommendation Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health actions. A past completed exposure pathway was identified for one private well located to the southeast of the site; however, this residence is now abandoned and the private well is no longer in use. Therefore, no follow-up activities are indicated at this time. If information becomes available indicating exposure at levels of concern, ATSDR will evaluate that information to determine what actions, if any, are necessary.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The Public Health Action Plan for the PWP site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the South Carolina Department of Environmental Control (SCDHEC) at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment on the part of ATSDR and/or SCDHEC to follow-up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR and/or SCDHEC are as follows:

  1. SCDHEC will evaluate new sampling data for this site as it becomes available, and modify this public health assessment and public health action plan as the need is indicated. Future environmental or health outcome data may determine the need for additional actions at the PWP site.
  2. SCDHEC will remain available to answer any questions that the community may have pertaining to the site.

In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has committed to the following actions:

  1. EPA will periodically monitor private wells still in use in the area. If private well analyses should reveal the presence of site-related contaminants, SCDHEC will notify the affected residents of the sampling results. Should this occur, SCDHEC and ATSDR will revisit this public health assessment to determine appropriate follow-up actions.
  2. EPA will conduct remediation of groundwater to minimize the likelihood of future contaminant migration.
  3. Once groundwater remediation has been completed, EPA will periodically sample monitoring wells to ensure that remedial actions for groundwater have been successful.
  4. EPA sample on-site soil containment areas to ensure the integrity of soil containment areas.

ATSDR and SCDHEC will follow-up with the EPA and other agencies to confirm implementation of the other recommendations contained in this public health assessment.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Robert F. Marino, MD, MPH
Director
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

John F. Brown, DVM, PhD
State Toxicologist
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Lovyst L. Howell
Project Administrator
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation

Todd Going, MPH
Environmental Quality Manager
SCDHEC, Division of Health Hazard Evaluation


ATSDR Regional Representative:

Chuck Pietrosewicz, CHWS
Senior Public Health Advisor
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer:

Richard R. Kauffman
Remedial Programs Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


CERTIFICATION

This public health assessment was prepared by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

ATSDR. 1989a. Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-88/03.

ATSDR. 1989b. Toxicological profile for chromium. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-88/10.

ATSDR. 1989c. Toxicological profile for 1,1-dichloroethene. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-89/11.

ATSDR. 1989d. Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-88/15.

ATSDR. 1990a. Draft toxicological profile for manganese. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.

ATSDR. 1990c. Draft toxicological profile for vanadium. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.

ATSDR. 1990d. Toxicological profile for lead. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-88/17.

ATSDR. 1990e. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-90/20.

ATSDR. 1990f Toxicological profile for copper. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia. ATSDR/TP-90/08

ATSDR. 1991. Draft toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.

ATSDR. 1992. Public health assessment guidance manual. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.

Bureau of Census. 1990. 1990 Census population: general social and economic characteristics. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. 1986. Remedial investigation report, Palmetto Wood Preserving Site, Lexington County, South Carolina. Contract Number 68-01-6939.

Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc. 1987a. Remedial investigation report, Palmetto Wood Preserving Site, Lexington County, South Carolina. Document Number 240-RI1-RT-DVFJ-1.

Camp, Dresser & McKee Inc., 1987b. Feasibility study report, Palmetto Wood Preserving Site, Lexington County, South Carolina. Document Number 240-FS1-RT-ELDA.

Ellenhorn, M.J. and Donald G. Barceloux. 1988. Medical toxicology diagnosis and treatment of human poisoning. Elsevier Science Publishing Company, Inc.

Klaassen, C.D., M.O. Amdur, and J. Doull. 1986. Casarett and Doull's toxicology, the basic science of poisons. 3rd ed. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York.

Lawrence, C.B. 1976. Soil survey of Lexington County, South Carolina. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service.

Law Engineering Testing Company (LETCO), November 28, 1983. Report of preliminary assessment of ground-water and soil contamination - phase I, Palmetto Wood Preserving, Inc. Dixiana, S.C., Law Engineering Testing Company Job No. CO-883.

National Academy of Science. 1980. Drinking Water and Health 3. NUS Corporation. June 1985. Draft community relations plan, Palmetto Wood Preserving Site, Lexington County, Dixiana, South Carolina. EPA Work Assignment Number 92.4LB7, Contract Number 68-01-6699, NUS Project Number S911.

South Carolina State Data Center. 1992. South Carolina statistical abstract, 1992. South Carolina Division of Research and Statistical Services. Columbia, South Carolina.

US Bureau of the Census. 1990. Summary Tape File 1. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.


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