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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FACET ENTERPRISES
ELMIRA, CHEMUNG COUNTY, NEW YORK

CONCLUSIONS
  1. Based on the information reviewed, the Facet Enterprises, Inc. site posed an indeterminate public health hazard in the past. The Sullivan Street Wellfield, a municipal drinking water supply downgradient of the site, is primarily contaminated with TCE, which may have originated from the Facet Enterprises, Inc. site. The wellfield was used between 1961 and 1991. TCE was first detected in these wells in 1980 and they were taken off-line in 1991 because of TCE contamination at levels above drinking water standards. People using this water supply were exposed to TCE which may have come from the Facet Enterprises, Inc. site. At the present time, ingestion of contaminated drinking water is not occurring. However, the site poses a public health hazard because future exposures to contaminants in groundwater could occur at levels that are of public health concern. If remedial measures are not taken to address groundwater contamination at and near the site, contaminants from the Facet site could migrate towards the Sullivan Street Wellfield. If the wellfield is reactivated, without treatment or other protective measures, users of the public water supply could be exposed to elevated levels of VOCs and metals from the Facet site, at concentrations above drinking water standards.

  2. Currently, there is not enough information (including sampling data) to rule out potential exposures associated with contaminated groundwater in the neighborhoods south/southeast of the site. This includes infiltration of basements with contaminated groundwater and/or contaminated soil gas originating from that groundwater. The information currently available suggests that neither of these events is happening, however, further sampling and evaluation is needed. Also, there is insufficient information to evaluate the public health significance of possible exposures to contaminants in soils. Surface soils in yards of homes near the Heights Drainage Swale may be contaminated as a result of past flooding of surface water from the swale and the possibility of exposure via direct contact to these soils needs further evaluation.

  3. The sediments in May's Creek directly across Route 14 adjacent to Facet Enterprises are contaminated with cadmium and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at concentrations that exceed comparison values and under certain exposure scenarios could pose an increased risk of adverse health effects to trespassers.

  4. The sediments in the Heights Drainage Swale are contaminated with cadmium, PAHs, and Aroclor 1254 at concentrations that exceed comparison values and under certain exposure scenarios could pose an increased risk of adverse health effects to trespassers.

  5. Several areas on-site have received waste materials and are contaminated with chlorinated solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and inorganics. These areas are the oil/water separator, and disposal Areas 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10.

  6. Over 450 drums of plating waste and 250 cubic yards of contaminated soil were excavated from disposal Areas 1, 2, 3, and 4. About 20,000 gallons of water were also contained for proper disposal.

  7. A layer of petroleum based product was detected floating on top of the water table at monitoring well D-5. This product is composed completely of chemicals and this finding suggests there could be another source of contamination on-site. It could be a very localized area of contamination. Regardless, further investigation of this contamination is planned.

  8. Several citizens have expressed on-going concern about emissions of black particles from the site. These black particles appear to be soot emissions from the boiler or diesel engine operation at the Facet site and other area manufacturing facilities.


RECOMMENDATIONS
  1. Complete the treatment system for the Elmira Water Board's Sullivan Street Wellfield as soon as possible.

  2. Implement an on-site groundwater pump and treat system to protect the Newtown Creek Aquifer since it serves as a source of potable water.

  3. Excavate surface soils from Areas 6, 7, and 8 and replace with clean fill to reduce the potential for on-site workers and future users of the site to come into direct contact to contaminated soils that present a potential health risk.

  4. Remove sediment in May's Creek, Heights Drainage Swale, the North drainage ditch, and Area 10 Lagoon. This is needed to reduce the potential for community residents for direct contact to contaminated sediments for local residents that may use May's Creek, or for on-site workers that may use Heights Drainage Swale, Area 10 lagoon or the North Drainage Ditch.

  5. Conduct confirmatory sampling to ensure that remediation goals are obtained in Areas 6, 7 and 8; and May's Creek, Heights Drainage Swale, the North Drainage Ditch, and Area 10 Lagoon.

  6. Continue to restrict site access through maintenance of the existing fencing and continued 24-hour security.

  7. Sample additional subsurface soils in Area 10 to determine leaching potential and subsequent impacts on groundwater of the Newtown Aquifer.

  8. Conduct further investigation to determine the source and extent of the floating free product found in monitoring well 5 to define this contamination of the Newtown Creek Aquifer and the needed remediation.

  9. Implement institutional controls to keep this property as an industrial facility.

  10. Conduct further evaluation of the potential for contaminated groundwater or soil gas originating from contaminated groundwater, to infiltrate basements of residences south/southeast of the site. This information will be used to evaluate if residential exposures to site contaminants is occurring via these exposure pathways. Sump sampling, basement surveys, and review of groundwater data are necessary. Air monitoring may also be necessary. Currently, the information available suggests that these contaminant migration pathways are not a concern. However, the information is not complete to rule them out.

  11. NYS DOH is recommending that the NYS DEC investigate the citizens complaint concerning the emissions of black particles from the site and initiate the appropriate corrective actions, if necessary.


HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATION PANEL (HARP)
RECOMMENDATION

The data and information developed in the public health assessment for the Facet Enterprises site in Elmira, New York, has been evaluated by ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) to determine appropriate follow-up health actions. Because of past exposures to contaminated drinking water and reported community health concerns, the panel recommended this site for follow-up health activities. Specifically, those persons exposed in the past should be considered for inclusion on NYS DOH's registry for VOC exposures from drinking contaminated water. The NYS DOH registry is being developed and will be matched with the NYS DOH cancer registry to evaluate possible adverse health outcomes. The NYS DOH has performed community health education in the past. Therefore, no other follow-up activities were recommended by HARP at this time.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Facet Enterprises site contains a description of actions to be taken by the ATSDR, US EPA, NYS DOH and/or CC DOH at and near the site subsequent to the completion of this public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included, is a commitment on the part of the ATSDR/CC DOH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented.

Public Health Actions Taken

  1. A downgradient public drinking water supply wellfield (Sullivan Street) is being fitted with a treatment system by the US EPA to remove volatile organic contaminants. The wellfield was taken off-line in August 1991;

  2. Over 450 buried drums and associated soils were excavated by the Purolator Products Company in March/April 1992 with US EPA oversight. Additionally, associated contaminated soils and groundwater have been contained for proper disposal off-site; and

  3. A fence around the Heights Drainage Swale was constructed during the summer of 1991 to restrict the public's access to that area. The fence was constructed in 1991 at the request of the NYS DOH.

  4. The CC DOH has conducted extensive health education in the past to address community health concerns about the health affects associated with exposure to TCE in drinking water. These health education activities were, for the most part, done in the early 1980s, shortly after contamination of the KAW was first discovered. Additionally, NYS DOH representatives have attended a public meeting and a public availability session to address community health concerns related to contamination at the Facet site.

Public Health Actions Planned

The following actions include many of those selected in US EPA's remedial action plan for the site. This remedial action plan is supported by the NYS DOH and NYS DEC and is considered to be protective of human health.

  1. The US EPA is completing the installation of a treatment system for the Sullivan Street wellfield.

  2. Under the direction of US EPA, Purolator Products is installing a groundwater treatment system to capture contaminated groundwater and remove volatile organic contaminants;

  3. Under the direction of US EPA, Purolator Products will excavate surface soils from Areas 6, 7, and 8 and replace with clean fill;

  4. Under the direction of US EPA, Purolator Products will remove sediment from May's Creek, Heights Drainage Swale, the North Drainage Ditch, and Area 10 Lagoons;

  5. Under the direction of US EPA, Purolator Products will sample subsurface soils in Area 10 to determine if chromium is leaching from subsurface soils into the groundwater;

  6. Under the direction of US EPA, Purolator Products will further investigate the source and extent of floating free product in monitoring well 5 to determine if there are any associated human exposures;

  7. The NYS DOH will participate in the implementation of institutional controls to ensure that the Facet property remains designated for industrial use and is not developed in the future for residential use;

  8. Purolator Products Incorporated is to maintain site security including fencing to restrict public access to the site;

  9. The NYS DOH will coordinate further investigation of the potential for contaminated groundwater originating from the site to enter basements of adjacent private homes and identification of seeps through VOC and metals sampling analyses;

  10. The NYS DOH will coordinate the collection of surface soil samples from the yards of homes south of the Facet Enterprises site; the results of this sampling effort will be used to evaluate potential exposures associated with direct contact to these soils;

  11. The NYS DOH will consider adding persons exposed in the past to VOCs through use of their domestic water supplies to their registry being developed for VOC exposures.

  12. The ATSDR and NYS DOH will coordinate with the appropriate environmental, health and other agencies to discuss recommendations 7, 9, 10, and 11 and to develop an action plan.

ATSDR will provide an annual follow up to this PHAP, outlining the actions completed and those in progress. This report will be placed in repositories that contain copies of this Public Health Assessment, and will be provided to persons who request it. ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at this site.


CERTIFICATION

The Public Health Assessment for the Facet Enterprises site was prepared by the New York State Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.


Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this Public Health Assessment and concurs with its findings.


Robert C. Williams
Division Director, DHAC, ATSDR


PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

Lloyd Wilson
Environmental Health Specialist III

and

Gerald Meehan
Environmental Health Specialist III

Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation
New York State Department of Health

and

Joel Kaplan
Research Scientist
Bureau of Toxic Substance Assessment
New York State Department of Health

ATSDR Regional Representative

Arthur Block
Regional Services
Office of the Assistant
Administrator, ATSDR

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

Greg Ulirsch
Division of Health Assessment
and Consultation, Remedial Programs Branch


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1988. Toxicological Profile for Benzo(a)pyrene. ATSDR/TP-88/05. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990a. Toxicological Profile for Aromatic Hydrocarbons. ATSDR/TP-90/20. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990b. Toxicological Profile for Dichloroethene. ATSDR/TP-90/13. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990c. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/27. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990d. Toxicological Profile for Naphthalene and 2-Methylnaphthalene. ATSDR/TP-90/18. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991a. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991b. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991c. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991d. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991e. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991f. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991g. Toxicological Profile for Nickel. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991h. Toxicological Profile for Selected PCBs (Aroclor-1260, -1254, -1248, -1242, -1232, -1221 and -1016). Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

Adriano, D.C. 1986. Trace Elements in the Terrestrial Environment. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Alliance. 1991. Risk Assessment Facet Enterprises Site Elmira Heights, New York Revision 2. Prepared for US EPA Contract No. 68-W9-0003. Work Assignment No.: C02072 TES-6.

Clarke, L., C. Hudson, G. Laccetti, W. Stone and B. Ungerman. 1985. Study of metal concentrations in soil and surface sand of seven New York counties. Albany, NY: New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Toxic Substance Assessment. September, 1985.

Connor, J., N.F. Shimp and J.F. Tedrow. 1957. A spectrographic study of the distribution of trace elements in some podzolic soils. Soil Science. 83: 65-73.

Davis, D.J.A. and B.G. Bennett. 1983. Exposure Commitment Assessments of Environmental Pollutants, Vol. 30. Summary exposure assessments for copper, vanadium, antimony. London: Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre, Chelsea College, University of London.

EBASCO Services Incorporated (1990). Draft Final Supplemental Remedial Investigation Report. Kentucky Avenue Wellfield Site, Chemung County, New York.

Edwards, N.T. 1983. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) in the terrestrial environment - a review. J. Environ. Qual. 12: 427-442.

ERM, 1990a. 1990 Remedial Investigation Report, Purolator Products Company (Facet), Elmira, New York. Prepared by ERM-Northeast, Inc. November 16, 1990.

ERM, 1990b. QA/QC Review for Facet Analytical Data, EPA Methods 8010/60-Halogenated Volatile Organic Compounds, Soil and Water Samples, Radian Analytical Services.

ERM-Northeast, 1992. Feasibility Study Report Purolator Products Company, Elmira, New York. Prepared for Purolator Products Company, Motor Components Division, P.O. Box 1502, Elmira, New York 14902-1502.

Frank, R., K. Ishida and P. Suda. 1976. Metals in agricultural soils in Ontario. Can. J. Soil Science. 56: 181-196.

Hart, 1980. Hazardous Waste Site Investigation Report. Facet Enterprises, Elmira Heights, New York. Prepared by Fred C. Hart Associates, Inc. June 1980.

McGovern, E.C. 1988. Background concentrations of 20 elements in soils with special regard for New York State. Albany, NY: New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation. Facet Enterprises Inc. Site Files (Site No. 808001). 1981-1992.

New York State Department of Health, Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation. Kentucky Avenue Well Site (Site No. 808012). 1981-1992.

Radian, 1986. Remedial Investigation Report, Facet Enterprises, Inc. Facility, Elmira, New York. Draft Report, Volume I.

Radian, 1983. Hydrogeologic Investigations, Facet Enterprises, Inc. Elmira, New York.

Shacklette, H.T. and J.G. Boerngen. 1984. Element concentrations in soil and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1270. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. EPA. 1990. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Online. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH.

U.S. EPA. 1992. Superfund Proposed Remedial Action Plan. Facet Enterprises, Inc. Site, Village of Elmira Heights, New York. EPA Region 2.

 

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