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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENTSaipan Capacitors
(a/k/a Tanapag Village (Saipan))
Tanapag Village, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Island
EPA Facility ID: MPD982524506
August 31, 2004




Tables and Figures
Table 1: Results of Surface Soil Sampling for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Cemetery 1 Area
Location Description Range of Detected Concentrations (ppm) Date of Maximum Detection History of Soil Remediation Comments
Sites C1 Located in Cemetery 1 in the center of Tanapag Village near the recycling center 0.268 - 1,627 7/5/97 347.36 tons (2/12/98)
1,800 tons (11/00-9/01)
- Site C1 also includes Sites X and F.
- In 1992, an area approximately 12 feet by 40 feet (i.e., 500 square feet) was bulldozed and the soil was piled into a large mound. Capacitor windings and fragments were found in the soil pile and on the surface of the cleared area. Field sampling confirmed PCB levels in soil in excess of 10 parts per million (ppm) throughout this area. No remediation, however, was conducted.
- In July 1997, excavation of site C1 began. The excavation ranged from 1 to 5 feet in depth. In most areas, the soil was excavated until the 10 ppm action level was achieved. Excavated soil was thermally treated and used to backfill the site.
- From 2000 to 2003, additional excavation and verification sampling achieved the 1.0 ppm cleanup goal throughout Cemetery 1. Excavated soil was stored and treated at Cemetery 2. No further remediation is planned.
Site F Located west of the recycling center and encompassed by Site C1 N/A N/A 5 tons (1992) - In 1992, a 27 square foot area was excavated to a depth of 1 foot. Heavy rains occurred throughout the remediation, so no verification soil samples were collected. Water tested from the site had a concentration of 0.009 ppm.
- This site was encompassed and cleaned under site C1.
Site G Located in the northeast quadrant of Cemetery 1 0.38 - 0.461 7/1/97 1 ton (1992) - In 1992, a 9 square foot excavation area to a depth of 2 feet was planned but groundwater disrupted work 1 foot below grade. No soil samples were collected but water from the site was found to have a concentration of 0.002 ppm PCB.
- In 1997, no remediation was conducted at this site because detected PCB concentrations were below the 1997 action level of 10 ppm and the 2000 action level of 1 ppm.
Site H Located in the northeast quadrant of Cemetery 1 0.6 - 2 1992 N/A - Sampling in 1992 found PCBs below the action level of 10 ppm, therefore no remediation was conducted.
- Between 2000 and 2003, all of Cemetery 1 was remediated to below the cleanup goal of 1 ppm PCBs.
Site J Located southwest of a masonry block pigpen and west of the recycling center 0.101 - 1132 1992 3 tons (1992)
92.63 tons (8/6/97)
20 yd3 (1/01)
- Site J also includes Sites K, L, and W.
- In 1992, an 8 by 3 by 2 feet excavation was completed. Verification sampling indicated high PCB contamination south of excavation. Heavy rains discontinued excavations. The site was lined with visquene and backfilled with coral. Sampling at sites K and L found PCBs at concentrations less than 10 ppm, therefore, no remediation was conducted in these areas.
- In July 1997, about 7.5 truck loads of contaminated soil (greater than 10 ppm PCBs) were removed from site J until samples were below the action level of 10 ppm. The excavation ranged from 1 to 3 feet deep depending on the extent of contamination.
- In 2000 and 2001, excavation and one round of sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Site M/N Included in Site Q 2.78 - 43.8 1992 N/A - In 1992, samples were below the 10 ppm action level except one.
- In 1997, Site M/N was included in Site Q.
Site P Included in Site Q 16 - 70.1 6/28/97 N/A - Site P was included in Site Q in 1997.
Site Q Located in Cemetery 1 near a black wooden cross 0.26 - 295,206 6/28/97 190.21 tons (8/8/97) - Site Q includes Sites M/N and P.
- The highest PCB concentrations found in the Cemetery 1 area were located in Site Q, approximately 30 feet from the black wooden cross. Remediation for this site began in July 1997. The site was excavated to a depth ranging from 16 to 42 inches, until PCB levels were at or below 10 ppm.
- Between 2000 and 2003, all of Cemetery 1 was remediated to below the cleanup goal of 1 ppm PCBs.
Site EE Located north of Cemetery 1 between two homes 31.5 - 35 7/23/97 103.74 tons (8/21/97)
370 tons (12/00-9/01)
- Remediation conducted at Site EE included Sites FF, GG, and JJ.
- No sampling or remediation was conducted at this site in 1992 because the area was covered by standing water.
- These sites were covered with 2 feet of coral prior to remediation. In 1997, Sites EE, FF, and GG were excavated together as Site EF. The top 1 foot of soil was removed to achieve the 10 ppm action level.
- In 2000 and 2001, four rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Site GG Included in Site EE 29.7 - 66.2 7/23/97 N/A - Site G was excavated as part of Site EE.
Site EF Included in Site EE 0.264 - 7,178 8/8/97 N/A - Site EF was excavated as part of Site EE.
Site HH Included in Site EE 6.53 7/23/97 N/A - No remediation was conducted at this site because PCB concentrations were below the 1997 action level of 10 ppm.
- Between 2000 and 2003, all of Cemetery 1 was remediated to below the cleanup goal of 1 ppm PCBs.
Site JJ Included in Site EE 2.6 7/23/97 N/A - In 1992, the entire area was under standing water for the duration of the project, so no sampling or remediation was conducted.
- No remediation was conducted at this site because PCB concentrations were below the 1997 action level of 10 ppm.
- Between 2000 and 2003, all of Cemetery 1 was remediated to below the cleanup goal of 1 ppm PCBs.
Site KK Located north of Cemetery 1 between two homes N/A N/A N/A - In 1992, the entire area was under standing water for the duration of the project, so no sampling or remediation was conducted.
- Between 2000 and 2003, all of Cemetery 1 was remediated to below the cleanup goal of 1 ppm PCBs.
Site LL Consisted of a former trash burning area located northwest of Cemetery 1 on a north/south running unimproved road. A concrete wall surrounding a house runs through the site. 0.194 - 249 7/11/97 48.17 tons (7/28/97)
120 yd3 (11/00-9/01)
- An 80 square foot area was proposed for excavation in 1992, however, no excavation was conducted before project was suspended.
- In 1997, Site LL was excavated to a depth of 2.5 feet in some areas in order to achieve the 10 ppm action level for PCBs. Because of concerns about dioxin and furan contamination, soil from Site LL was stored separately before disposal. Sampling found no dioxins or furans.
- In 2000 and 2001, two rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Site VV and Residential/Private Property Included residential homes located north and west of the cemetery 0.003 - 7.3 5/9/00 5 yd3 (11/00) - Residential and private properties samples included two locations, designated field log samples 49 and 50 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
- During Phase III removal actions, one round of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was achieved at Site VV.
Basketball court Located in the village center near the Tanapag Elementary School 0.022 5/9/00 N/A - The basketball court included field log sample 13 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Tanapag Elementary Located in the village center east of the school 0.005 5/9/00 N/A - The Tanapag Elementary school included field log sample 12 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Sources: Woodward-Clyde 1995; ECC 1999, 2003; ECC 2002; EPA 2001

EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
N/A not applicable
PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls
ppm parts per million
yd3 cubic yards


Table 2.

Results of Surface Soil Sampling for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Community Church Area
Location Description Range of Detected Concentrations (ppm) Date of Maximum Detection History of Soil Remediation Comments
Sites A1 and YY Site A is located in the playing field near the community church adjacent to the former Head Start building. Site YY is adjacent to Site A. Site A1 is located northeast of the building's concrete pad. 0.102 - 2,917 8/8/97 49 tons (1992)
261.2 tons (8/21/97)
1,375 yd3 (11/00-4/01)
- In 1992, Site A1 underwent four rounds of excavation to a depth of 4.5 feet below grade in some places. Verification sampling indicated that the cleanup level of 10 parts per million (ppm) PCBs was achieved in all samples but one. Sampling detected 23 ppm PCBs, however, verification sampling found 3.6 ppm and 6.7 ppm PCBs from this location. During the third round of excavation, pipes that potentially contained asbestos were uncovered. The pipes were removed and loaded into hazardous waste drums.
- Site A1 soil remediation includes excavations conducted at Sites A2 and A3 as well. In 1997, soil was removed to a depth of 4.5 feet in some areas. Removals ceased when the 10 ppm action level was reached.
- In 2000 and 2001, four rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Site A2 Included in Site A1 and located northwest of the of concrete pad 0.293 - 3,066 7/9/97 Included in Site A1 - In 1997, a small portion of A2 was excavated to a depth of 2 feet. The remaining are was excavated to 1 foot and confirmatory samples were below the action level of 10 ppm.
Site A3 Included in Site A1 and located northwest of the of concrete pad 0.277 - 1.86 6/30/97 Included in Site A1 - In 1997, after excavating to a depth of 1 foot, all confirmatory samples were below the action level of 10 ppm.
Area B Located 45 feet west of Site A 0.23 - 4.9 1992 N/A - Sampling in 1992 found PCBs below the cleanup level of 10 ppm, therefore, no remediation was conducted.
Area C Located 35 feet north of Site A 0.1 - 17 1992 4 tons (1992) - In 1992, three confirmation samples showed PCBs at levels greater than the10 ppm action level. Three rounds of excavation were conducted until sample results were below the 10 ppm action level.
Site E Located northwest of the community church alongside a north-south street 0.083 - 409 1992 2 tons (1992)
20.38 (7/16/97)
175 yd3 (11/00-1/01)
- In 1992, a 4 foot by 6 foot area was excavated to a depth of approximately 18 inches. Verification samples indicated that PCB concentrations were below 10 ppm inside the excavation. Results from samples outside the excavated area indicated further contamination above cleanup level south and west of the site. No further clean up was done before project suspension.
- In 1997, samples indicated PCB levels above cleanup level on the south side of the site. Approximately 90 percent of the area was excavated to a depth of 18 inches. Confirmatory samples were all below the 10 ppm action level within the excavated area.
- In 2000 and 2001, four rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Residential Property Located in the western portion of the village 6, 000 - 8,000 5/10/00 N/A - The residential property includes field log sample 59 in the EPA's 2000 investigation.
Baseball Field Located in a baseball field north of the former Head Start building 0.670 - 0.75 5/5/00 N/A - The baseball field includes field log sample 14 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Sources: Woodward-Clyde 1995; ECC 1999; ECC 2002; EPA 2001

EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
N/A not applicable
PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls
ppm parts per million
yd3 cubic yards


Table 3.

Results of Surface Soil Sampling for PCBs in the Tanapag Beach Area
Location Description Range of Detected Concentrations (ppm) Date of Maximum Detection History of Soil Remediation Comments
Site Z Located in front of a dive store about 62 feet and across a street from the community center 0.021 - 31,600 9/25/89 6.6 tons dioxin-contaminated soil (1992)
7.41 tons (7/18/97)
14 yd3(1/01)
- In 1992, after two rounds of excavation, a 9 by 6 foot area was deepened to 2.5 feet. Groundwater began to seep in and digging was discontinued. Verification samples indicated levels of PCBs greater than the clean up level of 10 parts per million (ppm) north, west, and inside the excavation area. No further action was taken.
- In 1997, this site was excavated until concentrations were below the 10 ppm action level. The soil was tested for dioxin contamination and was found to have very dilute concentrations (orders of magnitude below permissible limit).
- In 2001, two rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Site AA Located about 80 feet from the community center 0.120 - 25 9/25/89 450 yd3 (1/01-2/01) - In 1992 samples were taken but not analyzed prior to project suspension.
- In 1997, no contamination was found above the 10 ppm action level and no excavation occurred.
- In 2001, three rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met at Sites AA and CC.
Site BB Located about 100 feet from the community center 0.049 - 3.47 7/8/97 < 10 yd3 (1/01) - In 1992 samples were taken but not analyzed prior to project suspension.
- Nine samples were collected and analyzed in 1997. All samples were below the action level of 10 ppm and no excavation was required.
- In 2001, one round of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Site CC Located near the sewage lift on the road to the community center 0.305 - 12.4
574 (92)
7/2/97 27 tons (1992)
74.1 tons (7/16/97)
- Site CC also includes Site Z.
- In 1992, four excavations were completed to a depth of 1 to 2 feet. Verification samples from within the pit revealed levels below 10 ppm, however higher levels remained in the surrounding area when project was suspended.
- Additional excavation of this site was conducted in July 1997. All areas were excavated to a depth of 18 inches and confirmatory samples collected were below 2 ppm PCBs.
- In 2000 and 2001, excavation and sampling were completed with Site AA.
Site RR Located 50 feet inland from the water's edge along a road leading from Tanapag Village 0.2 - 16 1992 2.2 tons dioxin contaminated soil (1992)
22.23 tons (7/18/97)
- In 1992, two excavations were conducted to a depth of 2 to 2.5 feet. These excavations removed PCBs to less than the action level of 10 ppm in soil. Dioxins were detected in a sample collected at the time of the excavations.
- In July 1997, 22 tons of soil was removed in order to address the dioxin contamination.
Sites SS/TT Located south of the other beach sites in the village park 0.067 - 226 9/29/00 1,000 yd3 (12/00-3/01) - In May 2000, EPA identified 3 discrete samples above the clean-up criteria.
- In 2000 and 2001, six rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
South of Community Center Located near the beach by the Community Center 1.1 5/10/00 N/A - The area south of the Community Center includes field log 19 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Sources: Woodward-Clyde 1995; ECC 1999; ECC 2002; EPA 2001

EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
N/A not applicable
PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls
ppm parts per million
yd3 cubic yards


Table 4.

Results of Surface Soil Sampling for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Cemetery 2 Area
Location Description Range of Detected Concentrations (ppm) Date of Maximum Detection History of Soil Remediation Comments
Cemetery 2 Located between Tanapag Village and Garapan, across from Kim's Auto body, and 800 feet southeast of Tanapag Lagoon. Cemetery encompasses 2.3 acres and is still active (several graves have been added). 0.56 - 25,929 8/18/97 543.72 tons (8/97)
149 tons (5/98)
7,800 yd3 (9/00-9/01)
- Cemetery 2 was heavily over grown with trees and shrubs in 1992. Thirteen capacitors were found with numerous debris. Most were removed, two capacitors were left in the east end under a berm. No sampling or further remediation was conducted. A 6-foot high steel barrier fence was erected to prevent people from contacting the material.
- In August 1997, wingdings and capacitors were found throughout berms and two additional mounds. High levels of PCB contamination was confirmed in soil and concrete. Excavations were taken to the ground and no further.
- In May 1998, soil was removed from Pile 1 for treatment. Soil had high organic content.
- Between 2000 and 2003, excavation and verification sampling was conducted to achieve the cleanup goal of 1 ppm PCBs. Between October 2001 and June 2003, approximately 42,500 tons of soil excavated from throughout Tanapag Village was treated at Cemetery 2.
Residential/ Private Property Residence Included homes located near Cemetery 2 0.007 - 0.0.24 5/10/00 N/A - These areas include field log 38 and 27 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Outer Road - Cemetery 2 Located along road by cemetery 2.0 - 4.7 5/11/00 N/A - The outer road includes field log 28 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Handsome Garment Factory Located south of the village at the garment factory 0.005 - 0.017 5/11/00 N/A - The factory includes field log 44 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Sources: Woodward-Clyde 1995; ECC 1999, 2003; ECC 2002; EPA 2001

EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency N/A not applicable
PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls
ppm parts per million
yd3 cubic yards


Table 5.

Results of Surface Soil Sampling for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in the Other Tanapag Village Locations
Location Description Range of Detected Concentrations (ppm) Date of Maximum Detection History of Soil Remediation Comments
Site NN Located in the northeast part of Tanapag Village, north of a home located along the West Coast Highway 0.061 - 850 1992 3 tons (1992)
14.82 tons (7/31/97)
120 yd3 (11/00-9/01)
- In 1992, an area 6 by 6 feet was excavated to a depth of 1 foot Verification samples found contamination outside excavation area. No further remediation was done due to heavy rains and flooding.
- As a result of sampling in 1997, soil from this site was excavated to a depth of 2 feet until measured concentrations were below 10 parts per million (ppm).
- In 2000 and 2001, four rounds of excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
Sites MM, PP, and QQ Located proximate to Site NN less than 0.2 1992 N/A - Sampling in 1992 found PCBs at concentrations less than 0.2 ppm at these three sites. As a result, no remediation was conducted.
Tanapag Village Samples Included seven areas thought to have capacitors 0.45 - 1.61 7/14/97 N/A - In 1997, soil samples were collected from seven areas located throughout the village thought to have contained capacitors. No remediation was conducted as detected PCBs were below 10 ppm.
Site UU, Property 65, Residential/ Private Property Included samples collected throughout the village 0.004 - 367 1/01 N/A - Homes and private property include field logs 11, 42, 65, 55, 63, 56, 40, 57, 41, 52 in EPA's 2000 investigation and home sampling in 1992.
- As part of Phase III removal actions at Property 65, potted plants were removed. Soil sampling below the plants was non-detect for PCBs. No excavation was conducted.
- In 2001, at Site UU (property 42), planters contained elevated PCBs. Planters, debris, and soil were removed from the site.
St. Lourdes Store Located in the southern portion of the village near the beach 0.008 5/9/00 N/A - The store includes field log 53 in EPA's 2000 investigation.
Sources: Woodward-Clyde 1995; ECC 1999; ECC 2002; EPA 2001

EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency N/A not applicable
PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls
ppm parts per million
yd3 cubic yards


Table 6.

Results of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Sampling in Biota
Biota Number of Samples Range of Detected Concentrations in parts per million (ppm) Comments
Fish 29 Not found Samples were collected from seven different fish species caught in Tanapag Lagoon offshore from the Tanapag Social Hall. Each sample ranged from 2 to 8 ounces.
Clams 4 composite Not found Intertidal beach clams were collected from the public beach by the Tanapag Social Hall. Four composite samples were created from the 127 clams (0.5 to 0.9 inches long) collected and combined.
Chicken Eggs 3 Not found Eggs were collected from free-range chickens that could have foraged anywhere throughout Tanapag Village.
Land crabs 8 (May 2000)

92 (December 2000)
0.078 - 0.39 ppm Aroclor 1254 found in 5 of the 8 samples collected in May 2000.
0.005 - 0.96 ppm found in samples collected from Cemetery 2 and Tanapag Beach in December 2000.
Land crabs can be found anywhere in Tanapag Village but are prevalent near streams and in wetlands. In May 2000, samples were collected in Cemetery 2-an area known to be used for land crab collection. In December 2000, the sampling area was increased and land crabs were collected from Smiling Cove, Achugao Stream, Homestead 1, Homestead 2, and Cemetery 2. Samples collected in December 2000 were also analyzed for metals, which were found below available health-based concentrations.
Taro Root and Yam 3 taro root

3 yam
0.000084 ppm found in 1 of the 9 taro root samples
0.000053 to 0.000229 ppm found in 6 of the 9 in yam samples
Taro root and yam samples were collected from near Cemetery 2 and the Tanapag Homestead Area. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate, yielding 9 results for both taro and yams.
Source: EPA 2001


Table 7.

Exposure Situation and Exposure Pathway Summary
Exposure Situation Time Frame Exposure Yes/No Exposed Population/Activity Pathway Actions Taken/Planned Comments
CONTACTING SURFACE SOIL
Cemetery 1

Cemetery 1 is located near the center of Tanapag Village.
Cemetery 1 consists of individual sites (C1, F, G, H, J, M, P, Q, EE, GG, HH, JJ, KK, and LL), residential/private property, a basketball court, and the Tanapag Elementary School.
Past

Present/ Future
Yes

Yes
(Exposure is expected to be minimal because PCB levels in soil are now less than 1 ppm, due to remediation.)
Adults/Children: recreational activities such as gardening or playing at the school, basketball courts, or homes; visiting grave sites at the cemetery
Adults: maintenance activities such as landscaping or digging graves
Incidental ingestion
Dermal contact
Dust inhalation

Remedial Actions



Excavation, consisting of bulldozing soil into a large mound, and field sampling were conducted in 1992. Field sampling confirmed PCB levels in excess of 10 ppm throughout this area.
Excavation and remediation were conducted at a number of sites in 1997. In most cases, soil was excavated to the action level of 10 ppm.
Excavation (in 9 rounds) in 2000 and 2001 achieved the 1.0 ppm cleanup goal, except in one location in the northern sector. Further excavation and removal was not possible due to groundwater influx.
 
Community Church

The Community Church area, located in the town center, includes individual sites (A1, A2, A3, B, C, and E), residential/ private property, a baseball field, and an area north of the former Head Start building.
Past

Present/Future
Yes

Yes
(Exposure is expected to be minimal because PCB levels in soil are now less than 1 ppm, due to remediation.)
Adults/Children: recreational activities such as gardening or playing at the former Head Start building, former baseball field, or homes; attending church functions

Adults: maintenance activities such as landscaping
Incidental ingestion
Dermal contact
Dust inhalation

Remedial Actions



Excavation was conducted during July 1997. All PCB-contaminated soil over 10 ppm was removed from the site.
In 2000 and 2001, excavation and four rounds of sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met.
 
Tanapag Beach

Located along the western shoreline of the village, this area includes individual sites (Z, AA, BB, CC, and RR), and areas near the Community Center and the Orange Pavilion (Sites SS/TT).
Past

Present/ Future
Yes

Yes
(Exposure is expected to be minimal because PCB levels in soil are now less than 1 ppm, due to remediation.)
Adults/Children: recreational activities such as playing on the beach or picnicking at the park
Adults: repairing fishing nets
Incidental ingestion
Dermal contact
Dust inhalation

Remedial Actions



Sites Z, AA, and BB: PCB levels were detected at or below 10 ppm, therefore, no remediation was conducted.
Sites CC and RR: Areas were excavated and confirmatory soil samples collected were below 2 ppm. Dioxins were detected in a sample and an additional 22 tons of soil was removed in order to address the dioxin contamination.
In 2000 and 2001, excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met at all sites (Z, AA, BB, CC).
 
Cemetery 2

Cemetery 2 is located approximately 0.75 miles south of Tanapag Village. Along with the cemetery, this area includes residential/private property and the Handsome Garment Factory.
Past

Present/ Future
Yes

Yes
(Exposure is expected to be minimal because PCB levels in soil are now less than 1 ppm, due to remediation.)
Adults/Children: recreational activities such as gardening or playing at homes; visiting grave sites at the cemetery

Adults: maintenance activities such as landscaping or digging graves
Incidental ingestion
Dermal contact
Dust inhalation

Remedial Actions



Remediation activities for Cemetery 2 began in 1992. During August 1997 and May 1998 removal of PCB contaminated soil piles, which contained capacitor parts, was conducted.
Between September 2000 and September 2002, approximately 7,800 cubic yards of soil and debris were cleared. The PCB action level of 1 ppm was achieved.
Cemetery 2 is an active cemetery. Several graves have been added since investigations began.
Other Tanapag Village Locations

This area consists of PCB contamination throughout Tanapag Village, including Sites NN, MM, PP, QQ, residential/private property (Property 65 and Site UU), and St. Lourdes Store.
Past
Present/ Future
Yes

Yes
(Exposure is expected to be minimal because PCB levels in soil are now less than 1 ppm, due to remediation.)
Adults/Children: recreational activities such as gardening or playing at homes

Adults: maintenance activities such as landscaping
Incidental ingestion
Dermal contact
Dust inhalation

Remedial Actions



Site NN was excavated in 1992 and 1997 to achieve the 10 ppm action level for PCBs. In 2000 and 2001, excavation and sampling confirmed that the 1 ppm PCB action level was met at all sites

Sampling in 1992 found PCBs at concentrations less than 0.2 ppm at Sites MM, PP, and QQ. As a result, no remediation was conducted.

Planters containing elevated PCBs were removed from Property 65 and Site UU.
Samples from two homes (Property 65 and Site UU) were collected from planter boxes. Residents had unknowingly filled the planter boxes with PCB-contaminated soil.
EATING LOCALLY OBTAINED FOOD ITEMS
Entire Village Past
Present/ Future
Yes (minimal exposures)

Yes (minimal exposures)
Adults and/or children who consume food items (e.g., land crabs, vegetables, or other food items exposed to soil) Ingestion (Consuming local food items that have been in contact with contaminated soil.) Several local food items (i.e., fish, clams, taro, yams, eggs, and land crabs) were collected and analyzed for PCBs (May 2000). PCBs were not detected in any fish, clam, or chicken egg samples analyzed. Very low concentrations of PCBs were detected in yams and taro.

During initial sampling (May 2000), PCBs were detected in five of the eight land crabs sampled with a maximum concentration of 0.39 ppm. An additional 92 land crabs were sampled in December 2000 as a follow up to the May 2000 multi-matrix sampling effort. PCBs were found in land crabs collected from Cemetery 2 and Tanapag Beach areas, but at levels below those of public health concern. .
 
CONTACTING SURFACE WATER OR SEDIMENT
Entire Village Past
Present /Future
No(surface water)

Yes (sediment)

No(surface water)

Yes (sediment)
Adults and children participating in recreational activities such as swimming, wading, or fishing. Incidental ingestion
Dermal contact
Four surface water samples and six sediment samples were collected during May 2000. PCBs were not detected in any of the surface water samples. PCBs were found in two of the sediment samples (0.005 and 0.32 ppm). No further actions are planned. Detected concentrations of PCBs in sediment were below the action level of 1 ppm and below levels of health concern.
DRINKING OR USING GROUNDWATER
Entire Village Past
Present/ Future
No

No
No one exposed No one exposed A total of 21 groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells and water supply wells in May 2000. PCBs were not detected in any of the samples collected.
Additional monitoring wells have been/are being installed to further characterize groundwater.
No PCBs were found in groundwater, therefore, no exposures are occurring. This is considered an incomplete pathway.
Notes:

PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
ppm parts per million


Table 8.

Serum PCBa distribution by consumption of land crab caught in Tanapag.
  0 meals/week
(n = 383)
1-2 meals/week
(n = 275)
3-5 meals/week
(n = 290)
5 + meals/week
(n = 98)
Mean 1.83 1.84 2.24 2.71
90th percentile 2.0 3.0 4.0 7.0
95th percentile 4.8 5.0 7.0 9.4
a in parts per billion.


Table 9.

Relative risk of having detectable serum PCB concentrations (<= 5 ppb) for those reporting past contact with capacitors, capacitor oils, or contaminated soil.
  No. < 5 ppb serum PCB No. >= 5 ppb serum PCB Crude risk estimate Adjusteda risk estimate (95% CI)
Land crab
< 3 meals/wk
3 + meals/wk
626
349
32
39
2.1 1.5 (0.9-2.8)
Ever touched capacitors
No
Yes
633
342
32
39
2.3 1.2 (0.7-2.2)
Ever touched oil from capacitors
No
Yes
841
134
55
16
1.8 1.1 (0.6-2.3)
Ever bring capacitors home
No
Yes
957
18
65
6
4.9 2.1 (0.6-7.0)
Ever burn or use a burned capacitor
No
Yes
958
17
66
5
4.3 1.7 (0.4-6.9)
Ever touch soil near capacitor
No
Yes
817
158
51
20
2.0 0.9 (0.4-1.7)
Ever bring soil from cemetery home
No
Yes
863
112
55
16
2.2 1.6 (0.8-3.3)
Ever dig a grave in Cemetery 2
No
Yes
699
276
29
42
3.7 2.1 (1.0-4.3)
Ever tend a grave in Cemetery 2
No
Yes
284
691
13
58
1.8 1.7 (0.8-3.6)
a Reporting odds ratios from logistic regression to approximate the risk estimate, adjusting for age, sex, triglycerides, and cholesterol


Table 10.

Comparison of Total vs. Congener-specific Serum PCB Sampling Results.
Subject Number Total serum PCB1,Whole weight (ppb) Congener-specific serum PCB2 (ppb) Total PCB lipid adjusted (ppb) Congener lipid adjusted(ppb)
1 16.5 20.3 1.2 1.6
2 16.6 12.5 1.6 2.1
3 9.7 6.6 Not available 0.5
4 9.4 11.9 0.8 1.2
5 12.0 7.9 1.2 0.9
6 14.0 5.5 1.1 0.7
7 9.1 9.0 1.4 1.3
8 10.0 3.6 1.1 0.6
9 20.0 20.3 2.8 3.1
10 24.8 34.7 2.7 3.0
11 9.0 5.8 1.3 0.9
12 9.7 8.5 0.7 1.1
13 9.3 3.5 0.8 0.5


1. June 2000 serum sampling: Total PCB, whole weight (as Aroclor 1260). National Medical Labs/ Smith Kline.
2. October 2001 serum sampling: Sum of PCB congeners. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Statistical analysis of lipid adjusted serum PCB results.
t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means
  PCB Total PCB Congener
Mean 1.38 1.41
Variance 0.45 0.78
Observations 12 12
Pearson Correlation Coefficient 0.89  
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0  
df 11  
t Stat -0.23  
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.41  
t Critical one-tail 1.79  


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