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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

HUNTINGTON LANDFILL
(a/k/a HUNTINGTON TOWN LANDFILL)
HUNTINGTON, SUFFOLK COUNTY, NEW YORK


APPENDIX A: FIGURES

Site Location
Figure 1. Site Location

Extension of Suffolk County Water Mains
Figure 2. Extension of Suffolk County Water Mains

Zoning Map
Figure 3. Zoning Map

Existing Perimeter Monitoring and Control System
Figure 4. Existing Perimeter Monitoring and Control System

Extent of VOCs within Leachate Plume (Greater than 10 micrograms/liter)
Figure 5. Extent of VOCs within Leachate Plume (Greater than 10 µg/L)


APPENDIX B: TABLES

Table 1. Huntington Landfill Site
1994 Ambient Air Sampling from the Remedial Investigation1
(All values in micrograms per cubic meter [mcg/m3])

Compound Up-wind On-Site Downwind
High Low High Low High Low
Acetone 17 13 21 11 26 7.9
2-Butanone ND ND 4.6 ND ND ND
Chloromethane ND ND ND ND 0.7 ND
Toluene 4.9 1.2 1.9 1.3 ND ND
*Tetrachloroethane ND ND 17 ND ND ND
*Trichloroethene ND ND 12 ND ND ND
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 4.7 ND ND ND ND ND

1 Refer to Table 6 for Public Health Assessment Comparison Values for contaminants in ambient air.

*Contaminant selected for further evaluation.


Table 2. Huntington Landfill
1992 Landfill Gas Monitoring Well
Sampling Data From the Remedial Investigation
(All values in micrograms per cubic meter [mcg/m3])

Compound High Low
acetone 23,000 4.2
benzene 2.8 ND
1,3-butadiene 3.2 ND
2-butanone 950,000 5.8
carbon disulfide 62 12
carbon tetrachloride 1.4 ND
chlorobenzene 100 0.6
chloroethane 1.2 ND
chloroform 740 20
chloromethane 11 0.5
1,2-dichlorobenzene 56 ND
1,3-dichlorobenzene 39 ND
1,4-dichlorobenzene 8.6 ND
1,1-dichloroethane 1.5 ND
dichloromethane 26 ND
ethylbenzene 2.7 ND
4-methyl-2-pentanone 9.2 ND
tetrachloroethene 26 1.3
toluene 850 1.2
1,1,1-trichloroethane 330 1.2
trichloroethene 37 0.6
trichlorofluoromethane 12 1.4
vinyl chloride 0.9 ND
xylenes (total) 150 1

ND = not detected


Table 3. Summary of Compounds Detected in Off-Site Groundwater Monitoring
Wells at the Huntington Landfill From the Remedial Investigation1
(All values in micrograms per liter, mcg/L)

  High Low Up-gradient
High Low
aluminum 2,680 104 718 136B
antimony 69 ND ND ND
arsenic 85J 1.2B 2.3UW 1.1B
cadmium 38 4.7B 8.1 4.1B
chromium 737 7.2B 5.4B ND
iron 30,000 132N 804 190
lead 643J 1.5B 31.2 3BNW
magnesium 85,900 839B 8,100 3,750
manganese 15,000 6.1B 3,740J 26.2
mercury 17 0.25 ND ND
sodium 957,000 6,470E 21,800 8,030E
thallium 18.3UN ND ND 1.8UNW
vanadium 36 19.8B ND ND
vinyl chloride 2J ND ND ND
methylene chloride 12B 1J ND ND
1,1-dichloroethene ND ND ND 0.7J
1,2-dichloroethene (total) 31 0.7J ND ND
1,2-dichloropropane 2J 1J 2J 1J
trichloroethene 40J 1J 2J ND
benzene 4J 1J ND ND
tetrachloroethene 34 0.7J 2J ND
chlorobenzene 7 ND ND ND
ethylbenzene 6 2J ND ND
alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane 0.04J ND ND ND
gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane 0.04J ND ND ND
heptachlor epoxide 0.11J ND ND ND
dieldrin 0.01J ND ND ND
Aroclor ND ND 2.5 0.76J
bis(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate 3J ND ND ND

1 This table includes only those contaminants at levels in groundwater that exceed NYS DOH drinking water standards and/or public health assessment comparison values (refer to Table 5).

N = Matrix spike recovery outside of required quality control (QC) limits

E = Reported value is estimated due to the presence of interference

U = Result less than contract required detection limits (CRDL) or analyte not detected due to qualification through method or field blank.

B = Result between instrument detection limit and CRDL

J = Estimated due to variance from quality control limits

W = The recovery of the analytical control sample was not within the allowable QC limits of 85-115%.


Table 4. Results of the Private Wells Sampled Downgradient from the Huntington Landfill by the Suffolk County Department of Health Services from 1973-1994
(All values in micrograms per liter)

Compound High Low
aluminum 300 60
barium 67B 5B
cadmium 4.0J 3.90
calcium 70,300 5,100
chromium 5UJ ND
cobalt 6.8B 5B
copper 210 4.7B
*iron 4,100 91B
*lead 41.2 1.0
magnesium 25,600 430
manganese 142J 4.6B
mercury 0.33 0.2UJ
nickel 24.6B 11UJ
potassium 2,800 904B
selenium 2.1 UNW 2.2UJ
silver 3UJ ND
*sodium 60,100 5,400
*thallium 50 2.3B
vanadium 20 ND
zinc 1,800 4.8B
*nitrate 24,900 300
*dichlorodifluoro-methane 8 1J
*vinyl chloride 0.3J ND
*1,1-dichloroethene 0.5 ND
methylene chloride 2.0 ND
*1,1-dichloroethane 10 0.2J
*1,2-dichloroethene(total) 16 1.00
chloroform 8 0.3J
*1,1,1,-trichloroethane 62 0.2J
*carbon tetrachloride 5 0.7
*trichloroethene 150 0.4J
*tetrachloroethene 39 0.2J
*1,2-dichloro-propane 2 ND

*Contaminant selected for further evaluation

1 Refer to Table 5 for comparison to existing New York State and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) standards/guidelines and public health assessment comparison values. There were no standards for these chemicals in 1978-1980; the NYS DOH guideline for these compounds in 1980 was 50 micrograms per liter except for vinyl chloride which was 5 mcg/L.

N = Matrix spike recovery outside of required quality control (QC) limits
E = Reported value is estimated due to the presence of interference
U = Result less than contact required detection limits (CRDL) or analyte not detected due to qualification through method or field blank.
B = Result between instrument detection limit and CRDL
J = Estimated due to variance from quality control limits
W = The recovery of the analytical control sample was not within the allowable QC limits of 85-115%.


Table 5. Water Quality Standards/Guidelines and/or Public Health Assessment Comparison Values that are Exceeded by Contaminants Found in Private Wells near the Huntington Landfill Site.
(All values in micrograms per liter)

Compound   Comparison Values
Standards/Guidelines
New York State US EPA
Ground Water Drinking Water Drinking Water Cancer* Basis** Noncancer* Basis**
Organics
carbon tetrachloride 5 5 5 0.35 NYS DOH CPF 4.9 EPA RfD
1,1-dichloroethane 5 5 -- -- -- 700 EPA HEAST
1,1-dichloroethene 5 5 7 0.058 EPA CPF 7 EPA LTHA
1,2-dichloroethene 5 5 70 -- -- 63 EPA HEAST
1,2-dichloropropane 5 5 5 0.51 EPA HEAST 630 ATSDR, 1989
dichlorofluoromethane 5 5 -- -- -- -- --
tetrachloroethene 5 5 5 0.67 EPA CPF 10 EPA LTHA
1,1,1-trichloroethane 5 5 200 -- -- 200 EPA LTHA
trichloroethene 5 5 5 3.3 EPA RBC 42 EPA RBC
vinyl chloride 2 2 2 0.018 EPA CPF 21 EPA RfD
Inorganics
thallium 0.5g 2 2 -- -- 0.5 EPA LTHA
iron 300 300 300s -- -- 2100 EPA RBC
lead 25 15*** 15*** -- -- -- --
sodium 20,000 **** -- -- -- -- --
nitrate -- 10,000 10,000 -- -- 11,000 EPA RfD

g = guidance value

*Comparison value determined for a 70 kilogram adult who drinks 2 liters of water per day.

**EPA CPF = EPA Cancer Potency Factor
    EPA RBC = EPA Risk-Based Concentration Table
    EPA RfD = EPA Reference Dose
    EPA HEAST = EPA Health Assessment Summary Tables
    EPA LTHA = EPA Lifetime Health Advisory
    ATSDR, 1989 = ATSDR Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloropropane, ATSDR/TP-89/12

***There is a maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) of zero for lead and an action level of 15 mcg/L at the tap.

****no designated limit; water containing more than 20,000 mcg/l should not be used for drinking by people on severely restricted sodium diets; water containing more than 270,000 mcg/l should not be used for drinking by moderately restricted sodium diets.

+Under review


Table 6. Public Health Assessment Comparison Values that are Exceeded by Contaminants in Ambient Air at the Huntington Landfill Site.
(All values in parts per billion [ppb] and micrograms per cubic meter [mcg/m3]).

Compound Typical Background Range* Comparison Values
Cancer** Noncancer**
ppb mcg/m3 ppb mcg/m3 Basis*** ppb mcg/m3 Basis***
Tetrachloroethene 0.24-1.63 1.7-11.2 0.25 1.7 EPA HEAST 15 100 NYS RfC
Trichloroethene 0.03-0.59 0.2-3.2 0.11 0.60 EPA HEAST 4.8 26 EPA, 1987

*Reference: Brodzinsky and Singh (1982)

**Comparison value determined for a 70 kilogram adult who breathes 20 cubic meters per day.

***NYS RfC = NYS Risk Reference Guideline
      EPA HEAST = US EPA Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables
      EPA, 1987 = US EPA. Trichloroethene. Drinking Water Health Advisories. Office of Drinking Water.


Table 7. Public Health Assessment Comparison Values that are Exceeded by Contaminants Found in Soils and Sediments at the Huntington Landfill Site.
(All values in milligrams per kilogram [mg/kg]).

Contaminant Typical Background Range Comparison Values
Industrial Setting*
Cancer Basis** Noncancer Basis**
Semi-Volatile Organics
benzo(a)pyrene + 0.3 NYS DOH CPF 89,000c EPA RfD
benz(a)anthracene + 3.0a,b NYS DOH CPF 89,000c EPA RfD
benzo(b)fluoranthene + 3.0a,b NYS DOH CPF 89,000c EPA RfD
indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene + 3.0a,b NYS DOH CPF 89,000c EPA RfD

*Comparison values for cancer risk are determined for a 70 kg adult who ingests in the workplace 50 mg soil per day, 5 days per week, 8 months per year and assuming that exposure occurs for 40 working years out of a 70 year lifetime; comparison values for noncancer risk are determined for a 70 kg adult who ingests in the workplace 50 mg soil per day, 5 days per week for 8 months per year.

**EPA RfD = US EPA Reference Dose
    NYS DOH CPF = NYS DOH Cancer Potency Factor

+Based on reported background levels for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of 1 to 13 mg in soil (Edwards, 1983).

aComparison value adjusted according to US EPA's interim relative potency factors for PAHs (US EPA, 1993).

bUsed oral CPF for benzo(a)pyrene.

cUsed oral RfD for pyrene.


Table 8. Summary of Total Contaminant Air Emissions and Releases for the Years 1988-1993 at Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) Reporting Facilities Near the Huntington Landfill Site.

Facility Name Approximate Distance From Site1 (miles) Chemical Name Contaminant Emissions (lbs/yr)2
1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993
Polymer Plastics Corp. 4.4 xylene 119 99 99 99 99 99
Robert Busse Co., Inc. 5.0 dichlorodifluoromethane - - - 53,010 30,010 -
Pall Rai Inc. 4.8 methylene chloride
tert-butyl alcohol
acrylic acid
toluene
61,200
-
-
400
60,471
-
-
350
69,899
998
998
8,329
126,699
110
20
998
84,600
9,510
20
5,699
63,072
30,731
3,442
12,315
LNK International Inc. 4.2 methanol
methylene chloride
27,000
76,800
26,468
72,390
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Hazeltine Corp. (Mfg. Plant) 4.2 Freon 13
tetrachloroethene
4,227
-
-
11,819
28,452
-
28,768
-
36,361
-
28,727
-
Gull Electronic Systems 4.4 Freon 113 25,700 18,000 14,300 8,500 11,000 10,500
Gasser & Sons, Inc. 5.0 trichloroethene 19,590 23,000 20,600 16,600 18,235 22,440

1 Refer to Figure 6 (Appendix A) for facility location.
2The numbers listed are upper maximum totals of both stack (point source) and fugitive (non-point) emissions at each facility.


APPENDIX C: PROCEDURE FOR EVALUATING POTENTIAL HEALTH RISKS FOR CONTAMINANTS OF CONCERN

To evaluate the potential health risks from contaminants of concern associated with the Huntington Landfill site, the New York State Department of Health assessed the risks for cancer and noncancer health effects.

Increased cancer risks were estimated by using site-specific information on exposure levels for the contaminant of concern and interpreting them using cancer potency estimates derived for that contaminant by the US EPA or, in some cases, by the NYS DOH. The following qualitative ranking of cancer risk estimates, developed by the NYS DOH, was then used to rank the risk from very low to very high. For example, if the qualitative descriptor was "low", then the excess lifetime cancer risk from that exposure is in the range of greater than one per million to less than one per ten thousand. Other qualitative descriptors are listed below:

Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk

Risk Ratio Qualitative Descriptor
equal to or less than one in a million very low
greater than one in a million to less than one in ten thousand low
one in ten thousand to less than one in a thousand moderate
one in a thousand to less than one in ten high
equal to or greater than one in ten very high

An estimated increased excess lifetime cancer risk is not a specific estimate of expected cancers. Rather, it is a plausible upper bound estimate of the probability that a person may develop cancer sometime in his or her lifetime following exposure to that contaminant.

There is insufficient knowledge of cancer mechanisms to decide if there exists a level of exposure to a cancer-causing agent below which there is no risk of getting cancer, namely, a threshold level. Therefore, every exposure, no matter how low, to a cancer-causing compound is assumed to be associated with some increased risk. As the dose of a carcinogen decreases, the chance of developing cancer decreases, but each exposure is accompanied by some increased risk.

There is no general consensus within the scientific or regulatory communities on what level of estimated excess cancer risk is acceptable. Some have recommended the use of the relatively conservative excess lifetime cancer risk level of one in one million because of the uncertainties in our scientific knowledge about the mechanism of cancer. Others feel that risks that are lower or higher may be acceptable, depending on scientific, economic and social factors. An increased lifetime cancer risk of one in one million or less is generally considered an insignificant increase in cancer risk.

For noncarcinogenic health risks, the contaminant intake was estimated using exposure assumptions for the site conditions. This dose was then compared to a risk reference dose (estimated daily intake of a chemical that is likely to be without an appreciable risk of health effects) developed by the US EPA, ATSDR and/or NYS DOH. The resulting ratio was then compared to the following qualitative scale of health risk:

Qualitative Descriptions for
Noncarcinogenic Health Risks

Ratio of Estimated Contaminant
Intake to Risk Reference Dose
Qualitative
Descriptor
equal to or less than the reference dose or minimal risk level minimal
greater than one to five times the reference dose or minimal risk level low
greater than five to ten times the reference dose or minimal risk level moderate
greater than ten times the reference dose or minimal risk level high

Noncarcinogenic effects unlike carcinogenic effects are believed to have a threshold, that is, a dose below which adverse effects will not occur. As a result, the current practice is to identify, usually from animal toxicology experiments, a no-observed-effect-level (NOEL). This is the experimental exposure level in animals at which no adverse toxic effect is observed. The NOEL is then divided by an uncertainty factor to yield the risk reference dose. The uncertainty factor is a number which reflects the degree of uncertainty that exists when experimental animal data are extrapolated to the general human population. The magnitude of the uncertainty factor takes into consideration various factors such as sensitive subpopulations (for example, children or the elderly), extrapolation from animals to humans, and the incompleteness of available data. Thus, the risk reference dose is not expected to cause health effects because it is selected to be much lower than dosages that do not cause adverse health effects in laboratory animals.

The measure used to describe the potential for noncancer health effects to occur in an individual is expressed as a ratio of estimated contaminant intake to the risk reference dose. If exposure to the contaminant exceeds the risk reference dose, there may be concern for potential noncancer health effects because the margin of protection is less than that afforded by the reference dose. As a rule, the greater the ratio of the estimated contaminant intake to the risk reference dose, the greater the level of concern. A ratio equal to or less than one is generally considered an insignificant (minimal) increase in risk.

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