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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CARROLL & DUBIES SEWAGE DISPOSAL
PORT JERVIS, ORANGE COUNTY, NEW YORK


ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS

The environmental contamination data from the RI for the Carroll and Dubies site aresummarized in Appendix B, Tables 1-5 . The listing of a contaminant does not necessarily meanthat its presence is a public health concern. Contaminants selected for further evaluation areidentified and evaluated in subsequent sections of the public health assessment to determinewhether exposure to them has public health significance. When selected as a contaminant ofconcern in one medium, that contaminant will be reported in all media where it is detected. These contaminants are selected and discussed based upon consideration of the following factors:

  1. Concentrations of contaminants on and off the site.
  2. Field data quality, laboratory data quality, and sample design.
  3. Comparison of on-site and off-site concentrations with typical background concentrations.
  4. Comparison of contaminant concentrations in environmental media both on- and off-site withpublic health assessment comparison values for (1) noncarcinogenic endpoints, and (2)carcinogenic endpoints. Contaminant concentrations above a comparison value do not necessaryrepresent a health threat but are evaluated further to determine if exposure is of public healthsignificance. Comparison values include Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs),Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), drinking water standards, and other relevantguidelines.
  5. Community health concerns.

A. On-site contamination

Samples taken during the remedial investigation include shallow and subsurface soil, lagoonsurface water and sludge, and groundwater.

Shallow Soil (0 to 6 inches)

The shallow soil samples were taken only in areas that were possible "ramps" for the lagoons. The samples were taken to evaluate whether shallow soils were contaminated when thesemi-liquid sludge mixture was dumped into the lagoons. The results of these samples arepresented in Tables 1A and 1B along with comparison values for potential trespasser exposureand potential residential exposure respectively. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs as Aroclor1254), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, lead and mercury were elevated above soil comparison values forpotential residential exposure in some samples.

Shallow soil sampling has not been done in the area near the covered lagoons. These soils mayhave become contaminated during disturbance and covering of the lagoons.

Subsurface Soil (2 to 22 feet)

Subsurface soil samples were taken within the covered lagoons and in the berms surrounding thetwo lagoons which remain undisturbed. The samples were taken at varying depths, from 2 to 22feet deep. Soil samples contained volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, cadmium,chromium, lead and mercury at concentrations above comparison values for potential residentialexposure (Table 2).

Surface Water and Sludge

At the time of the remedial investigation sampling, only one of the lagoons contained surfacewater. One surface water sample was taken. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 4-chloroaniline andlead were elevated above comparison values for potential trespasser exposure (Table 3C). Sludge samples were taken from both intact lagoons. Near-surface and subsurface sludgesamples were collected. Volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, cadmium and mercurywere elevated above comparison values in some of the sludge samples for potential residentialexposure (Table 3B).

On-site movement of surface water runoff has not been evaluated. Some of the runoff reachesthe lagoons, but other runoff may reach on-site depressions or ditches.

Groundwater - On-Site Monitoring Wells

Monitoring wells were installed downgradient of the two intact lagoons and the five coveredlagoons. For the purposes of the health assessment, on-site wells are defined as those wells westand north of the towpath. On-site well locations are shown in Figure 2. Groundwater data fromthe February 1994 Supplemental Hydrogeologic Remedial Investigation is summarized in Table4. Certain volatile organic compounds, and chromium and lead were above drinking waterstandards and/or comparison values for potential residential exposures. Table 4 showsgroundwater data from the monitoring wells.

Groundwater - Private Wells

An on-site private well which serves the Carroll and Dubies office was sampled by the OrangeCounty Department of Health in December of 1987 and was analyzed by the NYS DOH labs. The well is 400 feet deep, is hydraulically upgradient of the lagoons, and draws water from thebedrock aquifer. The well water sample was analyzed for volatile and semi-volatile organiccompounds, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals. Metals were within thetypical background range and below comparison values. No organic compounds were detectedexcept for 0.1 microgram per liter of the PCB compound Aroclor 1016/1242. This PCBcompound which was detected in the well water is found in older submersible pumps and can bedetected in well water if the pump leaks or fails. Aroclor 1016/1242 was not found in othermedia on-site. The well was resampled in July 1993 and the sample was analyzed for volatileorganic compounds and metals. No volatile organic compounds were detected and metals werebelow comparison values. The well is currently used for the office bathroom, occasionaldrinking, and for truck washing.

Ambient Air

No ambient air data has been collected for the site. However, readings from fieldinstrumentation which measure volatile organics were taken across the entire site. No readingabove background was noted. Because the contamination at the site is primarily subsurface,ambient air effects are not anticipated.

B. Off-site Contamination

Groundwater - Off-Site Monitoring Wells

Off-site monitoring wells were installed downgradient of the two intact lagoons and the fivecovered lagoons. Off-site wells are defined as those south and east of the towpath (Figure 2). Groundwater data from the February 1994 Supplemental Hydrogeologic Remedial Investigationis summarized in Table 5. Certain volatile organic compounds, and chromium and lead wereabove drinking water standards and/or comparison values for potential residential exposure.

Groundwater - Private Wells

One private residential well, about 3500 feet south of the site in the general direction ofgroundwater flow, was sampled by the NYS DOH in July 1991. Two other private residentialwells, about 2000 feet southeast of the site were sampled in July 1993. These samples wereanalyzed for volatile organics and metals. No organics were detected and metals were belowcomparison values in all three samples.

A shallow well which serves the Orange County solid waste transfer station was also sampled inJuly 1993. The well was originally a monitoring well for the Port Jervis landfill, and is on thewest side of the canal towpath, across from the transfer station. The well serves the bathroom(sink and toilet) at the transfer station, and the water is not used for drinking. Drinking water isbrought in by the transfer station workers and is from a public drinking water supply in PortJervis. This well is not downgradient of the Carroll and Dubies site, and is likely to beinfluenced by the Port Jervis Landfill or other waste and fill materials near the towpath. Novolatile organic compounds were detected. Iron and manganese were detected at concentrationsabove drinking water standards and manganese was at levels exceeding public health assessmentcomparison values. The elevated levels of iron and manganese are not believed to be related tothe Carroll and Dubies site.

Two wells which are used by the sand and gravel operation were also sampled. These wells areabout 2,000 feet southwest of the site. One well is used for drinking and bathroom facilities theother is used for non-contact cooling water. No volatile organic compounds were detected andmetals were less than comparison values.

No other off-site sampling has been done.

C. Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC)

The remedial investigation was done in accordance with US EPA Quality Assurance and QualityControl (QA/QC) guidelines. Except for data from samples taken of drinking water, only datafrom the remedial investigation were used to prepare this public health assessment. US EPA dataquality review summaries indicated minor QA/QC problems in the remedial investigation. Theproblems were not sufficient to alter the interpretations of the data in this public healthassessment. However, the PCB analytical data for the subsurface lagoon sludge samples wereidentified as a concern, and the values presented in the data table should be viewed as minimalconcentrations. Samples taken and analyzed by the NYS DOH were subject to the DOH QA/QCprocedures. Analytical techniques followed US EPA methodology as adapted by the NYS DOHWadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research. No problems were identified.

D. Physical and Other Hazards.

The junk cars that are on-site may present a slight physical hazard. However, the junk cars arenext to the office and are beyond the locked gate. The two lagoons on-site sometimes containsurface water and may present a slight drowning hazard. However, this concern is reducedbecause these lagoons are surrounded by snow fences and are shallow with gentle slopes.

E. Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI)

To identify industrial facilities that could possibly contribute to site-related contaminants in soil,air, groundwater, and/or surface water at or near the Carroll and Dubies site, the NYS DOHsearched the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI has been developed by the USEPA from chemical release information provided by those industries that are required to reportcontaminant emissions and releases on an annual basis. NYS DOH is using TRI data for 1988through 1991 submitted by industrial facilities identified to be within a 2.5 mile radius of the site,as a means to evaluate other sources of additional health risk in the exposed population.

NYS DOH used the US EPA SCREEN model (US EPA, 1992a,b) to estimate if potentialcontaminant concentrations resulting from air emissions at a facility may be effecting community(receptor population) exposures to contaminants. This model uses information about the facilitylocation (distance from the exposed population) and annual air emission data to calculate theradial distance from the facility at which contaminant concentrations in ambient air have beendiluted to 1 microgram per cubic meter of air (mcg/m3). NYS DOH then evaluates what portion,if any, of the population living within this distance from the manufacturing facility may also beexposed to contaminants originating at the site. Three facilities were identified near the site,within 2.5 miles (Figure 3). Barrier Industries (2.2 miles from Carroll and Dubies) reported 1 to10 pounds per year of stack air emissions of glycol ethers in 1991 only. Skydyne (2.1 miles fromsite) reported 18,278 pounds of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 7674 pounds of 2-butanone per year oftotal air emissions in 1991. Kolmar Laboratories (1.6 miles from the site) reported no airemissions in 1988, 28,181 pounds per year of total air emissions of tetrachloroethene in 1989,and 17,951 pounds per year of total air emissions of tetrachloroethene in 1990. Results of thescreening evaluation indicate that air emissions from these facilities would not increasecontaminant levels in ambient air near the Carroll and Dubies site to levels above the screeningcriterion of 1 mcg/m3 for other compounds. Based on the results of this screening evaluation, thepublic health significance of contaminant emissions from TRI facilities as an additional source ofexposure to community exposures at the Carroll and Dubies site will not be further evaluated.

PATHWAYS ANALYSES

To determine whether nearby residents or persons on-site are exposed to contaminants on ormigrating from the site, an evaluation was made of the environmental and human componentsthat lead to human exposure. The pathways analysis consists of five elements: A source ofcontamination, transport through an environmental medium, a point of exposure, a route ofhuman exposure, and an exposed population.

An exposure pathway is categorized as a completed or potential exposure pathway if theexposure pathway cannot be eliminated. A completed exposure pathway occurs when the fiveelements of an exposure pathway link the contaminated source to a receptor population. Shoulda completed exposure pathway exist in the past, present, or future, the population is consideredexposed. A potential exposure pathway exists when one or more of the five elements is missing,or if modeling is performed to replace real sampling data. Potential pathways indicate thatexposure to a contaminant could have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or couldoccur in the future. An exposure pathway can be eliminated if at least one of the five elements ismissing and will never be present. The discussion that follows incorporates only those pathwaysthat are important and relevant to the site.

A. Completed Exposure Pathways

No completed exposure pathways have been identified for this site.

B. Potential Exposure Pathways

Shallow soil, surface water, near-surface sludge are contaminated with organic and inorganiccontaminants and are available for dermal contact and incidental ingestion. Although the site isnot completely fenced, a snow-fence surrounds the two uncovered waste lagoons. The site issomewhat remote from residential and commercial areas, so trespass is not likely to be frequent. On-site groundwater and surface water are also contaminated with organic chemicals and metals.

Soil

Persons trespassing on the Carroll and Dubies site could be exposed to elevated levels of volatileand semi-volatile organic compounds and metals in shallow soil via dermal contact andincidental ingestion. A list of these contaminants, the ranges of concentrations, the frequenciesof detection, and health assessment comparison values for potential trespasser exposure are inTable 1A. Lead is selected as a contaminant for further evaluation. If the site is developed forresidential purposes, the potential for exposures to these shallow soil contaminants couldincrease. A listing of health assessment comparison values for residential exposure to shallowsoil contaminants is in Table 1B.

Subsurface soils are contaminated with volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, and metals(chromium, lead and mercury), but under current conditions are not available for human contact. The soils are a continuing source of contamination to the groundwater. If the site weredeveloped for residential purposes, the subsurface soils could become available for humancontact. There are no known restrictions for residential development of the site. Future potentialexposure to subsurface soil contaminants could occur via dermal contact, incidental ingestionand contaminant uptake in homegrown fruits and vegetables. A list of subsurface soilcontaminants, the ranges of concentrations, the frequencies of detection, and health assessmentcomparison values for residential exposure are in Table 2.

Sludge

Persons trespassing on the Carroll and Dubies site could be exposed to elevated levels of volatileand semi-volatile organic compounds and metals in the near-surface sludge of on-site lagoons viadermal contact and incidental ingestion. A list of near-surface sludge contaminants, the ranges ofconcentrations, the frequencies of detection, and health assessment comparison values forpotential trespasser exposure are in Table 3A. Lead is selected as a contaminant for furtherevaluation. Subsurface sludge in the lagoon area is also contaminated with volatile andsemi-volatile organic compounds and metals. The subsurface sludge contaminants are notavailable for human contact under current site conditions. However, if the site is developed forresidential purposes, future potential exposure to contaminants in both near-surface sludge andsubsurface sludge could occur. A listing of sludge contaminants (near-surface and subsurface),the ranges of concentrations, the frequencies of detection, and health assessment comparisonvalues for residential exposure are in Table 3B.

Surface Water

Persons trespassing on the Carroll and Dubies site could be exposed to elevated levels of volatileand semi-volatile organic compounds and metals in surface water of the on-site lagoons viadermal contact and incidental ingestion. Trespass may occur occasionally, however, theremoteness of the site, the presence of the Carroll and Dubies office, the gate and the snowfencereduces the likelihood of significant trespass. A list of these contaminants, the ranges ofconcentrations, the frequencies of detection, and health assessment comparison values forpotential trespasser exposure are in Table 3C. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 4-chloroaniline, andlead are selected as contaminants for further evaluation.

Groundwater

Groundwater is contaminated with organic and inorganic compounds at concentrations abovecomparison values. A water supply well located on-site was not contaminated with compoundsat concentrations above comparison values when sampled in 1987 and 1993. There is currentlyno other use of the on-site groundwater. All human exposure pathways associated withcontaminated on-site groundwater are incomplete. Future potential exposures could occur if theon-site aquifer is developed as a potable water supply. A list of on-site groundwatercontaminants, the ranges of concentrations, the frequencies of detection, and health assessmentcomparison values for potential residential exposure are in Table 4. Contaminants selected forfurther evaluation include benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene, ethylbenzene, 4-methylphenol,tetrachloroethene, toluene, trichloroethene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene,xylene, cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury.

The nearest off-site private well is about 2,000 feet from the site. Contamination has not reachedany private wells to date, however, contamination from the site may affect wells in the future ifremedial measures are not taken. Elevated levels of organic and inorganic chemicals weredetected in groundwater monitoring wells 100 feet downgradient from two of the on-site lagoons. A list of off-site groundwater contaminants, the ranges of concentrations, the frequencies ofdetection, and health assessment comparison values for potential residential exposure are inTable 5. Contaminants selected for further evaluation include benzene, 1,2-dichloroethene,ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzne, vinylchloride, xylenes, chromium and lead.

PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

A. Toxicological Evaluation

No completed exposure pathways have been identified. An analysis of the toxicologicalimplications of the potential human exposure pathways of concern is presented below. Toevaluate the potential health risks from contaminants of concern associated with the Carroll andDubies site, the NYS DOH assessed the potential risks for cancer and noncancer health effects. The potential health risks are related to contaminant concentration, exposure pathway, exposurefrequency and duration. For additional information on how the NYS DOH determined andqualified potential health risks applicable to this site, see Appendix C.

  1. Potential ingestion, dermal and inhalation exposure of persons to contaminants in on-siteshallow surface and subsurface soils.

    Trespassers to the site could come in contact with contaminated shallow surface soil. Asindicated in Table 1A, lead is the only contaminant in shallow surface soil selected for furtherevaluation. Chronic exposure to lead is predominantly associated with neurological andhematological effects (ATSDR, 1991g), and the developing fetus and young children areparticularly sensitive to lead-induced neurological effects. Although the risks of exposure to leadin soil are not completely understood, the existing data suggest that exposure of trespassers to thehighest levels of lead detected in on-site shallow surface soil would pose a minimal risk ofadverse health effects.

    If the site is developed for residential purposes, the potential for exposure to contaminants inon-site shallow surface soil and on-site subsurface soil could increase. Among the organiccontaminants selected for further evaluation in shallow surface and subsurface soils (Tables 1Band 2), benzene and vinyl chloride are known human carcinogens (ATSDR, 1991c,l); PCBs(aroclors), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, methylene chloride,tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene are known to cause cancer in laboratory animals exposed tohigh levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1991b,d,h,i,j,k). Chemicals that cause cancer inhumans and/or animals after high levels of exposure may also increase the risk of cancer inhumans who are exposed to lower levels over long periods of time. It is estimated that chronic(long-term) residential exposure to the highest levels of tetrachloroethene in subsurface soilcould pose a very high increased risk of cancer, and that chronic residential exposure to thehighest levels of benzene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, methylene chloride, trichloroethene, andvinyl chloride could pose a high increased risk of cancer.

    The organic chemicals in the on-site shallow surface and subsurface soils also produce severalnoncarcinogenic toxic effects, primarily to the liver, the kidneys, and to the immune, nervous andmale reproductive system. These effects are known to be produced at exposure levels more thantwo orders of magnitude greater than potential residential exposures to contaminants in soil at theCarroll and Dubies site. Chemicals that cause effects in humans and/or animals after high levelsof exposure may also pose a risk to humans who are exposed to lower levels for long periods oftime. Although the risks of noncarcinogenic effects from potential future residential exposure tocontaminants in shallow surface and subsurface soil are not completely understood, the existingdata suggest that they could be high for acetone, benzene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate,1,2-dichloroethane, di-n-butylphthalate, methylene chloride, 4-methylphenol,2-methylnaphthalene, tetrachloroethene, toluene, trichloroethene, and vinyl chloride.



  2. Potential ingestion, dermal and inhalation exposure of persons to contaminants in on-sitenear-surface sludge and on-site subsurface sludge.

    Trespassers to the site could come in contact with contaminated near-surface sludge in the twolagoon areas which are surrounded by berms and a snowfence. As indicated in Table 3A, leadwas found in one sample of near-surface sludge at a level slightly above typical backgroundlevels in soil. The toxicological properties of lead have previously been discussed. Although therisks of adverse health effects from potential trespasser exposure to lead in on-site near-surfacesludge are not completely understood, the existing data suggest that they are minimal.

    If the site is developed for residential purposes, the potential for exposure to contaminants inon-site near-surface sludge and on-site subsurface sludge could increase. Among the organiccontaminants in on-site sludge selected for further evaluation (Table 3B), benzene is a knownhuman carcinogen (ATSDR, 1991c); PCBs (aroclors), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate,1,4-dichlorobenzene, and methylene chloride are known to cause cancer in laboratory animalsexposed to high levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1991b,d,h,i). Based on the results of animalstudies, it is estimated that chronic (long-term) residential exposure to the highest levels of1,4-dichlorobenzene in on-site sludge could pose a moderate increased risk of cancer, and thatchronic exposure to the highest levels of PCBs, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and methylenechloride, could pose a low increased risk of cancer.

    The contaminants in on-site sludge are also known to produce several noncarcinogenic toxiceffects, including damage to the kidneys, nervous system and spleen, at exposure levels morethan three orders of magnitude higher than potential residential exposures to contaminants insludge at the Carroll and Dubies site. Although the risks of noncarcinogenic effects frompotential future residential exposure to contaminants in near-surface and subsurface sludge arenot completely understood, the existing data suggest that they could be high for 4-chloroaniline,mercury, and 4-methylphenol.



  3. Potential ingestion, dermal and inhalation exposure to persons to contaminants in on-sitesurface water.

    Trespassers to the site could come in contact with contaminated surface water in the two lagoons. However, trespass of the site is not likely to be frequent due to its remoteness, and access to thelagoons is expected to be further limited by the snowfence and berms surrounding the lagoons. As indicated in Table 3C, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 4-chloroaniline, and lead were selected ascontaminants for further evaluation. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is known to cause cancer inlaboratory animals exposed to high levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1991d). Based on theresults of animal studies and the low potential for exposure, it is estimated that trespasserexposure to the highest levels of bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate in surface water could pose a verylow increased risk of cancer.

    The chemicals in on-site surface water also produce several noncarcinogenic effects. Theseeffects are produced at exposure levels more than two orders of magnitude greater than potentialexposures to contaminants in surface water at the Carroll and Dubies site. The toxicologicalproperties of lead have previously been discussed. Exposure to high levels of 4-chloroaniline isassociated with toxic effects in the spleen. Based on the low potential for exposure, it isexpected that the risks of noncarcinogenic effects for 4-chloroaniline and lead in surface waterwould be minimal.



  4. Potential ingestion, dermal and inhalation exposure to contaminants in drinking water as aresult of plume migration.

    As indicated in Tables 4 and 5, on-site and off-site groundwater are contaminated with organicchemicals and metals at concentrations that exceed New York State drinking water standards orguideline values. Private drinking water supply wells could become contaminated from on-siteand off-site groundwater by plume migration.

    Organic Compounds

    Benzene and vinyl chloride are known human carcinogens (ATSDR, 1991c,l). Tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene are known to cause cancer in laboratory animals exposedto high levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1991j,k). Chemicals that cause cancer in humansand/or animals after high levels of exposure may also increase the risk of cancer in humans whoare exposed to lower levels over long periods of time. It is estimated that chronic exposure tobenzene at the highest levels detected in groundwater would pose a high increased risk of cancer,whereas exposure to tetrachloroethene or vinyl chloride at the highest levels found ingroundwater could pose a moderate increased cancer risk. Exposure to the highest levels oftrichloroethene in groundwater could pose a low increased risk of cancer. Toxicological data areinadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of 1,2-dichloroethene, ethylbenzene, 4-methylphenol, toluene, and xylene (ATSDR, 1990a,b,c; 1991a; 1992a).

    The chlorinated contaminants 1,2-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene and vinylchloride, as well as ethyl benzene, toluene, and xylene produce noncarcinogenic effects primarilyon the liver, kidneys and the nervous system (ATSDR, 1990a,b,c; 1991j,l; 1992a). Benzene isknown to cause damage to the blood cell-forming tissues and to the immune system (ATSDR,1991c). Exposure to 4-methylphenol is associated with neurotoxicity (ATSDR, 1991a). All ofthese chemicals are known to produce their effects following exposures which are more than twoorders of magnitude greater than potential exposures estimated for these chemicals in the on-siteand off-site groundwater at the Carroll and Dubies site. Chemicals that cause effects in humansand/or animals after high levels of exposure may also pose a risk to humans who are exposed tolower levels over long periods of time. Although the risks of noncarcinogenic effects of potentialexposure to contaminated groundwater are not completely understood, the existing data suggestthat they could be high for benzene, moderate for vinyl chloride, and minimal for the rest of theorganic groundwater contaminants. Toxicological data are inadequate to estimate the healthrisks of potential exposures to 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in drinkingwater.

    Metal Contaminants

    Metal contaminants of potential concern in on-site groundwater include cadmium, chromium,lead and mercury. The toxicological properties of lead have already been discussed. Theprimary effects associated with ingestion of large amounts of chromium are kidney damage, birthdefects, and adverse effects on the reproductive system (ATSDR, 1991f). The most sensitiveeffect from chronic elevated exposure to cadmium is kidney damage (ATSDR, 1991e). Long-term exposure to mercury can lead to damage to the kidneys and nervous system (ATSDR, 1992b). Chronic exposure to drinking water contaminated with lead and chromium atthe highest levels found in on-site groundwater would pose a high increased risk of adversehealth effects; whereas chronic exposure to cadmium and mercury in drinking water at thehighest levels found in on-site groundwater would pose a minimal risk of adverse health effects.

    When the proposed remediation of the lagoons is complete, potential for exposure tocontaminants in surface soils, subsurface soils, sludges and surface water in the lagoons will beeliminated.

B. Health Outcome Data Evaluation

NYS DOH has not evaluated health outcome data specifically for the Carroll and Dubies site. Currently, there is no information to indicate that exposure to toxic chemicals from the site hasoccurred. The incidence of disease in the area thus can not be linked to any site related exposureto toxic chemicals. For this reason there are no community health studies planned at this time.

C. Community Health Concerns Evaluation

Several members of the community in the Deer Park-Port Jervis area have expressed concernsregarding possible health effects caused by the Carroll and Dubies site. The NYS DOH hasresponded to public health concerns through communication with concerned individuals. NYSDOH contacted people via telephone calls, letters, mailings, interviews, and public meetings. Sampling information and human exposure issues were discussed with the concernedindividuals. Because no human exposures have been identified, no adverse health effects areanticipated from existing conditions. The preliminary health assessment was distributed tointerested people in July 1991. Cancer statistics for Orange County were provided to a residentwho requested general information about cancer rates in the county. This Public HealthAssessment was distributed to all people who have expressed an interest in the site, includingthose who attended public meetings. During public comment period (12/9/94-1/31/95), severalcomments were received--responses to these comments are found in Appendix D.

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