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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ISLIP MUNICIPAL SANITARY LANDFILL
(a/k/a BLYDENBURGH ROAD LANDFILL)
HAUPPAUGE, SUFFOLK COUNTY, NEW YORK


CONCLUSIONS

  1. Based on ATSDR's present public health hazard category classification (Appendix E), the Islip Landfill site represented a public health hazard in the past because of past exposure to contaminants in drinking water and air.

    To reduce the possibility of exposure to contaminants from the landfill, the Town of Islip has provided public water to all homes near the landfill. In addition, landfill gas collection/control system constructed on the perimeter of the site and included in the landfill cap constructed in 1993 will reduce the potential for soil gas migration and the release of site-related contaminants to the air. The results of the most recent off-site soil gas monitoring indicate that the control systems are preventing the off-site migration of soil gas.

    As a result of these remedial activities, this site currently poses no apparent public health hazard since there are no known exposures occurring to levels of contaminants that are likely to cause health effects.

  2. Evidence exists that exposures to VOCs in private drinking water have occurred. For all but one residence, the groundwater pathway of exposure was eliminated in 1981 when the Town connected homes near the landfill to public water. The NYS DOH and SCDHS personnel recently found a single home hydraulically downgradient from the landfill that was not connected to public water. Samples taken from the private well serving the residence contained VOCs, including tetrachloroethene at 18 mcg/L. This home was connected to public water in May 1992. Public water will be provided to any home in the path of the groundwater plume which was not previously connected to public water.

  3. Based on the results of samples taken from off-site soil gas monitoring wells, the current landfill gas control systems when operating are effective in controlling the off-site migration of soil gas.

  4. It is unlikely that exposure to contaminated soil will occur since the portion of the landfill where the solvent wastes are alleged is capped and buried under a large volume of municipal waste.

  5. A ROD outlining the remediation of the Islip Landfill was approved in September of 1992. Remediation of the site, as provided by the ROD includes:
    • construction of a landfill cap with a geosynthetic membrane;

    • extraction and treatment of groundwater contaminated with VOCs above 50 mcg/L as appropriate;

    • evaluation and, if necessary, the modification of the existing landfill gas control systems to reduce the release of VOCs to ambient air;

    • development of an air monitoring system to ensure compliance with ambient air guidelines; and

    • implementation of a groundwater monitoring system to evaluate the effectiveness of the groundwater extraction/treatment system and provide an "early warning" mechanism should the contaminant plume migrate toward the Nichols Road Wellfield.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. The landfill's role as an on-going source of contamination to groundwater should be addressed. This could include pumping and treating contaminated groundwater.

  2. The landfill gas collection/control system should be continuously evaluated/monitored and, if necessary, upgraded to prevent the off-site migration of soil gas and release of site-related contaminants to the air in the future.

  3. Remediation of this site should continue as outlined in the ROD.

  4. Residents who were exposed in the past to VOCs in drinking water will be considered for inclusion to the NYS DOH VOC registry.

HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATION PANEL (HARP) RECOMMENDATIONS

The data and information evaluated in the PHA for the Islip Landfill, Hauppauge, Suffolk County, New York, has been reviewed by ATSDR's Health Activities Recommendations Panel for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities. The panel agrees that the community health education performed by the NYS DOH was appropriate. Because of past exposure to VOCs and methane, the panel determined that a review of health statistics is indicated. This will be performed by the NYS DOH through a multi-site study grant from ATSDR. In addition, the panel determined that the site be considered by the NYS DOH for inclusion in the state VOC Registry.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Islip Landfill site contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the NYS DOH at and near the site subsequent to the completion of this PHA. For those actions already taken at the site, please see the Background section of this PHA. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this PHA not only identifies public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of ATSDR/NYS DOH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented. The public health actions to be implemented are as follows:

  1. ATSDR and NYS DOH will coordinate with the appropriate environmental agencies to develop plans to implement the recommendations contained in this PHA.

  2. ATSDR will provide follow up to this PHAP as necessary, outlining the actions completed and those in progress. This follow-up report will be placed in repositories that contain copies of this PHA, and will be provided to persons who request it.

  3. The NYS DEC and the US EPA will oversee implementation of the ROD including:

    • Construction of a landfill cap with a geosynthetic membrane.

    • Extraction and treatment as appropriate of groundwater contamination with VOCs above 50 mcg/L.

    • Evaluation and, if necessary, the modification, of the existing landfill gas control systems to reduce the release of VOCs to ambient air.

    • Development of an air monitoring system to ensure compliance with ambient air guidelines.

    • Implementation of a groundwater monitoring system to evaluate the effectiveness of the groundwater extraction/treatment system and provide an "early warning" mechanism should the contaminant plume migrate toward the Nichols Road Wellfield.

  4. People exposed to VOCs in drinking water in the past will be considered for addition to the NYS DOH VOC registry. Periodically, this registry will be matched with the cancer registry to evaluate possible adverse health outcomes.

  5. The site will be included in a cancer incidence study conducted by the NYS DOH. This study will evaluate potentially exposed populations living near landfills known to be generating gas.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the PHAP when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

CERTIFICATION

The Public Health Assessment for the Islip Landfill (Blydenburgh) site was prepared by the New York State Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.

Gregory Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this Public Health Assessment and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Division Director, DHAC, ATSDR

PREPARERS OF THE REPORT

Joseph Crua
Environmental Health Specialist II
Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation
New York State Department of Health

and

Joel Kaplan
Research Scientist
Bureau of Toxic Substance Assessment
New York State Department of Health

ATSDR REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE

Arthur Block
Office of Regional Operations
ATSDR

ATSDR TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER

Greg Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

REFERENCES

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989a. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride. ATSDR/TP-89/05. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989b. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-89/10. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989c. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethene. ATSDR/TP-89/11. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989d. Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene. Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989e. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. ATSDR/TP-89/22. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1989f. Toxicological Profile for Toluene. ATSDR/TP-89/23. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990a. Toxicological Profile for 2-Butanone. Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990b. Toxicological Profile for Chlorobenzene. ATSDR/TP-90/06. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  9. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990c. Toxicological Profile for Chloromethane. ATSDR/TP-90/07. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990d. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990e. Toxicological Profile for cis-1,2-Dichloroethene, trans-1,2-Dichloroethene and 1,2-Dichloroethene. ATSDR/TP-90/13. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990f. Toxicological Profile for Manganese. Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  13. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990h. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/27. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  14. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990i. Toxicological Profile for Total Xylenes. ATSDR/TP-90/30. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991a. Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  16. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991b. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  17. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991c. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991d. Toxicological Profile for Chromium. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  19. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991e. Toxicological Profile for Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991f. Toxicological Profile for Lead. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991g. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991h. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  23. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991i. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  24. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1991j. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. Update Draft. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Public Health Service.

  25. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). March 1992. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, Georgia.

  26. Brodzinsky, R. and H.B. Singh. 1982. Volatile organic chemicals in the atmosphere: an assessment of available data. Menlo Park, CA: Atmospheric Science Center, SRI International - Contract 68-02-3452.

  27. Geraghty and Miller, Inc. September 1991. Remedial Investigation of the Blydenburgh Landfill. Prepared for the Islip Resource Recovery Agency.

  28. Malcolm Pirnie, Blydenburgh Road Landfill Air Quality Study, September 1991. Prepared for the Islip Resource Recovery Agency.

  29. NYS DOH. Human Exposure Ranking Model Inspection Form, February 1985.

  30. NYS DOH, January 1990. State Sanitary Code, Title 10, Part 5, NYCRR, Public Drinking Water Supplies.

  31. Sax, I.N. 1979. Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Fifth Edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.

  32. Singh et al. 1981. Atmospheric measurements of selected hazardous organic chemicals. EPA-600/53-81-032.

  33. Singh, H.B., J.L. Salas and R.E. Stiles. 1982. Distribution of selected gaseous organic mutagens and suspect carcinogens in ambient air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16: 872-880.

  34. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 1991a. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Database. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Washington, D.C.

  35. US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). 1991b. Health Effects Assessment Summary Tables. Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C.

  36. Wallace, L.A. et al. 1984. Personal exposure to volatile organic compounds. Environ. Res. 35: 293-319.

  37. World Health Organization (WHO). 1984. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Volume 2. Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information. Geneva.

  38. Woodward-Clyde Consultants. June 3, 1983. Phase I. Preliminary Investigation. Prepared for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

  39. Discussions with Suffolk County Department of Health Services. 1992-1995.

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