PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
BATAVIA, GENESEE COUNTY, NEW YORK
To evaluate if a site poses an existing or potential hazard to the exposed or potentially exposedpopulation(s), the site conditions are characterized. This site characterization involves a reviewof sampling data for environmental media (e.g., soil, surface water, groundwater, air), both on-and off-site, and an evaluation of the physical conditions of the contaminant sources or physicalhazards at and near the site which may pose an additional health risk to the community orreceptor population(s).
Contaminants selected for further evaluation are identified based upon consideration of thefollowing factors:
- Concentrations of contaminant(s) in environmental media both on- and off-site;
- Field data quality, laboratory data quality, and sample design;
- Comparison of on-site and off-site concentrations in environmental media with typicalbackground levels;
- Comparison of contaminant concentrations in environmental media both on- and off-site withhealth assessment comparison values. Comparison values include Environmental MediaEvaluation Guides (EMEGs), Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), drinking water standardsand other relevant guidelines; and
- Community health concerns.
The selected contaminant(s) are evaluated in the Public Health Implications section(Toxicological Evaluation) of the Public Health Assessment (PHA) to determine whetherexposure to these chemicals is of public health significance.
The On-site Contamination and the Off-site Contamination subsections include discussions ofsampling data for environmental media; summary tables of sampling data are presented inAppendix 2. A listed contaminant does not necessarily mean that it will cause adverse healtheffects from exposure. If a chemical is selected for further evaluation in one medium, thatcontaminant will be reported in all media, where it is detected.
Tables 1-4 (Appendix B) summarize sampling data for groundwater, surface water, sediment,subsurface soil and waste material. Elevated levels of VOCs and metals were found in all on-sitemedia that were sampled. Monitoring at the site began in 1980 with the collection ofgroundwater samples. In 1982, additional groundwater samples were collected from the on-sitemonitoring wells. During the RI which began in 1985, samples were collected from all mediaon-site, except air, and also from residential and municipal wells (see Off-Site Contaminationsection). Eight sampling rounds were conducted between September 1985 and July 1988 withadditional groundwater and sediment samples collected in 1991.
During the RI three on-site water bearing zones were evaluated. The three zones included theupper fill/soil or perched zone, the lower soil zone, and the upper bedrock zone. Confininglayers exist between each water bearing zone; however, the layers are not continuous over theentire site and groundwater migration between each water bearing zone is likely. This interactionbetween zones is evident by the distribution of on-site groundwater contamination (see Table 1). Groundwater samples were collected from the forty on-site monitoring wells and were analyzedfor VOCs, semi-volatile organic compounds, pesticides/polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) andmetals. VOCs and metals were found in all water bearing zones, with the upper fill/soil andlower soil zones showing the highest levels of contamination. Contamination by VOCs in thesezones was as high as 13,000 micrograms per liter (mcg/L) and metal contamination was as highas 661,000 mcg/L. In the upper bedrock zone, VOCs were at levels up to 96 mcg/L and metals atlevels up to 96,300 mcg/L.
Subsurface Soil and Waste Material
Subsurface soil and waste samples were collected and analyzed for VOCs, semi-volatile organiccompounds, pesticides/PCBs and metals (see Table 2). Although contamination is not confinedto specific areas on-site, the highest concentrations of contaminants were found in two areas atdepths of 3.5 feet and greater. VOCs were found primarily at the northern part of the site whereburied drums were found. Chromium and lead were also found at elevated levels in the burieddrum area. The highest levels of metal contamination were found at the eastern side of the site inthe magnesium/chromium waste pit area. A test boring in the center of the site showed barium tobe elevated. The waste materials are covered.
Surface Water and Sediment
Surface water (unfiltered) and sediment samples were collected from drainage ditches around theperimeter of the site and from areas of ponded water on-site. Surface water contaminants werefound in ponded water at the west side of the site. VOCs were at levels up to 240 mcg/L andmetals at levels up to 19,800 mcg/L (see Table 3). Sediment contained VOCs at levels up to 0.52milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), total phenols at levels up to 5.3 mg/kg, and metals at levels upto 31,200 mg/kg (see Table 4). Contaminants selected for further evaluation are identified withan asterisk.
Off-site groundwater samples were collected on eight different occasions between December1982 and January 1992 (Table 5). The Village of Oakfield municipal wells and the trailer parknearest to the site were sampled in 1982 by a private consulting firm. The samples wereanalyzed for 113 organic priority pollutants. Total phenols and trichlorofluoromethane werereported in these groundwater samples; however, those contaminants have not been found insubsequent samples. During the RI, groundwater samples were collected from the Village ofOakfield municipal wells, the trailer park and thirteen residential wells and analyzed for VOCs,semi-volatile organic compounds, pesticides/PCBs and metals. VOCs were found atconcentrations up to 240 mcg/L and iron was found at levels exceeding New York Stategroundwater quality standards (see Table 5). The NYS DOH collected off-site groundwatersamples in May 1989, August 1991, October 1991, and January 1992. Groundwater sampleswere collected from the Village of Oakfield municipal wells, two trailer parks and forty-fiveresidential wells and analyzed for VOCs. One residential well sample contained 1,1,1-trichloroethane at 6 mcg/L which exceeds the NYS DOH's drinking water standard; no other wellcontained contaminants above New York State standards. The New York State and federaldrinking water standards and guidelines are presented in Table 6.
Surface Water and Sediment
In March and July of 1988 surface water and sediment samples were collected from GallowaySwamp where it borders the site to the north and east. The majority of the surface watercontaminants (see Table 3) were found in samples from the part of the Galloway Swamp whichborders the site on the north. VOCs were present in concentrations up to 12,000 mcg/L andmetals in concentrations up to 1,570,000 mcg/L. The sediment contaminants (Table 4) wereprimarily found in samples collected from the Galloway Swamp. VOCs were found inconcentrations up to 2.3 mg/kg and metals in concentrations up to 362,000 mg/kg.
In preparing this public health assessment, ATSDR and NYS DOH rely on the information in thereferenced documents and assume that adequate quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC)measures were followed with regard to chain-of-custody, laboratory procedures, and datareporting. The validity of the analysis and conclusions drawn for this public health assessment isdetermined by the completeness and reliability of that information.
A summary of the field QA/QC procedures, a general description of sample collectionprocedures and chain-of-custody forms were included in the draft remedial investigation report. The laboratory data quality, including all laboratory QA/QC procedures, data validation and datareporting, was not included in the report. However, it is assumed for the purposes of this publichealth assessment that the data provided for review are of acceptable quality.
During a site visit in 1985, drums were seen on the landfill surface and scattered about the site. About 55 drums were in the center of the site, about 80 drums were along the western boundaryof the site and about 14 drums were along the northern boundary of the site. In October 1991,632 drums (mostly empty) were removed from the surface of the site and transported topermitted facilities for disposal. With the exception of a gate to restrict vehicular access, thereare no other barriers to restrict access to the site. However, the likelihood of unauthorized accessis minimal because of the remote location of the site.
One hazard associated with the Batavia Landfill site is methane in landfill gas. Methane canmigrate through porous media as soil gas and enter confined building spaces (basements) throughcrawl spaces, plumbing holes, other floor holes (e.g., sumps) and foundation cracks. Thepotential for methane to collect in a confined space is of concern as this condition may result in aflammable/explosive atmosphere and hence be a safety problem. Monitoring of ambient air on-site and at nearby residences has not been performed to determine if methane and other siterelated contaminants are present at levels which could present a health risk.
To identify possible facilities that could contribute to contamination near the Batavia Landfill,the NYS DOH searched the 1989 Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI). TRI is developed bythe US EPA from the chemical release (air, water and soil) information provided by thoseindustries that are required to report contaminant emissions and releases on an annual basis. Nofacilities were listed within 2.5 miles of this site. TRI will not be discussed further in this publichealth assessment.
This section of the public health assessment (PHA) identifies potential and completed exposurepathways associated with past, present and future use of the site. An exposure pathway is theprocess by which an individual may be exposed to contaminants originating from a site. Anexposure pathway is comprised of five elements, including: (1) a contaminant source; (2)environmental media and transport mechanisms; (3) a point of exposure; (4) a route of exposure;and (5) a receptor population.
The source of contamination is the source of contaminant release to the environment (any wastedisposal area or point of discharge); if the original source is unknown, it is the environmentalmedia (soil, air, biota, water) which are contaminated at the point of exposure. Environmentalmedia and transport mechanisms "carry" contaminants from the source to points where humanexposure may occur. The exposure point is a location where actual or potential human contactwith a contaminated medium may occur. The route of exposure is the manner in which acontaminant actually enters or contacts the body (i.e., ingestion, inhalation, dermal adsorption). The receptor population is the persons who are exposed or may be exposed to contaminants at apoint of exposure.
Two types of exposure pathways are evaluated in the PHA; a completed exposure pathway existswhen the criteria for all five elements of an exposure pathway are documented; a potentialexposure pathway exists when the criteria for any one of the five elements comprising anexposure pathway is not met. An exposure pathway is considered to be eliminated when any oneof the five elements comprising an exposure pathway has not existed in the past, does not exist inthe present and will never exist in the future.
Completed pathways indicate that exposure to a contaminant has occurred in the past, is currentlyoccurring, or will occur in the future. Potential pathways indicate that exposure to a contaminantcould have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or could occur in the future. Thediscussion that follows incorporates only those pathways that are important and relevant to thesite.
Groundwater is contaminated in three water producing aquifers at the site, the upper fill/soilzone, the lower soil zone and the upper bedrock zone. Groundwater contamination has beendetected on-site in all three aquifers (see Table 1). The aquifers are connected and groundwaterflows radially out from the site. Groundwater is not being used on-site.
Groundwater contamination has been detected off-site in private residential wells east and southof the site. Low level contamination (at or below NYS DOH drinking water standards) persistsin at least fourteen private residential wells as determined by the most recent sampling ofhousehold tap water performed during January 1992. Exposures to contaminants in groundwateroccur via ingestion; dermal contact and absorption during showering, bathing, or other householduses; and inhalation of aerosols and vapors from water used in the household. When providingthe private well data to the residents, NYS DOH has suggested means to minimize humanexposure from occurring via this exposure pathway.
Although contaminants were reported in off-site groundwater samples collected in 1982 from theVillage of Oakfield municipal wells and the trailer park near the site, VOCs have not been foundin subsequent samples. If site use changes or remedial work does not eliminate the migration ofcontaminants in groundwater, future exposures could occur. Therefore, on-site groundwatermust be monitored routinely to identify all trends or changes in the migration and concentrationof contaminants.
Subsurface Soil and Waste Material
Although site access is not restricted, it is highly unlikely that trespassers could be exposed to on-site soil and waste material contaminants which are covered with at least three to four feet of soil. However, if the site were to be excavated and used for residential development, future residentscould be exposed to these contaminants through soil ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact. Inaddition, if residential gardening were to occur, then residents would also be exposed byingestion of vegetables grown in contaminated soil.
If future remedial activities and/or future on-site excavations are conducted, workers could beexposed to contaminants by direct (skin) contact, inhalation and accidental ingestion. Futureexposures to site workers would be minimized if appropriate health and safety guidelines arefollowed.
Surface Water and Sediment
Contaminants are present in both on-site and off-site surface waters and sediments. Unauthorized users of the site may be exposed to contaminants in on-site surface waters andsediments via direct skin contact, accidental ingestion and inhalation. However, trespassers areunlikely to enter the site. Persons engaged in recreational activities in the adjacent wetlands maybe exposed to site contaminants in wetland sediments and surface waters.
Groundwater is used to irrigate food crops near the site. However, the contaminants ingroundwater are not likely to accumulate in the food chain. The contaminants of concern in off-site groundwater are VOC's and iron. VOCs evaporate from water readily, especially whensprayed. The irrigation technique for the food crops is spraying. Also, the food crops are grownin the summer time, when temperatures are higher, which would increase the volatilization ofVOCs from irrigation water. Iron is normally found in soil at 10,000 to 40,000 mg/kg. Althoughthe water may contribute additional iron to the soil, it will be minimal compared to the amountalready there. Iron is a contaminant of concern in groundwater because of taste and odorconsiderations in drinking water and not because of possible health effects. As a result, thetransfer of contaminants from the groundwater to the irrigated crops is not a concern. Therefore,this pathway has been eliminated from further discussion in this public health assessment.
An analysis of the toxicological implications of the human exposure pathways of concern ispresented below. To evaluate the potential health risks from contaminants of concern associatedwith the Batavia Landfill site, the NYS DOH has assessed the risks for cancer and noncancerhealth effects. The health effects are related to contaminant concentration, exposure pathway,exposure frequency and duration. For additional information on how the NYS DOH determinedand qualified health risks applicable to this health assessment, see Appendix F.
- Past Ingestion, Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) andIron in Municipal, Private or Trailer Park Water Supply Wells.
For an undetermined period of time (less than 21 years), the Village of Oakfield municipal wells,a trailer park well and a number of residential wells near the Batavia Landfill site werecontaminated with volatile organic chemicals (see Table 5). These wells were sampled between1982-1992. Contaminant levels in drinking water prior to this sampling are not known. Levelsof methylene chloride (10 mcg/L), trichloroethene (20 mcg/L), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (240mcg/L), trans-1,2-dichloroethene (7.1 mcg/L), and trichlorofluoromethane (11 mcg/L) werefound to exceed New York State public drinking water standards for each of these VOCs (seeTable 6). Chronic exposure to chemicals in drinking water is possible by ingestion, dermalcontact and inhalation from water uses such as showering, bathing and cooking. Althoughexposure varies depending on an individual's lifestyle, each of these exposure routes contributesto the overall daily uptake of contaminants and thus increases the potential for chronic healtheffects.
Methylene chloride and trichloroethene (ATSDR, 1991 d,e) have caused cancer in laboratoryanimals exposed to high levels over their lifetimes. Chemicals that cause cancer in laboratoryanimals may also increase the risk of cancer in humans who are exposed to lower levels overlong periods of time. Whether or not these two VOCs cause cancer in humans is not known. Based on the results of animal studies and limited sampling of private water supply wells, it isestimated that persons exposed to drinking water contaminated with methylene chloride andtrichloroethene could have a low increased risk of developing cancer. Toxicological data areinadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroetheneand trichlorofluoromethane, (ATSDR, 1989b, 1990e, US EPA, 1991).
1,1,1-Trichloroethane is known to damage the nervous system, liver and cardiovascular system atexposure concentrations several orders of magnitude greater than those measured in these privatewater supply wells. Methylene chloride, trichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichloroethene andtrichlorofluoro-methane are known to produce noncarcinogenic toxic effects, primarily to thenervous system, the liver and the kidneys, at exposures several orders of magnitude greater thanexposure from these private and municipal wells. Chemicals that cause effects in humans and/oranimals after high levels of exposure may also pose a risk to humans who are exposed to lowerlevels over long periods of time. Although the risks of noncarcino-genic effects from pastexposures are not completely understood, the existing data suggest that they are minimal forthese VOCs.
The health risks from ingesting iron at the highest levels found in drinking water (3,230 mcg/L)are minimal. Iron is an essential nutrient but ingestion of extremely large amounts can lead toaccumulation in the body and to tissue damage. Its presence in drinking water, however, isobjectionable primarily due to its affect on taste and staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures(WHO, 1984).
- Present Ingestion, Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to VOCs in Private Water Supply Wells.
The NYS DOH has collected off-site groundwater samples periodically since 1989. Groundwater samples have been collected from the Village of Oakfield drinking water municipalwells, two trailer parks and forty-five residential wells and analyzed for VOCs. Low levelcontamination (at or below NYS DOH drinking water standards) persists in at least fourteenprivate residential wells as determined by the most recent samplings of household tap waterperformed during October 1991 and January 1992. One residential well contained 1,1,1-trichloroethane at 6 mcg/L which slightly exceeds the NYS drinking water standard of 5 mcg/L,but is less than the U.S. EPA drinking water standard of 200 mcg/L. The toxicological propertiesof 1,1,1-trichloroethane have already been discussed. Although the risk of adverse health effectsfrom long-term exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane in drinking water at 6 mcg/L are not completelyunderstood, the existing data suggest that they are minimal.
The following discussions of the toxicological properties and associated health concerns for thesite contaminants addressed below relate only to potential human exposure pathways (i.e., ifhuman exposures were to occur). This is also true for items 4, 5 and 6 of this subsection, whichdiscuss health concerns associated with potential human exposure pathways to site-relatedcontamination.
- Potential Ingestion, Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Contaminants in Drinking Water as aResult of Contaminant Plume Migration.
As indicated in Table 1, on-site groundwater is contaminated with organic chemicals and metalsat concentrations that exceed New York State groundwater and/or drinking water standards orguidelines. Municipal and private drinking water supply wells close to the site, therefore, couldbecome contaminated from on-site groundwater by plume migration. Although dilution ofcontaminants in drinking water may occur during plume migration, it is also possible that themeasured levels were not the maximum levels that could have been found in on-site groundwaterif additional monitoring had been done. Thus, it is reasonable to use the highest contaminantlevels detected in on-site groundwater to determine potential health risks to users of off-siteprivate and municipal wells (see below).
Vinyl chloride and benzene are known human carcinogens (ATSDR, 1991 b,f). Chronicexposure to the highest level of vinyl chloride and benzene could pose high and low increasedcancer risks, respectively. Trichloroethene and 1,1-dichloroethane cause cancer in laboratoryanimals exposed to high levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1990c, d; 1991e). Based on theresults of animal studies, chronic exposure to 1,1-dichloroethane at the highest levels found inon-site groundwater could pose a moderate increased cancer risk, whereas exposure totrichloroethene at the highest levels found could pose a low risk. Toxicological data areinadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of acetone, 2-butanone, chloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, 4-methyl-phenol, phenols, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and xylenes (ATSDR, 1989a, b, c; 1990b, c, e, f, h, i; US EPA, 1991).
The chlorinated contaminants, as well as acetone, 2-butanone, the phenols, toluene andethylbenzene produce noncarcinogenic toxic effects primarily to the liver, the kidneys and thenervous system. Benzene is known to cause damage to blood-cell forming tissues and to theimmune system (ATSDR, 1991b). Except for vinyl chloride, all these contaminants producetheir effects following exposures which are several orders of magnitude greater than the potentialexposure to on-site groundwater at the Batavia Landfill site. The existing data suggest that therisks of noncarcinogenic health effects could be high for vinyl chloride and 2-butanone and lowfor combined exposure to all the other contaminants already noted to be present in on-sitegroundwater.
Metal contaminants of potential concern in on-site groundwater include arsenic, barium, lead,magnesium, manganese and iron. The following is a summary of the potential health effectsfrom exposure to these metals. Arsenic can cause nerve, liver, blood vessel damage andbehavioral problems including learning and hearing deficiencies (ATSDR, 1991a). Chronicarsenic poisoning is characterized by a distinct pattern of skin abnormalities. Chronic exposureto lead is predominantly associated with neurological and hematological effects (ATSDR, 1991c). The developing fetus and young children are particularly sensitive to lead-inducedneurological effects. Ingestion of high concentrations of barium may cause cardiovasculareffects, including increased blood pressure, damage to heart muscle and changes in heart rhythmand also has been associated with kidney, neurological and gastrointestinal effects (ATSDR, 1990a). Exposure to high manganese concentrations primarily causes nervous system effects(ATSDR, 1990g). Magnesium is an essential element in human nutrition and magnesium saltsare used extensively in antacids and laxatives. High levels of magnesium salts in drinking water(see Table 1) could have a laxative effect, particularly for new users, although the human bodycan adapt to this effect with time (NAS, 1977). Iron is an essential nutrient but ingestion ofextremely large amounts can lead to accumulation in the body and tissue damage. Its presence indrinking water, however, is objectionable primarily due to its affect on taste and staining oflaundry and plumbing fixtures (WHO, 1984). However, at the highest level of 141,000 mg/Liron could cause adverse health effects in infants (Henretig and Temple, 1984). Exposure todrinking water contaminated with lead, manganese and barium at concentrations found in on-sitegroundwater would pose a high increased risk of adverse health effects, whereas the increasedrisk from exposure to arsenic would be moderate.
- Potential Ingestion, Inhalation and Dermal Exposure of Persons Coming in Contact with On-Site Soil and Waste Material.
If the Batavia Landfill site were excavated and developed for residential use, future residentscould be exposed to contaminants in on-site soil and waste materials which could pose a highhealth risk particularly if residential gardening were to occur. The primary contaminants ofconcern would be arsenic, lead and chromium. The toxicological properties of arsenic and leadhave already been discussed. The primary toxic effects associated with ingestion of largeamounts of chromium have been kidney damage, birth defects and adverse effects on thereproductive system (ATSDR, 1991c).
- Potential Inhalation, Dermal and Ingestion Exposure of Persons Engaged in On-Site Clean-UpActivities and Nearby Residents to Contaminated Soil.
Persons engaged in on-site clean-up (remediation) activities have a potential for exposure bymultiple routes to organic and metal contaminants (Table 2). However, use of proper procedures,appropriate dust suppression methods and monitoring of ambient air for organic vapors duringclean-up would minimize any low level increased risk to clean-up workers and nearby residents.
- Potential Ingestion, Dermal and Inhalation Exposure of Persons Engaged in RecreationalActivities in Adjacent Wetlands.
As indicated in Table 4, the sediments contain metals, notably lead and chromium which couldpresent a high public health risk, particularly to children who could play in these areas on afrequent basis. Surface water from these wetlands contain metals and organic contaminants, butat levels which would pose a minimal risk of adverse health effects (see Table 3).
NYS DOH has not evaluated health outcome data for the Batavia Landfill site. Because thehealth risks have been low from exposure to contaminants in drinking water and the exposedpopulation is small, it is unlikely that any health effect(s) can be related to exposure usingcurrently available health outcome data bases. Therefore, health outcome databases will not besearched at this time. However, people exposed to VOCs in drinking water will be consideredfor addition to the NYS DOH registry being developed for VOC exposures from drinking water. Periodically, this registry will be matched with the cancer registry and the congenitalmalformations registry to evaluate possible adverse health outcome.
We have addressed each of the community concerns about health as follows:
- Are the Village of Oakfield municipal wells impacted by contaminants migrating from the siteand is there evidence to indicate that contamination has reached the municipal wells?
Although in 1982 the municipal wells were reported to be contaminated withtrichlorofluoromethane, subsequent samples from the municipal wells have not beencontaminated. Monitoring wells BL-16R and BL-25R are located between the landfill and themunicipal wells. Regular sampling of these monitoring wells will provide an early warning ofthe migration of contaminants towards the municipal wells. If contamination is found in themonitoring wells, appropriate action to protect the public water supply would be taken. Inaddition, routine monitoring that is mandated by New York State will detect contamination in themunicipal wells. All data generated from samples collected by the NYS DOH are maintained onfile in NYS DOH office in Albany, New York.
- Is the public water supply suitable for consumption by sensitive populations, such asnewborns, young children and the elderly?
Since the samples collected from the municipal wells by the NYS DOH have found nocontamination, the public water is suitable for all uses and by all members of the population.
- Should a new source of drinking water, further away from the landfill, be found?
The most recent data would indicate that a new source of drinking water that is located a greaterdistance from the landfill is not necessary. The NYS DOH will continue to monitor for thepresence of contaminants in the municipal wells on a routine basis. If contamination is detected,controls will be implemented to minimize human exposure from occurring and this question willbe re-addressed.
The residents using private wells near the site were concerned about the quality of thegroundwater which they use for drinking, cooking and bathing. Specifically, these concerns wereas follows:
- What contaminants are present in the off-site groundwater and at what concentration are theypresent?
The following contaminants have been found in samples of off-site groundwater: 1,1-dichloroethane, trans-1,2-dichloro-ethene, iron, methylene chloride, total phenols, tetrachloro-ethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene and trichloro-fluoromethane. The concentrationrange for these contaminants are identified in Table 5 (Appendix B).
- What are the potential health risks associated with contaminants found in off-sitegroundwater?
Some residents near the site have been exposed to contaminants in off-site groundwater. Although the risks of noncarcinogenic effects from these exposures are not completely understood, the existing data suggest that they are low for these chemicals. Further informationconcerning specific health effects can be found in the Public Health Implications section.
- What is the possibility of extending the public water supply to those areas near the site whichhave contaminated groundwater?The NYS DOH has recommended that the public water supply be made available to thoseresidents with contaminants in their private drinking water wells (see Appendix E). Thisrecommendation was forwarded to the US EPA for action. In response, the US EPA isperforming an accelerated focused feasibility study to determine the best manner in which toaddress off-site groundwater contamination. One possible solution is to extend public water tothose areas with contaminated groundwater.