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PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

FRESH KILLS LANDFILL
STATEN ISLAND, RICHMOND COUNTY, NEW YORK


APPENDIX A

Appendices A was not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333


APPENDIX B

Vicinity Map
Figure 1. Vicinity Map

Site Location
Figure 2. Site Location

Example of Prevailing Wind Directions: Windrose generated from the meteorological data collected at the Fresh Kills Landfill in 1994
Figure 3. Example of Prevailing Wind Directions: Windrose generated from the meteorological data collected at the Fresh Kills Landfill in 1994

Number of Exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency's Health-based Ozone Standard at Staten Island since 1982
Figure 4. Number of Exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency's Health-based Ozone Standard at Staten Island since 1982


Table 1. Summary of Exposure Pathways for the Fresh Kills Landfill

Water Supply

Pathway Name

Exposure Pathway Elements

Time of Exposure

Comments

Source of Contamination

Environmental Medium

Point of Exposure

Route of Exposure

Exposed Population

COMPLETED PATHWAYS

Air Volatilization of contaminants from waste in the landfill; emissions from unloading barges and waste disposal; dusts generated from vehicles driving on the landfill; wind-blown dusts Air Ambient air Inhalation

Off-site residents, landfill employees, trespassers

Past
Current
Future
Emissions tests have confirmed that the Fresh Kills Landfill releases large quantities of contaminants to the air, as do many other sources in the vicinity of the landfill. A review o ambient air monitoring data collected over the last 10 years suggests that landfill-related contaminants pose no apparent public health hazard. The general air quality in the New York City metropolitan area, however, has periodically reached unhealthy levels, due to the combined emissions from automobiles, industrial sources, and other emissions sources, like the Fresh Kills Landfill.

POTENTIAL PATHWAYS

Groundwater Leaching of contaminants from waste in landfill Wells Ingestion
Inhalation
Dermal
Off-site residents Past
Current
Future
Groundwater on Staten Island has not been used for public supply since 1970; the are currently receives drinking water from reservoirs in the Catskills region of New York. Four none-potable wells within a mile of the landfill use groundwater for automobile washing, lawn irrigation, and filling the Great Kills Swim Club pool. The are all screened in the Cretaceous aquifer. The three closest of these were sampled during the remedial investigation for the Brookfield Avenue Landfill. Levels of contamination detected pose no apparent public health hazard.
Food Chain Contamination of surface water and sediment by landfill leachate Fish
Shellfish
Consumption of fish/shellfish caught in Richmond Creek, Main Creek, Fresh Kills, or Arthur Kill Ingestion
Recreational users Past
Present
Future
Recreational fishing and shellfishing might have previously occurred in these water ways, which are adjacent to the site. New York State has issued fish consumption advisories for all freshwaters in the state and for the Arthur Kill. IN 1998, the state erected signs prohibiting all fishing, shellfishing, crabbing in the vicinity of the Brookfield Avenue Landfill site. No biota sampling data are available to evaluate levels of contamination in biota in much of Richmond Creek and Main Creek.
Migration of Landfill Gas Generation of methane by decomposition of wastes in landfill; volatilization of compounds in waste Soil gas Migration of landfill gas into basements of adjacent residences Inhalation Off-site residents Past
Current
Future
The landfill gas venting pipes and the landfill gas collection system remove large quantities of landfall gas that might have otherwise migrated offsite, and the gas venting trenches located around the perimeter of the landfill prevent landfill gas from migrating offsite. Further, NYCDOS operates a network of landfill gas monitoring devices to detect movements of landfill gas before they reach offsite locations. All of these measures make current and future exposures to landfill gas and risks of explosion highly unlikely. The extent of past exposures to landfill gases is not known.
ELIMINATED PATHWAYS
On-site Surface water and sediment Leaching of contaminants from waste in landfill Surface water
Sediment
On-site drainage ditches and Fresh Kills Ingestion
Dermal contact
None None No residents live on site, and fences and tree lines around the Fresh Kills Landfill make trespassing difficult. The limited access prevents frequent contact with on-site contamination.


Table 2. Estimated Emission Rates for Selected Chemicals at the Fresh Kills Landfill

Chemical

Estimated Emission Rate

grams/second*

tons/year

Carbon dioxide

39,600

1,370,00

Methane

21,800

756,000

Ethane

1.81

62.8

Isopentane

1.50

52.0

n-Decane and p-Dichlorobenzene

1.44

50.0

Isobutane

1.05

36.4

Limonene

0.882

30.6

Toluene

0.802

27.8

Acetone

0.710

24.6

n-Propylbenzene

0.680

23.6

m,p-Xylene

0.621

21.5

Ethylbenzene

0.594

20.6

Propane

0.585

20.3

1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene

0.579

20.1

n-Butane

0.554

19.2

1,2,4-Trimethybenzene and t-Butylbenzene

0.496

17.2

n-Nonane

0.481

16.7

Hydrogen sulfide

0.453

15.7

Methlene choloride

0.300

10.4

a-Pinene and Benaldehyde

0.295

10.2

Notes:
*Data taken from Table 2-3 of USEPA, 1995; emissions data in tons per year are simple unit conversions.
Emissions data are reported for the 20 chemicals (or pairs of chemicals) with the highest emission rates.
Emissions data are estimates based on a limited number of emissions measurements. The data reported in the table, therefore, might be considerably higher or lower than the actual emission rates.
Chemicals reported as pairs could not be distinguished by the sampling and analytical methods used in the 1995 emissions study.


Table 3a. General Summary of NYSDEC's Particulate Monitoring Efforts on Staten Island: 1990-1999

Refer to the notes at the end of the table for a description of selected field headers

Chemical or Pollutant

Number of Samples

Number of Detections

Highest Concentration
(µ g/m3)

Most Conservative Comparison Value
(µ g/m3)

Type of Comparison Value

Number of Samples in which Chemical Was Detected at Levels Greater than the Comparison Value

PM10

1,608

1,607

2,289

50

NAAQS

81

PM10--Arsenic

654

57

0.0119

0.0002

CREG

57

PM10--Cadium

652

1

0.00467

0.0005

AGC

1

PM10--Chromium

585

19

0.0367

0.00002

AGC

19

PM10--Lead

656

73

0.07

0.75

AGC

0

PM10--Mercury

653

286

0.001

0.2

EMEG-c

0

PM10-Nickel

647

479

0.2223

0.002

AGC

479

PM10-Nitrate

80

76

5.3

5,800

RBC-n

0

PM10--Sulfate

80

80

37.8

NA

NA

0

PM10--Vanadium

648

356

0.0519

0.2

EMEG-a/AGC

0

TSP

1,816

1,816

648

75

NAAQS

320

TSP--Arsenic

1,741

475

0.0193

0.0002

CREG

475

TSP--Barium

21

21

0.0666

0.5

AGC

0

TSP--Beryllium

20

20

0.0013

0.004

CREG

20

TSP--Cadmium

1,745

129

0.0516

0.005

AGC

129

TSP--Chromium

1,258

183

0.0479

0.00002

AGC

183

TSP--Cobalt

21

21

0.0067

0.03

EMEG-I

0

TSP--Copper

21

21

0.208

0.48

AGC

0

TSP--Iron

21

21

1,481

2.4

AGC (iron salts)

0

TSP--Lead

1,741

665

0.31

0.75

AGC

0

TSP--Manganese

21

21

0.0326

0.04

EMEG-c

0

TSP--Mercury

1,732

1,113

0.0007

0.014

EMEG-c

0

TSP--Molybdenum

21

21

0.0269

12

AGC

0

TSP--Nickel

1,680

1,546

0.222

0.002

CREG/AGC

1,546

TSP--Vanadium

1,737

1,428

0.0955

0.2

EMEG-a/AGC

0

TSP--Zinc

21

21

0.119

50

AGC

0

Notes:
Summary based on databases provided by NYSDEC.
From 1990 to the present, NYSDEC has measured both PM10 and TSP, as well as concentrations of metals in both forms of particulate matter.
Appendix C defines all abbreations used in the field, "Type of Comparison Value." An entry of "NA" indicates that the pollutant does not have a health-based comparison value published by ATSDR or NYSDEC.


Table 3b. General Summary of NYSDEC's VOC Monitoring Efforts on Staten Island: 1990-1999

Refer to the notes at the end of the table for a description of selected field headers

Chemical or Pollutant

Number of Samples

Number of Detections

Highest Concentration
(ppb)

Most Conservative Comparison Value (ppb)

Type of Comparison Value

Number of Samples in which Chemical Was Detected at Levels Greater than the Comparison Value

1,1,1--Trichloroethane

2,239

1,674

3.71

180

AGC

0

1,1,2--Trichloroethane

2,457

62

1.73

0.01

CREG/AGC

61

1,2--Dichloroethane

2,317

470

0.94

0.01

CREG/AGC

397

1,2--Dichloropropane

771

0

ND

0.03

AGC

0

Benezene

2,344

2,182

5.53

0.03

CREG

2,090

Carbon Tetrachloride

2,323

1,632

0.51

0.01

CREG/AGC

1,581

Chlorobenzene

2,398

670

0.83

4.3

AGC

0

Chloroform

2,376

742

2.1

0.008

CREG

742

m-Dichlorobenzene

2,334

753

1.08

3.3

RBC-n

0

o-Dichlorobenzene

2,452

203

0.52

33

AGC

0

p-Dichlorobenzene

2,385

595

0.99

100

EMEG-c

0

Ethylbenzene

2367

2,294

3.87

200

EMEG-I

0

Methylene Chloride

2,388

986

6.36

0.85

CREG

144

Tetrachloroethylene

2,300

1,778

65.23

0.17

AGC

636

Toluene

2,328

2,262

29.93

100

RfC

0

Trichloroethylene

2,357

1,391

2.6

0.08

AGC

322

Vinyl Chloride

1,817

41

0.42

0.01

AGC

41

m,p-Xylene

2,373

2,308

13.2

68

AGC

0

o-Xylene

2,367

2,269

2.38

100

EMEG-c

0

Notes:
Summary based on databses provided by NYSDEC.
A highest concentration of "ND" (see 1,2-dichloropropane) indeicates that the chemcial analyzed for, but never detected.
Appendix C defines all abbreviations used in the field, "Type of Comparison Value." An entry of "NA" indicates that the pollutant does not have a health-based comparison value published by ATSDER or NYSDEC.


Table 3c. General Summary of NYSDEC's Monitoring of Polar Compounds on Staten Island: 1990-1999

Propionaldehyde

Refer to the notes at the end of the table for a description of selected field headers

Chemical or Pollutant

Number of Samples

Number of Detections

Highest Concentration
(ppb)

Most Conservative Comparison Value (ppb)

Type of Comparison Value

Number of Samples in which Chemical Was Detected at Levels Greater than the Comparison Value

Acetaldehyde

517

513

9.93

0.27

CREG

476

Acetone

517

505

10.837

5,800

AGC

0

Acrolein

517

248

1.021

0.009

EMEG-I/AGC

195

Benzaldehyde

517

494

0.877

370

RBC-n

0

2-Butanone

516

489

12.954

100

AGC

0

n-Butyraldehyde

517

496

0.47

NA

NA

0

Crontonaldehyde

517

373

0.644

4.8

AGC

0

Formaldehyde

517

510

13.32

0.05

AGC

503

Hexanal

517

487

0.838

NA

NA

0

Methacrolein

517

267

0.51

NA

NA

0

517

488

16.866

0.04

AGC

478

m-Tolualdehyde

375

321

0.19

NA

NA

0

Valeraldehyde

517

500

0.629

117

AGC

0

Notes:
Summary based on databases provided by NYSDEC.
NYSDEC only measured concentrations of polar compounds in 1995 and 1996.
Appendix C defines all abbreviations used in the field, "Type of Comparison Value." An entry of "NA" indicates that the pollutant does not have a health-based comparison value published by ATSDR or NYSDEC.


Table 4. Comparison of Data Collected in 1995 by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Ambient Air Monitoring Networks

Refer to the notes at the end of the table for explanations of the data presented.

Chemical or Pollutant

Percent of Samples in which Ambient Air Concentrations Exceeded Health-Based Comparison Values

NYCDEP Network

NYSDEC Network

Ambient Air Monitoring Data for VOCs

1,1,1--Trichloroethane

0%

0%

1,1,2--Trichloroethane

9%

3%

1,2--Dichloroethane

23%

23%

Benezene

98%

85%

Carbon Tetrachloride

77%

58%

Chlorobenzene

0%

0%

Chloroform

12%

29%

m-Dichlorobenzene

0%

0%

o-Dichlorobenzene

0%

0%

p-Dichlorobenzene

0%

0%

Ethylbenzene

0%

0%

Methylene Chloride

0%

3%

Tetrachloroethylene

6%

17%

Toluene

0%

0%

Trichloroethylene

4%

7%

Vinyl Chloride

0%

5%

m,p-Xylene

0%

0%

o-Xylene

0%

0%

Ambient Air Monitoring Data for Particulate Matter

PM10

0%

8%

PM10--Arsenic

13%

6%

PM10--Cadium

32%

0%

PM10--Chromium

12%

9%

PM10--Lead

1%

0%

PM10--Nickel

41%

82%

PM10--Vanadium

0%

0%

Notes:
Comparisons are presented for only those pollutants or chemicals that both NYCDEP and NYSDEC measured in their networks.
The results from all monitoring stations within the corresponding NYCDEP and NYSDEC monitoring networks were aggregated to calculate the summary statistics presented in this table. Though combining results from different monitoring locations might dampen site-specific trends, this data analysis approach is appropriate for comparing air quality measurements near the Fresh Kills Landfill (i.e., NYSDEC's measurements) to those at locations further away from this source (i.e., NYCDEP's measurements).


Tables 5 through 11 were not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333


APPENDICES C AND D

Appendices C and D were not available in electronic format for conversion to HTML at the time of preparation of this document. To obtain a hard copy of the document, please contact:

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Attn: Chief, Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch E-56
1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30333



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