PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT ADDENDUM
ENDICOTT VILLAGE WELLFIELD
(a/k/a RANNY WELL)
ENDICOTT, BROOME COUNTY, NEW YORK
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND OTHER HAZARDS
To evaluate if a site poses an existing or potential hazard to the exposed or potentially exposed population(s), the site conditions are characterized. This site characterization involves a review of sampling data for environmental media, both on and off-site; an evaluation of the physical conditions of the site, and identification of any other known or suspected contaminant sources or physical hazards near the site which may pose an additional health risk to the community or population(s).
Contaminants selected for further evaluation are identified based upon consideration of the following factors:
- Concentrations of contaminant(s) in environmental media both on- and off-site;
- Field data quality, laboratory data quality and sample design;
- Comparison of on-site and off-site concentrations in environmental media with typical background levels;
- Comparison of contaminant concentrations in environmental media both on- and off-site with health assessment comparison values. Comparison values include Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), drinking water standards and other relevant guidelines; and
- Community health concerns.
The selected contaminant(s) are evaluated in the Public Health Implications section (Toxicological Evaluation) of the Public Health Assessment (PHA) to determine whether exposure to these chemicals is of public health significance.
The On-Site Contamination subsection and the Off-Site Contamination subsection include discussions of sampling data for environmental media; summary tables of sampling data are presented in Appendix 2. A listed contaminant does not necessarily mean that it will cause adverse health effects from exposure. If a chemical is selected for further evaluation in one medium, that contaminant will be reported in all media, where it is detected.
Surface water samples were collected at several locations throughout the site area during the SRI. The samples were analyzed for VOCs, semi-volatile compounds, pesticides, metals, cyanide and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). VOCs were only detected in the sample from the golf course pond (refer to Table 1, Appendix 2). The golf course pond sample was collected at the overflow discharge pipe that passes under the flood dike and discharges to Nanticoke Creek. VOCs have been found consistently in earlier pond samples and are consistent with VOCs in the purge well. Semi-volatiles, PCBs and pesticides were not detected in any on-site surface water sample.
Leachate seeps emanating from Landfill 1 were also sampled during the SRI. Seep samples were analyzed for VOCs, semi-volatile compounds, pesticides, PCBs, metals and cyanide (refer to Table 2 of Appendix 2).
Ambient air was sampled at four downwind sample stations and one upwind station at Landfill 1 during the SRI. No significant concentrations of VOCs were detected. Samples collected from upwind stations were similar to concentrations in the downwind and on-site stations. All concentrations were within expected ranges for ambient air. Methane was not evaluated in air samples. However, during air sampling on Landfill 1, a pool of standing water on the landfill surface appeared to be bubbling and this may be an indication of gas emissions (i.e., methane).
Based on routine groundwater monitoring data at the Ranney Well, contaminant air emissions from the air stripping units are not expected to occur at concentrations which exceed anticipated emission levels (which were evaluated during pilot tests) or at levels which exceed applicable air quality standards, guidelines or criteria. Furthermore, these emissions are not expected to occur at levels which are likely to cause health effects.
Groundwater from the Ranney Well and other points within the Endicott water supply distribution system were sampled on a regular basis following the initial discovery of contaminants in the water supply. Table 3 of Appendix 2 summarizes contaminants detected in groundwater from the Ranney Well and other points within the distribution system for the period between May 1981, and March 1983. Some of these samples may have been collected from a tap at the well head or at other points within the distribution system and may have been collected after water had been chlorinated and aerated. Therefore, while these data may not describe groundwater quality at the site, they may be representative of contaminant concentrations at the exposure point for users of the water supply.
During the SRI, groundwater samples were collected from select monitoring wells including wells installed during previous investigations, wells installed as part of the SRI, the Purge well, and the Ranney well. Samples were analyzed for VOCs, semi-volatile compounds, pesticides, PCBs, metals and cyanide. Table 4 of Appendix 2, summarizes VOC levels in groundwater during this investigation. Tables 5 and 6 (Appendix 2) summarize VOCs in groundwater at the purge well and Ranney Well, respectively. The primary contaminants detected in groundwater at the Endicott Wellfield site are vinyl chloride, tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane and chloroethane. Vinyl chloride can also be a breakdown product of other VOCs such as trichloroethene and 1,2-dichloroethene. Dissolved metals did not exceed US EPA primary drinking water standards except for barium which was detected in monitor well E-12 at 7,940 micrograms per liter (mcg/L). PCBs were only detected at low levels in monitor well (MW) 21 and in MW7. Subsequent sampling did not confirm their presence and these compounds are not considered to be representative of contaminant conditions at the Endicott Wellfield site. The pesticide heptachlor was detected at 0.1 mcg/L in MW25D; the pesticide 4,4-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethane (4,4-DDD) was detected at 0.27 mcg/L in MW28 and 4,4-dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (4,4-DDT) was detected at 0.11 mcg/L in MW9D. Subsequent sampling did not confirm the presence of these compounds and they are not considered to be representative of contaminant conditions at the Endicott Wellfield site.
Open drums were observed at the surface of Landfill 1 during the SRI. Several of the drums contained a homogenous tan-yellow, tallow-like waxy material, with a brown-black crust on the exposed surface. One contained a red powdery substance. The contents of four of these drums were sampled and analyzed for PCBs, pesticides, metals, VOCs and cyanide. Analytical results of the VOCs detected in drum samples are presented in Table 7, Appendix 2.
As part of the SRI, a soil gas survey was completed at Landfill 1 and along the sewer line on the east bank of Nanticoke Creek near the En-Joie Golf Course in October and November of 1989. The soil gas at Landfill 1 contained VOCs in several locations, but especially near the center of the landfill. Benzene, toluene, xylene and tetrachloroethane were most often detected. Analytical results of soil gas obtained near the sewer line did not contain any VOCs. Methane was not evaluated as part of the soil gas survey at Landfill 1. A summary of the soil gas data from Landfill 1 is presented in Table 7A, Appendix 2.
Subsurface Soil Borings/Waste Characterization
During Phase I of the SRI, 20 soil borings were completed as part of monitoring well installation. Soil samples were collected at 10 foot intervals during drilling for on-site analysis of VOCs. One soil sample from each boring was collected at the water table for laboratory analysis of VOCs, pesticides, PCBs, semi-volatile organic compounds, metals and cyanide.
During Phase II of the SRI, eight soil boring samples were collected at and south of Landfill 1 to characterize the geology and the contaminants in the waste materials. During installation of monitoring wells (MW) MW-21, MW-22S, MW-23, MW-24, MW-26 and MW-27 at Landfill 1, 3 soil samples were collected from each boring for laboratory analysis.
Six test pits were excavated at Landfill 1 during the SRI to characterize the landfilled materials near the exposed 55-gallon drums. Two samples were collected from each test pit; one sample was collected from the landfill material and one sample was collected from the natural soil at the base of the landfilled materials. At test pit 5, a sample of a red sludge-like material was also sampled. Analytical results of organic compounds detected during subsurface soil and test pit sampling are presented in Table 8 (Appendix 2). A summary of the metals data for subsurface soil and test pit samples collected during the SRI is presented in Table 8A (Appendix 2).
Surface soil was not sampled during the SRI and there are no data available for evaluation as part of this public health assessment.
Sediment samples were collected at the same locations as surface water samples. The only VOC which was detected in any of the sediment samples was acetone (16 micrograms per kilogram) at the golf course pond. The presence of acetone in this sample is considered suspect as acetone was not detected during the second round of sediment sampling, nor has it been detected during sampling of the purge well effluent. The only other chemical detected was 4,4-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (4,4-DDE) in the golf course pond sediment sample at 27 mcg/kg. This product is a breakdown product of DDT which may have been used for insect control on the golf course. 4,4-DDE was not detected in groundwater at the purge well. Therefore 4,4-DDE in pond sediments is probably attributable to maintenance of the golf course.
A leachate seep at Landfill 2 was sampled during Phase I of the SRI for analysis of VOCs, metals, pesticides, PCBs, semi-volatile organic compounds and cyanide and no contaminants were detected.
VOCs, semi-volatiles, pesticides or PCBs were not detected in off-site surface water samples. The metals and cyanide concentrations in surface water at and near the Endicott Wellfield site were the same as background levels.
Sediment samples were collected at the same locations as surface water samples. No VOCs were detected in sediment samples at off-site locations. The only significant metals concentration found in sediment was chromium at 225 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The sample was collected upstream of the site on the Susquehanna River near a public boat ramp.
Soil gas samples were collected from Landfills 2 and 3 in October and November of 1989. Analytical results did not indicate wide-spread VOC contamination across either of these two landfills. On the north side of Landfill 2, there was a small area with benzene (0.32 parts per million [ppm]), toluene (0.96 ppm and 2.23 ppm), cis-1,2-dichloroethene (0.35 ppm) and xylene (1.02 ppm) in soil gas. Xylene was also detected at 2.88 ppm at one other sample location on the east side of Landfill 2. Landfill 3 had two small areas of VOCs in soil gas, one on the northwest side and one on the south side, near the railroad. On the northwest perimeter of Landfill 3, tetrachloroethene was detected in one location at 4.37 ppm, benzene was detected in two samples at 0.13 ppm and 0.25 ppm and toluene was detected in three samples at 0.56 ppm and 2.91 ppm. On the southeast side of Landfill 3, tetrachloroethene was detected in one sample at 0.46 ppm and toluene was detected in two samples at 0.7 ppm and 0.73 ppm. Methane was not evaluated as part of the soil gas survey at these two landfills. Neither of these areas were investigated further during the SRI as groundwater samples results near the two landfills did not have VOC contamination.
During the SRI, domestic and public groundwater supplies within a one mile radius of Landfill 1 were identified as follows:
1. Public Water Supplies
The only other public water supply near the site is the Town of Vestal's public water supply well 5-1, across the Susquehanna River from Landfill 1. The Vestal well 5-1 was installed in July, 1955. The well is a 12-inch diameter well and 110.5 feet deep. The Vestal well is pumped at 250 gpm on an as needed basis, generally for less than 8 hours per day. The Vestal well is sampled for VOCs on a monthly basis by the Town. Through May 1991, VOCs were not detected in any samples from this well. Samples taken during the SRI did not detect any VOCs.
2. Private Well Supplies
The Village of Endicott provided a listing of private residences near the site that were not connected to the Village's public water supply. The Town of Vestal provided a list of residences in the Castle Gardens area, south of Landfill 1, that are not serviced by Vestal's public supply. None of these private residences are situated downgradient of contaminant sources at the Endicott Wellfield site.
In preparing this public health assessment addendum, ATSDR and NYS DOH rely on the information in the referenced documents and assume that adequate quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) measures were followed with regard to chain-of-custody, laboratory procedures and data reporting, unless otherwise noted. The validity of analysis and conclusions drawn for this public health assessment addendum is determined by the completeness and reliability of that information.
During the initial remedial investigation (1986-1987), analyses of the environmental samples at the Endicott Wellfield site met the requirements of US EPA's contract laboratory procedures.
During the SRI, which was conducted between 1989 and 1991, environmental samples were collected to evaluate the QA/QC program for field and laboratory activities. All laboratory data were subject to independent data validation in accordance with US EPA validation procedures. In general, the precision and accuracy of the data were high enough to meet the data quality objectives of the investigation and are considered suitable for this evaluation.
Previously reported physical hazards at the Endicott Wellfield site were evaluated as part of the initial health assessment for this site. Several monitoring wells along the golf course had open spaces around the outside casing. These openings extended to 6 feet or deeper and may have been caused by the collapse of backfill. These openings were significant hazards to golfers, passers-by and especially children, who could fall into the subsurface cavities and become trapped and/or injured. During the most recent site visit (6/18/92), a number of existing monitor wells on the south side of the golf course were inspected by NYS DOH personnel. The majority of the monitoring wells were in good condition; only one well appeared to have been damaged but the opening around the well cavity is not a significant physical hazard.
Several other physical hazards were identified during the 6/18/92 site visit. Two plywood sheets covering openings in the ground surface along the southern portion of the golf course were wet and rotting. Each of these plywood sheets covered one-foot deep holes near the southern-most walkway of the golf course. These two areas are access points for control valves to the golf course water system. Open drums at the surface of Landfill 1 may pose a physical hazard to children or other trespassers who may walk or climb over the drums. The integrity and condition of these drums, which were observed during the SRI, has not been confirmed.
There is a potential for generation of methane from decomposition of buried municipal solid waste at Landfill 1. Methane may form gas pockets on-site, or may migrate off-site where an ignition source may produce a fire or explosion hazard. The presence of methane at and around Landfill 1 has not been investigated or documented previously; however, the September 30, 1992 Record of Decision for remediation of Landfill 1, requires that an explosive gas survey be conducted and that a landfill gas vent system be installed, as appropriate based on the results of the study.
To identify other facilities that could possibly contribute to site-related contaminants in soil, air, groundwater, and/or surface water at or near the Endicott Wellfield site, the NYS DOH searched the Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI). The TRI has been developed by the US EPA from chemical release information provided by those industries that are required to report contaminant emissions and releases on an annual basis.
As a means to evaluate other sources of additional health risk in the exposed population, NYS DOH is using TRI data filed for the calendar year 1990 by industrial facilities identified to be within the boundaries of the Endicott municipal drinking water service area as well as within a 2.5 mile radius of the boundaries of this service area.
NYS DOH uses a simple mathematical model to estimate if potential contaminant concentrations resulting from air emissions at a facility may be contributing to community (receptor population) exposures to contaminants at a site. This model uses information about the facility location (distance from the exposed population) and annual air emission data to calculate the radial distance from the facility at which contaminant concentrations in ambient air have been diluted to 1 microgram per cubic meter of air (mcg/m3). NYS DOH then evaluates what portion, if any, of the population living within this distance from the manufacturing facility may also be exposed to contaminants originating at the site.
Five manufacturing facilities within the service area of the Endicott municipal water supply service area filed TRI data for 1990. These facilities are the Endicott Johnson Corporation (Glendale Plant), the Endicott Forging and Manufacturing Co., Inc., the Amphenol Interconnect Products Corporation, Custom Assemblies, Inc., and the IBM Corporation (Systems Manufacturing Division). In addition, two other industrial facilities, the American Board Company and the General Electric Air Force Plant 59, although both outside the actual service area of the Endicott municipal water supply are near the southern and eastern boundaries, respectively, of the water supply service area. A map identifying the approximate locations of these facilities is provided in Figure 3 of Appendix 1.
The IBM Systems Manufacturing Division at 1701 North Street in Endicott is approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the Endicott Wellfield site (Ranney well), and is among the top TRI air toxics emitters in New York State. The 1990 air emissions for the IBM Systems Manufacturing Division is provided in Table 9 (Appendix 2).
The Endicott Johnson Glendale Plant at 301 Glendale Drive in the Town of Union is approximately 1 mile north of the Endicott Wellfield site (Ranney well). For 1990, this facility reported to the TRI, air emissions of 8,600 lbs/yr of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) from stack or point sources.
The Amphenol Interconnect Products Corporation at 20 Valley Street in Endicott is approximately 3.5 miles northeast of the Endicott Wellfield site (Ranney well). The only contaminant release reported by this facility to the TRI in 1990 was 5,925 lbs/yr of fugitive/non-point air emissions of Freon 113.
Endicott Forging and Manufacturing Company, Inc., at 1901 North Street in Endicott is approximately 2.5 miles northeast of the Endicott Wellfield site (Ranney well). A summary of stack/point source emissions in 1990 is presented in Table 9 of Appendix 2.
The General Electric (GE) Air Force Plant 59 at 600 Main Street in Johnson City is approximately 1.0 mile east of the eastern boundary of the Endicott municipal water supply service area. A summary of contaminant air emissions in 1990, is provided in Table 9, Appendix 2.
The American Board Company at 200 Stage Road in the Town of Vestal, is approximately 1.7 miles east of the Endicott Wellfield site (Ranney well). This facility did not report any releases of contaminants to the environment in 1990, and is registered on the TRI database for annual discharges of lead and copper to a publicly owned treatment works facility (POTW).
Results of the screening evaluation indicate that emissions from five of these facilities (IBM Corporation/Systems Manufacturing Division; Endicott Johnson Glendale Plant; Custom Assemblies, Inc.; Amphenol Interconnect Products Corporation; and Endicott Forging and Manufacturing Company, Inc.) could increase contaminant levels in ambient air near the Endicott Wellfield site and within the service area of the Endicott Municipal water supply to levels above the screening criterion of 1 mcg/m3. Several of the chemicals in air emissions from the TRI facilities (acetone, xylene, methylene chloride, ethylbenzene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and tetrachloroethane) are chemicals selected for further evaluation at this site. The significance of emissions from the TRI facilities as sources of additional health risk to the exposed population(s) at the Endicott Wellfield site, will be considered for further evaluation as part of follow-up health activities (refer to the "Recommendations" subsection).
This section of the public health assessment (PHA) addendum identifies potential and completed exposure pathways associated with past, present and future use of the site. An exposure pathway is the process by which an individual may be exposed to contaminants originating from a site. An exposure pathway is comprised of five elements, including: (1) a contaminant source; (2) environmental media and transport mechanisms; (3) point of exposure; (4) a route of exposure; and (5) a receptor population.
The source of contamination is the source of contaminant release to the environment (any waste disposal area or point of discharge); if the original source is unknown, it is the environmental media (soil, air, biota, water) which are contaminated at the point of exposure. Environmental media and transport mechanisms "carry" contaminants from the source to points where human exposure may occur. The exposure point is a location where actual or potential human contact with a contaminated medium may occur. The route of exposure is the manner in which a contaminant actually enters or contacts the body (i.e., ingestion, inhalation, dermal adsorption). The receptor population is the persons who are exposed or may be exposed to contaminants at a point of exposure.
Two types of exposure pathways are evaluated in the PHA; a completed exposure pathway exists when the criteria for all five elements of an exposure pathway are documented; a potential exposure pathway exists when the criteria for any one of the five elements comprising an exposure pathway is not met. An exposure pathway is considered to be eliminated when any one of the five elements comprising an exposure pathway has not existed in the past, does not exist in the present and will never exist in the future.
The only completed exposure pathway at the Endicott Wellfield site is associated with use of the Endicott public water supply between May 1981 and March 1983. Natural fluctuations in groundwater flow and flooding of the fill area at the Endicott Village Landfill (Landfill 1) by the Susquehanna River contributed to the release of contaminants from buried industrial wastes to groundwater. These factors coupled with the effect of pumping of the Ranney Well led to contaminated groundwater migrating towards the Ranney well and entering the municipal water supply system. Residents, transient populations and other members of the community were exposed to VOCs in the public water supply via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation (i.e., while showering). Prior to 1981, it is not known how long users of the Endicott municipal water supply may have been exposed to contaminants in potable water. However, the Endicott Village Landfill began operations in the late 1950's and has been identified as the source of VOC contaminants in the Village of Endicott water supply. The maximum period of time that the public water supply could have been contaminated would have been from the beginning of the landfill operation to the installation of the aerator in 1983, or about 25 years. Based on 1990 Census data, NYS DOH has estimated that approximately 45,000 people may have been exposed to VOC's in drinking water.
Monitoring of water quality at the Ranney well and within the distribution system of the Endicott public water supply indicates that past remedial measures are effectively removing VOCs from the municipal water supply. However, if current control measures fail to operate effectively, users of the municipal water supply could be exposed to elevated levels of VOCs in potable water (i.e., groundwater) during normal water use activities. Such exposures may include ingestion, dermal contact while bathing, and inhalation of VOCs while showering.
The Town of Vestal has a public water supply well, 5-1, along the south bank of the Susquehanna River, across from Landfill 1. Currently, this well is pumped at 250 gallons per minute and is used on an as needed basis. Monthly sampling of this well has not shown VOCs to be present in the water supply. However, should use of the Vestal public water supply well 5-1 increase in the future, site contaminants could migrate to this well as a result of increased pumping, and users of the Vestal municipal water supply could be exposed to VOCs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal contact.
The receiving pond for discharges from the purge well is on the En-Joie Golf Course and surface water contains VOCs. Since the golf course is a public area, access to the ponds is not restricted. Golfers and non-golfers may be exposed to VOCs in these ponds. Potential exposure routes are expected to be limited to dermal contact (i.e., during retrieval of golf balls).
Soils in contact with landfilled materials (Landfill 1) and soils in contact with leachate or contaminated groundwater may be contaminated by VOCs. As the soils beneath the landfill are not exposed at the surface, the potential for human contact with these soils is minimal. There is a potential for workers to be exposed to these soils during remedial activities at the site. However, use of appropriate personal protective equipment should reduce the potential for exposure to site contaminants by remedial workers.
Trespassers and children playing on the landfill could be exposed to drummed wastes at the surface of Landfill 1. Potential exposure routes include dermal contact with contaminants in wastes and inhalation of the volatile fraction of VOCs in waste materials. Because none of these contaminants exceed minimal health risk comparison values (see Table 7), there are no health implications to discuss for this potential exposure pathway.
Fishermen and children could be exposed to contaminants in leachate at seeps along the southside of Landfill 1, along the banks of the Susquehanna River. Reportedly, the area south of Landfill 1 is a popular fishing spot. Potential exposure routes include dermal contact with and ingestion of contaminants in leachate seeps and inhalation of the volatile fraction of VOCs in leachate.
Exposure to VOCs in soil gas at Landfill 1 has been eliminated as an exposure pathway of concern at the Endicott Village Wellfield site and will not be evaluated further in this document. Available data indicate that VOCs including benzene, tetrachloroethene, toluene, trans-1,2-dichloroethene and xylene are present in soil gas at Landfill 1. However, the landfill is remotely located, for the most part, from other structures and public areas. In addition, the Susquehanna River to the south, Dead Creek to the north and Nanticoke Creek to the east may act as barriers, minimizing off-site migration of soil gas through the subsurface. Furthermore, air sampling data from areas near Landfill 1 do not indicate that VOC emissions from the landfill are adversely affecting ambient air quality. As discussed in the Background section of this document (subsection A, Site Description and History), the selected remedy for remediation of Landfill 1 will include capping, installation of a gas venting system and air monitoring, with long term operation and maintenance. These measures should effectively eliminate any potential for future exposures to VOCs in soil gas at Landfill 1. The potential for workers involved with site remediation activities to be exposed to VOCs in soil gas is considered to be eliminated through appropriate use of personal protective equipment and adherence to applicable standards, guidelines and criteria.
Past sampling of sediment at and near the site has not shown the presence of site-related contaminants. No VOCs were detected in sediments on- or off-site. Chromium was detected at 225 mg/kg in a sediment sample collected near a boat ramp upstream of the site. Exposure to contaminants in sediment has been eliminated as a human exposure pathway of concern and will not be evaluated further.
1. Past Ingestion, Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Organic Contaminants in Municipal Drinking Water
For an undetermined period of time, but no longer than 25 years (late 1950's to 1983), an undetermined number of residents in the community supplied by the Ranney Well were exposed to several volatile organic contaminants (vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane) that exceeded comparison values for drinking water (see Table 3). Chronic exposure to chemicals in drinking water may include ingestion, dermal and inhalation exposures from water uses such as showering, bathing and cooking. Although exposures vary depending on individual lifestyles, each of these exposure routes contributes to the total uptake of organic compounds and thus increases the potential for chronic health effects.
Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen (ATSDR, 1991e). Based on the limited sampling of the municipal well water, we estimate that people who were exposed to contaminated public drinking water for 6 to 25 years at the highest level of vinyl chloride detected (10 mcg/L), would have a moderate increased risk of developing cancer. Toxicological data are inadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,2-dichloroethene (ATSDR, 1990d, f).
Vinyl chloride produces noncarcinogenic toxic effects primarily to the liver, the kidneys and the nervous system at exposure concentrations about two orders of magnitude greater than those measured in the Ranney well. 1,2-Dichloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane can also produce these effects, but at levels at least several orders of magnitude greater than past exposures. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane is known to damage the cardiovascular system (ATSDR, 1990f). Chemicals that cause effects in humans and/or animals after high levels of exposure may also pose a risk to humans who are exposed to lower levels over long periods of time. Although the risks of noncarcinogenic effects from past exposures are not completely understood, the existing data suggest that they could be high for vinyl chloride and minimal for 1,2-dichloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane which were both found at levels below health assessment comparison values (Table 3).
2. Potential Ingestion, Dermal and Inhalation Exposure to Contaminants in Public Water Supply Wells as a Result of On-Site Contaminant Plume Migration
As indicated in Tables 4 and 6, on-site groundwater is contaminated with volatile organic compounds at concentrations that exceed New York State drinking water standards or guidelines. There is a potential for oral (ingestion), dermal and inhalation exposure to contaminants in municipal water supply wells from contaminants in groundwater.
Vinyl chloride and benzene are known human carcinogens (ATSDR, 1991a,e). Chronic exposure to the highest levels of vinyl chloride and benzene found in on-site groundwater could pose a high increased cancer risk over a lifetime of exposure. Methylene chloride, 1,1-dichloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene and 1,3-dichloropropene have caused cancer in laboratory animals exposed to high levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1989b,d; 1990i; 1991b,c,d). Based on the results of animal studies and comparison to health assessment comparison values
(Table 4), it is estimated that drinking water contaminated with 1,1-dichloroethene and trans-1,3-dichloropropene at the levels found in on-site groundwater could pose a high increased cancer risk over a lifetime of exposure, whereas methylene chloride, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene could each pose a moderate increased cancer risk. The increased cancer risk from potential exposure to 1,2-dichloroethane in drinking water is estimated to be low. Toxicological data are inadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of chloroethane, acetone, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethene, 2-butanone, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene and chlorobenzene (ATSDR, 1989a,c; 1990a,d,e,f,g,h; US EPA, 1992).
The noncarcinogenic toxicological properties of vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have previously been discussed. The other chlorinated contaminants, namely, chlorobenzene, chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, methylene chloride, 1,3-dichloropropene, tetrachloroethene and trichloroethene as well as acetone, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylene produce a variety of noncarcinogenic toxic effects primarily to the liver, the kidneys and to the nervous system. Benzene can damage blood-cell forming tissues and the immune system. Except for vinyl chloride, all these contaminants produce their effects at exposure levels at least two orders of magnitude greater than those measured in groundwater. Chemicals that cause effects in humans and/or animals after high levels of exposure may also pose a risk to humans who are exposed to lower levels over long periods of time. Although the risks of noncarcinogenic effects from potential chronic exposures to contaminated drinking water are not completely understood, the existing data suggest that the risks of noncarcinogenic effects could be high for vinyl chloride, chloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethene, 2-butanone, trichloroethene and benzene which have all been found in groundwater at levels many times higher than the health assessment comparison values for drinking water (see Table 4), whereas the risks from exposure to chlorobenzene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane could be low. Although the levels of each of the other volatile organic contaminants identified as contaminants of concern in groundwater are below health assessment comparison values (Table 4) suggesting that any adverse effects from potential exposures are unlikely, the effects of these contaminants are very similar and thus combined exposures to them could pose a low risk of adverse health effects.
3. Present and Potential Dermal and Inhalation Exposure of Persons Engaged in Recreational Activities
Golfers and non-golfers may be exposed to volatile organic compounds in the surface water of the En-Joie Golf Course pond (see Table 1). Although vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected in the pond water at levels exceeding New York State surface water quality guidelines, only vinyl chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane were at levels that also exceeded the minimal health risk comparison values for drinking water (see Table 1). The toxicological properties of these chemicals have previously been discussed. Present and future exposure to these contaminants in surface water would be expected to be limited to skin contact while retrieving golf balls. Ingestion of this water is likely to occur only accidentally. Therefore, the risk of adverse health effects from dermal and/or oral exposures is expected to be minimal.
4. Dermal, Ingestion and Inhalation Exposure to Contaminants in Leachate Seeps Along the Banks of the Susquehanna River.
Children and fishermen could be exposed to contaminants in leachate at seeps along the banks of the Susquehanna River (see Table 2). A number of these contaminants, namely, vinyl chloride, chloroethane, trichloroethene, benzene, chlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, lead and arsenic were detected at levels that exceeded minimal health risk comparison values (see Table 2). The toxicological properties of vinyl chloride, chloroethane, trichloroethene, benzene and chlorobenzene have previously been discussed. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen (ATSDR, 1991f). Lead, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, pentachlorophenol and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate have caused cancer in laboratory animals exposed to high levels over their lifetimes (ATSDR, 1989e; 1991g, h, i). Toxicological data are inadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of naphthalene (ATSDR, 1990j). Present and future exposure to these contaminants in leachate seeps is expected to be limited primarily to skin contact. The risk of adverse health effects is expected to be low from exposure to vinyl chloride and minimal from exposure to the other contaminants.
In 1986, the BCHD released a report on cancer incidence in areas of the county where organic chemical contamination of a water supply had occurred or where there was a public perception that contamination had occurred. Cancer cases diagnosed during 1976-1980, as reported to the NYS Cancer Registry were used in the study. Six 1980 census tracts in Endicott (134, 135, 136, 137, 133.01 and 133.02) were included in the study because they corresponded to the area served by three public water supply wells which were found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds. Prior to 1981, it is not known how long users of the municipal water supply may have been exposed to VOCs in drinking water.
The study found an elevated rate of leukemia among males in Endicott for the period 1976-1980. The leukemia rate among women was not elevated. The report discussed the possibility that males may have increased exposure to organic chemicals at the worksite. An elevated rate of lung cancer among females in Endicott was also observed for the period 1976-1980. However, the study did not incorporate information on smoking, which is known to be associated with lung cancer.
NYS DOH will request that this cancer incidence study be updated through 1990 to determine whether the cancer incidence patterns seen for 1976-1980 are also found for 1981-1990. If the excess in leukemia and lung cancer are still found, information on other related risk factors (such as smoking) will be reviewed.
In response to the presence of VOCs in the Village of Endicott's primary public water supply well (Ranney well), local municipal officials, Broome County and State Health Department officials and as representatives of the NYS DEC investigated potential sources of wellfield contamination and evaluated alternatives for treating the public water supply at the contaminated wells. In February of 1991, an air stripper was installed on the Ranney Well to remove VOCs from drinking water.
The Broome County Health Department (BCHD) evaluated cancer incidence in areas of the County where organic chemical contamination of the water supply had occurred or where there was a public perception that contamination had occurred. The findings of this study are presented in a BCHD report entitled, "Cancer Occurrence by Common Drinking Water Source - Broome County, NY: 1976-1980" and are discussed under the Health Outcome Data Evaluation subsection.