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PRELIMINARY PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
JONES CHEMICAL, INC.
CALEDONIA, LIVINGSTON COUNTY, NEW YORK



BACKGROUND

The Jones Chemical, Inc., plant is located on a 10-acre site in the northeast portion of the Village of Caledonia, Livingston County, New York. Figures 1 and 2 show the site location in relation to the surrounding area and Figure 3 identifies the principal features of the plant property. In 1942, Jones Chemical, Inc., began on-site repackaging of chlorine from bulk into cylinders and 1-ton containers. In 1960, Jones Chemical began repackaging solvents including tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene (TCE), and toluene. As part of this operation, aboveground bulk storage tanks were installed on the plant site. Additionally, in 1972, underground tanks previously used to store gasoline and diesel fuel were converted for storage of methylene chloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and Stoddard Solvent (a common dry cleaning solvent). Solvent repackaging operations were discontinued in 1985. Presently, plant operations include the production of sodium hypochlorite solution and ammonium hydroxide and repackaging of chlorine, ammonia, inorganic mineral acids, sodium hypochlorite, ammonium hydroxide, and caustic soda.

The chemical repackaging and other process operations conducted at the Jones plant site required the loading and unloading of railcars and trucks and the handling and transfer of chemical containers within the facility. These activities have resulted in numerous chemical spills during the course of operation, including some which have been documented by dates and amounts of material spilled.

Wastewater streams generated during plant operations, i.e., tank and floor washings, caustic wastes, and spill cleanup materials, have been treated on-site in the neutralization system. The effluent from this system is then mixed with non-contact cooling water and discharged into a series of seepage lagoons located to the north of the plant buildings. Discharge to the ground water via the lagoons is regulated by a State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit.

To date, no remediation has taken place at this site other than the excavation and removal of three underground storage tanks in 1985. The Jones Chemical site was inspected by the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) in April 1986. The State is negotiating a workplan for a supplemental Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). A Consent Order for the supplemental RI/FS has been developed but has not been signed.

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

Analysis of ground-water samples dating back to 1980 has documented significant contamination of the aquifer underlying the Jones Chemical site by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Sampling conducted in 1986 found elevated VOC concentrations in the plant production wells including tetra-chloroethene (2,800 ug/L), chloroform (48 ug/L), trans-1,2-dichloro- ethene (49 ug/L); and in on-site monitoring wells, trichloroethene at 530 ug/L and 1,1,1-trichloroethane at 88 ug/L (Table 1). Lower levels of VOCs have been detected in off-site monitoring wells to the south of the plant indicating that a ground-water contaminant plume extends toward the Village of Caledonia Public Water Supply (PWS) wells. The Village PWS wells are located approximately 600 feet directly south of the Jones plant property line and sampling of these wells has shown elevated levels of VOCs (Table 1).

In August 1983, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation conducted a limited sampling at the Jones Chemical site. A surface water sample was taken from the pond located at the golf course to the south of the plant. Analysis for VOCs detected only a low level of toluene (3.6 ug/L). During a 1984 hydrogeologic investigation of the plant, subsurface soil samples were taken from two borings drilled in areas adjacent to the chemical storage tanks. Analysis of a soil sample taken from the 10-foot-deep boring drilled near the tanks identified as A1 through A5 (see Figure 2), found methylene chloride (15 ug/kg), TCE (17 ug/kg) and 1,1,2,2-tetra-chloroethane (23 ug/kg). Surface water, sediments, surface soils, and air have not been sampled, but will be as part of the RI/FS.

The planned RI/FS will include sampling of all accessible on-site and off-site monitoring wells, Jones Chemical supply wells, and Village PWS wells and should provide additional data to assist in evaluating the extent of off-site contamination.

1,1,1-Trichloroethane is a colorless, man-made liquid which is used primarily as a solvent for removing grease from metal. It has a variety of other solvent uses and is also used as a chemical intermediate (building block) in the production of other chemicals. 1,1,1-Trichloro- ethane generally gets into drinking water from improper waste disposal.

Some industrial workers exposed to large amounts of 1,1,1-trichloroethane have had nervous system, liver, and cardiovascular system damage. Exposure to high concentrations of this chemical causes nervous system, liver, and cardiovascular system damage in laboratory animals. Chemicals which cause adverse health effects in exposed industrial workers and laboratory animals may also pose a risk of adverse health effects in humans who are exposed at lower levels over long periods of time. The risks of chronic health effects from ingesting drinking water contaminated with 1,1,1-tri-chloroethane at levels found in the Caledonia public water supply are low.

The only apparent physical hazard presented by the Jones site is the presence of open lagoons on the north plant property. There is no fencing or other access restrictions to the plant site except plant security personnel; therefore, trespassers could potentially contact wastewaters in these lagoons. These lagoons are located in an area removed from the local population and fencing of this area does not appear necessary.

POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN EXPOSURE PATHWAYS

The principal human exposure pathway associated with the Jones site is the continued ingestion of contaminated drinking water from the Village of Caledonia PWS wells. Ongoing use of this contaminated public water supply also presents the possibility of dermal and inhalation exposure to contaminants. Additionally, private drinking water wells and a well serving a trailer park community are within one mile east of the site. Public water is used for drinking purposes by employees of Jones Chemical. Further identification of private wells and other wells in the area is to be carried out in the supplemental RI/FS.

Although there is little topographic relief at the plant site, there is some potential for site-related contaminants to accumulate in the drainage ways and sewerlines at the site. There has been no surface soil sampling to determine if contamination exists; however, human exposure may potentially occur by direct contact along the drainage ways and in areas where there have been historic chemical spills. The potential also exists for human exposure to occur via inhalation of airborne contaminated soils. High overburden ground-water levels exist at the site; hence, contaminated ground water may enter residential basements. Therefore, human exposure could occur via direct contact with seepage or inhalation of vapors associated with such seepage.

DEMOGRAPHICS

The Jones Chemical plant site is situated in the Village of Caledonia which has a population of approximately 2,250. Bordering the plant to the west and southwest are residential areas with a public park. A golf course is located directly to the south of the plant. Farmlands are located to the north of the plant property. Homes along Iroquois Road are located to the southeast (see Figures 1 and 2). Almost the entire population of the Village of Caledonia is encompassed within a 1-mile radius of the site. The Caledonia-Mumford Central School is located approximately one-half mile to the northwest of the site.

EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION

The Village of Caledonia PWS wells are contaminated with levels of 1,1,1-trichloroethane exceeding the NYS Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 5.0 ug/L (see Table 2). Sampling conducted by the NYSDOH in March and May 1989 detected 1,1,1-trichloroethane at 22 ug/L and 20 ug/L in Well #1, respectively. Follow-up sampling by NYSDOH in July 1989 showed 1,1,1-tri-chloroethane at 36 ug/L in Well #1. Additionally, 1,1,1-tri-chloroethane was detected at 81 ug/L in Well #2 during the July 1989 sampling. TCE, 1,1-dichloroethene and cis-1,2-dichloroethene have also been found in the wells at much lower levels (<5 ug/L). Currently, Well #1 is being used to supply the water requirements of the Village of Caledonia, with Well #2 placed on standby to supplement demand requirements, if needed. Well #3 is only used in an emergency because the well is known to have mechanical problems. Sampling conducted at points along the PWS distribution system has shown levels of various VOCs, documenting an ongoing exposure to the public via ingestion of the contaminated water supply. The investigations undertaken to date have identified ground-water contamination at the Jones site but are not adequate to define fully the extent and public health significance of the contamination.

There is a potential for plant employees and on-site trespassers to be exposed to contaminants via direct contact with or inhalation of airborne surface soils. There are no access restrictions other than plant security during operating hours. Since the existence and/or extent of surficial soil contamination at the plant site has not been defined to date, the significance of this exposure pathway cannot be evaluated. Similarly, human exposure via direct contact with contamination along drainage ways cannot be assessed until data from the RI/FS are available. Shallow overburden ground-water conditions exist at the site and homes are located immediately adjacent to the plant. The potential for impacts to residential basements in the area and the exposure from such impacts will be evaluated in the RI/FS.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based upon the information reviewed, the Jones Chemical site presents a public health concern because of the risk to human health resulting from probable exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse human health effects. Specifically, the existing contamination of the Village of Caledonia PWS wells presents an ongoing exposure to the public using this water supply. On-site personnel are potentially at risk of exposure via direct contact with contaminated waste water, ingestion of contaminated drinking water, and inhalation of airborne particulates from contaminated surface soils. Generally, the investigations undertaken to date are inadequate to determine the extent and nature of the potential human exposure which may be occurring as a result of contamination from the Jones site. Areas targeted for investigation include on-site soils and sediments, surface water drainage ways, and ground water. The additional environmental sampling is needed to characterize the extent of on- and off-site contamination.

Further study of ground-water conditions is needed to determine the full impact on the Village of Caledonia supply wells from the Jones site. A private well survey is required to identify any additional wells currently in use in the area. Treatment and/or other remedial options to eliminate the existing exposure to the public using the Village of Caledonia water supply wells is needed.

The Village of Caledonia has outlined a voluntary compliance schedule to the NYSDOH to bring the public water supply into compliance with the MCLs. The design of an air stripper system is ongoing. At this time there is no anticipated date for completion of the stripper.

These further investigations and planned remedial actions should provide the data to form the basis of the health assessment for this site.

In accordance with CERCLA, as amended, the Jones Chemical, Inc., site, Caledonia, Livingston County, has been evaluated for appropriate follow-up with respect to health effects studies. Since human exposure to on-site and off-site contaminants is probably now occurring or has probably occurred in the past, this site is being considered for follow-up health effects studies. After consultation with Regional EPA staff and State and local health and environmental officials, the Division of Health Studies, ATSDR, will determine if follow-up public health actions or studies are appropriate for this site.

When indicated by public health needs and, as resources permit, the evaluation of additional relevant health outcome data and community health concerns, if available, is recommended.

CERTIFICATION

This Health Assessment was prepared by the New York State Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health assessment was initiated.

Gregory V. Ulirsch
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC), ATSDR, has reviewed this Health Assessment and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams
Division Director, DHAC, ATSDR

PREPARER OF REPORT

Jeffrey Chiarenzelli
Program Research Specialist
Bureau of Environmental Exposure Investigation

ATSDR REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE

Arthur Block
Regional Services, Region II
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER

Gregory Ulirsch
Environmental Health Engineer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Programs Branch, State Programs Section


REFERENCES

NYSDOT Topographic Maps, 2nd Ed. 1978. Caledonia Quandrangle

NYSDOH Site Inspection Report - April 29, 1986. Gilday, Weiss.

NYS Health Department, Inventory of Community Water Systems, 1984

NYSDOH WCL&R Final Analytical Report. (V) Caledonia Water Supply, June 1989.

NYSDEC, Title 6, Chapter X, Parts 700-705, NYCRR, Water Quality

NYSDOH, State Sanitary Code, Title 10, Part 5 NYCRR, Drinking Water Supplies. Subpart 5-1 Public Water Supplies, Nov. 28, 1988.

USEPA, 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Final Rule. Federal Register/Vol. 52, No. 130/July 8, 1987.

USEPA, 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Draft Phase II Federal Register Notice, March 17, 1988.

Phase I Investigation, Jones Chemical Site No. 826003, NYSDEC, August 1985.

NYSDEC, Division of Water, Genesee Sub-State Region Water Resources Management Study Report, 1987.

Livingston County Department of Health, 1988 Annual Water Supply Inspection Report Caledonia (V). T. Clark, August 3, 1988.

Hydrogeologic Investigation Site A-10, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates Limited, October 1984.

Revised Work Plan, Supplemental Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study Conestoga-Rovers & Associates, April 1988.


FIGURES

Figure 1
Figure 1.

Figure 2
Figure 2.

Figure 3
Figure 3.


TABLES

TABLE 1
SUMMARY OF ANALYTICAL DATA
JONES CHEMICAL SITE

GROUNDWATER QUALITY DATA PARAMETER MAXIMUM
CONCENTRATION
(ug/L)

ON-SITE PLANT WELLS: May 1986

North Production Well tetrachloroethene 2,800
chloroform 48
trans-1,2-dichloroethene 49

Lagoon Well L-1 trichloroethene 530
1,1,1-trichloroethane 88

OFF-SITE MONITORING WELLS: September 1986/July 1989

DEC #7 1,1,1-trichloroethane 91
trichloroethene 13

DEC #8 trans-1,2-dichloroethene 19

DEC #10 tetrachloroethene 22

DEC #7 1,1,1-trichloroethane 33
trichloroethene 3

DEC #8 cis-1,2-dichloroethane 7.9
trichloroethene 1.4

DEC #10 tetrachloroethene 19

SPDES DISCHARGE: May 1986

Outfall to Lagoon #001 tetrachloroethene 1,420
trichloroethene 98
1,2-dichloroethene 42
chloroform 38

(V) CALEDONIA PWS WELLS: July 1989

Well No. 1 1,1,1-trichloroethane 36

Well No. 2 1,1,1-trichloroethane 81
trichloroethene 6

Well No. 3 cis-1,2-dichloroethene 5

These data are indicators of contamination and may or may not be at levels of health concern.

TABLE 2

Environmental Standards/Guidelines for
Groundwater (GW), Surface Water (SW) and Drinking Water (DW)
(All Values in ug/L)


NYS

USEPA


GW SW DW DW

trans-1,2-dichloroethene 50g 50g 5* 70p
trichloroethene 10 3g 5* 5
1,1,1-trichloroethane 50g 50g 5* 200
vinyl chloride 5 0.3g 2 2
methylene chloride 50g 50g 5* --
tetrachloroethene -- 0.7g 5 --

g = guidance value
p = proposed
* = generic organic contaminant standard for "principal organic contaminants" (5 ug/L) applicable.
-- = no standard or guidance value in place.



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