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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

PLATTSBURGH AIR FORCE BASE
PLATTSBURGH, CLINTON COUNTY, NEW YORK


CHEMICAL MIXTURES

In general, humans are continuously exposed to low levels of chemical mixtures by a variety of routes and for varying lengths of time. Interactions may occur among chemicals in the mixture that alter their toxicity. Possible effects that are greater than, less than, or equal to the sum of the effects of the individual components of the mixture can theoretically occur. ATSDR evaluated the likelihood of combined effects of the chemicals on the exposed people at or near PAFB. Again, we used the values from the 95 percent upper confidence limit and totaled the estimated exposure doses for each exposed group of people. Scientific literature has documented that adverse effects are unlikely to occur when the individual components in the mixture are present at levels well below their respective thresholds . Therefore, the combined effects of the chemicals that present at PAFB were not likely to cause adverse health effects in exposed people in the past nor are combined effects likely to develop in the future.


ATSDR CHILD HEALTH INITIATIVE

ATSDR's Child Health Initiative recognizes that the unique vulnerabilities of infants and children demand special emphasis in communities faced with contamination of their water, soil, air, or food. Children are at greater risk than adults from certain kinds of exposures to hazardous substances emitted from waste sites and emergency events. They are more likely to be exposed because they play outdoors and they often bring food into contaminated areas. They are shorter than adults, which means they breathe dust, soil, and heavy vapors close to the ground. Children are also smaller, resulting in higher doses of chemical exposure per body weight. The developing body systems of children can sustain permanent damage if toxic exposures occur during critical growth stages. Most importantly, children depend completely on adults for risk identification and management decisions, housing decisions, and access to medical care (38).

ATSDR evaluated the likelihood for children living on-base or in the Plattsburgh community to be exposed to base contaminants at levels that pose a health hazard. Each scenario is evaluated in detail in the body of this document. ATSDR did not identify any situations in which children were, are, or could in the future be exposed to chemical contaminants at PAFB likely to result in adverse health effects.


HEALTH OUTCOME DATA

ATSDR conducts a review of existing health outcome data (e.g., birth and death certificates, birth defects registries, cancer registries, etc.), when available, if people have been exposed to site contaminants or if the community has concerns related to specific health outcomes. ATSDR did not evaluate health outcome databases in conjunction with the Plattsburgh Air Force Base Public Health Assessment because we determined that neither the off-base nor the on-base community was exposed to site contaminants at levels that might affect public health.


COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

The community has expressed concern to ATSDR regarding the potential for past, current, and future exposure to chemicals in the golf course drainage ditch (stream C-19) which flows through the Cliff Haven community and ultimately discharges into Lake Champlain. A detailed discussion of these concerns is provided in the Exposure Pathways section of this Public Health Assessment.

If anyone has additional health concerns they would like to relay to ATSDR, they should direct them to:

Program Evaluation, Records, and Information Services Branch
RE: Plattsburgh Air Force Base
ATSDR, Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
1600 Clifton Road, MS E-56
Atlanta, GA 30333
1-888-42-ATSDR


BASE REDEVELOPMENT AND PUBLIC HEALTH

Plattsburgh Air Force Base was closed in September of 1995 as mandated by the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission under the Defense Base Closure and Realignment Act of 1990. The preferred alternative for reuse of the base property is an aviation-mixed use scenario that includes a new civilian airport, light industrial, commercial, recreational and residential development.

ATSDR has evaluated potential future public health issues at PAFB by integrating the land uses described in the preferred alternative for redevelopment with information on the types and concentrations of hazardous substances that will be left in the soils, sediments, groundwater, and surface waters at the base. Our evaluation places emphasis on areas proposed for residential or public/recreational reuse activities that are more likely to bring people into contact with wastes. A summary of the preferred alternative for redevelopment and ATSDR's evaluation is provided in Appendix B. An Environmental Assessment (Supplement to the November 1995 FEIS) of Alternative Land Uses (which were identified by PARC) was completed in May 2000 and a Finding of No Significant Impact was signed by the Director of the AFBCA on June 9 ,2000.

There is uncertainty associated with this evaluation. ATSDR has assumed that while the details of the specific type of activity on a parcel of land may vary, the basic land use category will remain stable. However, future changes in the preferred redevelopment plan may result from economic realities, the success of marketing efforts, and other factors. These changes cannot be predicted. Therefore, ATSDR recommends that changes in the base redevelopment plan trigger re-evaluation of potential public health issues. Specifically, the Air Force Base Conversion Agency, PARC, the City of Plattsburgh, and the Town of Plattsburgh should carefully evaluate any significant changes in the PAFB redevelopment plan that would result in new areas being used for (i) residential or public recreational activities that could bring people into contact with environmental contamination, or (ii) utilization of the shallow groundwater resources which are contaminated in several areas of the base.


REFERENCES

  1. Comprehensive Reuse Plan for Plattsburgh Air Force Base. September, 1995. LDR International, Inc.


  2. Counties in New York Profile for Clinton County http://hpi.www.com/nycty/ny36019.html.


  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). February 2000. Record of Communication with City of Plattsburgh Water Engineer.


  4. Final Environmental Impact State: Disposal and reuse of Plattsburgh Air Force Base, New York. November, 1995. Department of the Air Force.


  5. Base Realignment and Closure Cleanup Plan. Plattsburgh Air Force Base. May 1997.


  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). July 19, 1996. Health Consultation on Concert Activity Area Sampling Event, Plattsburgh Air Force Base.


  7. New York State Department of Conservation. May 22, 2000. Comments to ATSDR Data Validation Release for Plattsburgh Air Force Base Public Health Assessment.


  8. Informal Technical Information Report: Nose Dock 8 (SS-016). September 1996 Groundwater Sampling. March, 1997. United States Air Force AFCEE.


  9. Nose Dock 8 (SS-016) Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 1 of 2 (Draft Final Report and Appendix A). December 1995. URS Consultants, Inc.


  10. Supplemental Evaluation Report to the Basewide Environmental Baseline Survey: Alert Area Site OTH-2895 (Draft Final). June, 1997. URS Consultants, Inc.


  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). February 2000. Record of Communication with Kemp Lane Resident.


  12. Post-Closure Monitoring and Maintenance Operations Manual for Landfill No. 023. Plattsburgh Air Force Base. August, 1992. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District.


  13. Landfill FL-023 (Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediment): Proposed Plan (Final). Plattsburgh Air Force Base Installation Restoration Program. August, 1993. United States Department of the Air Force.


  14. Supplemental Investigation to the Remedial Investigation Report of LF-023 (Post-Final). December 1993. URS Consultants, Inc.


  15. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). April 2000. Record of Communication with Art Stemp New York State Department of Conservation.


  16. Semi-Annual Monitoring Report for Mobil Service Station No. 08-L78. January 02, 1997. Fluor Daniel GTI.


  17. PAFB State Pollution Discharge Elimination System compliance sampling data sheets, 1984 -1997. Submitted by AFBCA to ATSDR under cover dated November 6, 1997.


  18. PAFB Golf Course Drainage File Information: Citizen, Clinton County Health Department, and Air Force correspondence, 1958 -1985. Submitted by the AFBCA to ATSDR under cover dated November 6, 1997.


  19. Binovi, R. D., Riojas, A. H., and M. R. Spakowicz. May 1987. Wastewater Characterization Survey. PAFB, NY, Final Report. Prepared for USAF Occupational and Environmental Health Lab Human Systems Division, Brooks Air Force Base, Texas


  20. Drainage Flow Study Report: Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Plattsburgh, New York. September, 1991. ABB Environmental Services, Inc.


  21. PAFB State Pollution Discharge Elimination System compliance sampling data sheets 0n file 1994 -2000. Reviewed during ATSDR January 2000 site visit.


  22. Draft Site Investigation/Decision Document: Site SD-001 Golf Course Drainage Area. August, 1992. Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.


  23. Advance Submittal of Section 3.2 (Rapid Bioassessment of Aquatic Resources) of the Conceptual Site Model Report for the FT-002 Groundwater Impact Study. Plattsburgh Air Force Base. May, 1997. URS Consultants, Inc.


  24. FT-002 Groundwater Impact Study: Conceptual Site Model Report. September 18, 1997. URS Greiner, Inc.


  25. Fire Training Area (FT-002)/Industrial Area Groundwater Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasiblity Study. Part I: Remedial Investigation. Volumes 1, 2, 3 (Unofficial Draft). December 1997. URS Consultants, Inc.


  26. Risk Assessment for Industrial Corridor. Former Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Clinton County, New York (Internal Draft). November 1997. URS Consultants, Inc.


  27. Groundwater Impact Study for the Fire Training Site (FT-002): Work Plan. Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Clinton County, New York. July, 1996. URS Consultants, Inc.


  28. Fire Training Area (FT-002) Groundwater Operable Unit Feasiblity Study. Part 2: (Unofficial Draft). URS Consultants, Inc.


  29. ATSDR Record of Communication with Clinton County Health Department. February 2000.


  30. OHM Remediation Services Corp., UST 2335 Project No. 17499 Delivery Order 0006. January 22, 1997.


  31. Informal Technical Information Report: BX Service Station. September 1996 Groundwater Sampling Results. December 1996. United States Air Force AFCEE.


  32. URS Consultants, Inc. Report of Semiannual Groundwater Monitoring at the BX Service Station (ST-030) December 1998 and June 1999. Former Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Plattsburgh, New York . January 2000.


  33. Risk-Based Corrective Action Evaluation, Plattsburgh AFB, Working Draft, Site ST-030 Former BX Gas Station September 1998.


  34. Tier I - Risk-Based Screening Levels (RBSLs) Tier 2 - Site-Specific Target Levels (SSTLs).


  35. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Automotive Gasoline. June 1995.


  36. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Toluene. May 1994.


  37. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Benzene. August 1995.


  38. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR Child Health Initiative: About ATSDR's Child Health Initiative. Accessed January 1998. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/.


  39. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Ethylene and Propylene Glycol (Update) July 1997.


Other Documents Reviewed

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for

Basewide Environmental Baseline Survey, Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Volume I. May 1997.

Explosive Ordnance Demolition Range (SS-026) Site Investigation Report. Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Plattsburgh, New York (Draft). August, 1995. URS Consultants, Inc.

Technical Report: Old Small Arms Range - Lead Sampling. Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Plattsburgh, New York (Draft). August, 1996. OHM Remediation Services Corporation.

South Clear Zone (SS-034) Site Investigation Report (Draft). June 1995.

Results of House-to-House Survey, Plattsburgh Air Force Base. April 3, 1996. URS Consultants, Inc.

Report on Lead Concentrations at the Abandoned Army Range Site. Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Plattsburgh, New York (Draft). March, 1995. URS Consultants, Inc.

Munitions Maintenance Squadron (SS-013) Remedial Investigation Report. Volume 1 of 2. (Draft Final Report and Appendix A). February, 1996.

Former Landfill LF-024: Record of Decision. Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Plattsburgh, New York. March, 1997. URS Greiner, Inc.


Preparers of this Report

Carole Hossom
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Julie L. Corkran, Ph.D.
Environmental Health Scientist
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


Reviewer:

Diane Jackson
Chief, Defense Facilities Assessment Branch
Federal Facilities Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation


APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: Population and Housing Data; Census Tract Map

Population and Housing Data; Census Tract Map
Figure 6. Population and Housing Data; Census Tract Map


APPENDIX B: Summary of Site Evaluations Organized by Proposed Future Land Use Category

Land Use Category and Site Name Public Health Evaluation Comments
Airfield:

Fire Training Area (FT-002)
Flightline and Industrial A (SS-004)
Engine Test Stand (SS-007)
Alert Area (SS-014)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination left on site, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • FT-002: free product removal/bio-venting/soil vapor extraction removal actions are in progress, RI/FS completed March 2000.
  • SS-004: Investigation of this site is not complete as USAF is currently preparing response to regulatory comments to the Draft Final Remedial Investigation Report.
  • SS-007, SS-014: investigations at these sites are complete and each is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment.
Aviation Support:

Golf Course Drainage (SD-001)
Fire Training Area (FT-002)
Flightline/Industrial Area (SS-004)
Non-Destructive Inspection Facility (SS-005)
AGE Facility (SS-006)
Electrical Vault (SS-008)
Fuel Valve Pit JP-4 Spill (SS-009)
Munitions Maintenance Squadron (SS-013)
Nose Dock 8 (SS-016)
Building 2774 (SS-017)
Jet Engine Test Cell (SS-029)
Industrial Pretreatment Facility (ST-032)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination on-site, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • Solvent concentrations in shallow groundwater discharging to Stream C-19 and flowing off-base and east to Lake Champlain will increase in the future. ATSDR has identified future exposure of people playing or wading in the stream as a no apparent public health hazard.
  • SD-001, SS-004, SS-005, SS-006, SS-008, SS-009, SS-029, ST-032: investigations at these sites are complete and each is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment
  • FT-002, SS-017: removal actions are on-going
  • SS-013: soil removal action completed. A Supplemental RI and additional soil removal are planned.
  • SS-016:soil vapor extraction ongoing. A Supplemental RI and an FS are planned.
Industrial:

Golf Course Drainage (SD-001)
Fire Training Area (FT-002)
DRMO (SS-011)
POL Storage Area (ST-012)
Former Landfill 1959-1966 (LF-022)
Construction Spoils Landfill 1980-1986 (LF-024)
EOD Range (SS-026)
Liquid Oxygen Plant (SS-027)
Central Heat Plant (SS-031)
Old Small Arms Range (SS-033)
Loading Docks/Materials Transfer Area (SS-035)
Pesticide Storage (SS-036)
Open Storage Area (SS-038)
POL Fleet Vehicle Fuel Storage (SS-039)
Former Army Range (SS-040)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination on-site, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • SD-001, SS-011, ST-012, SS-027, SS-035, SS-036, SS-038, SS-039, SS-040: investigations at these sites are complete and each is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment
  • SS-026: Site Draft Final SI Report is undergoing regulatory review, additional action (Debris Removal) is pending regulatory review and comment.
  • SS-031: Investigation of is complete and NFA concurrence has been received.
  • SS-033: Removal action is complete and Draft Final SI Report is to be issued (June 30, 2000).
  • FT-002, SS-033, LF-024: removal actions and long-term monitoring are on-going
  • LF-022: clean-up activities at this site are complete and long term operation and maintenance activities are on-going.
Institutional (Educational)

Fire Training Area (FT-002)
Heavy Equipment Maintenance Facility (SS-010)
Munitions Maintenance Squadron (SS-013)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination on-base, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • FT-002: removal actions are on-going
  • SS-010: investigations at this site are complete and site is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment
  • SS-013: soil removal action proposed
Commercial:

Auto Hobby Shop (SS-018)
Civil Eng. Squadron Paint Shop (SS-019)
Civil Eng. Squadron Pesticide Tank (SS-020)
Former Landfill 1966-1981 (LF-023)
Building 505 Abandoned UST (ST-025)
Open Storage Area (SS-028)
Base Exchange Service Station (ST-030)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination on-site, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • at the Base Exchange Service Station, future worker exposure to gases migrating from shallow fuel-contaminated groundwater into buildings presents no public health hazard for future residents
  • SS-018 investigations at this sites are complete.
  • SS-019, SS-020, ST-025: investigations at these sites are complete and each is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment.
  • LF-023: clean-up activities at this site are complete and long term operation and maintenance activities are on-going.
  • SS-028: Remedial Investigation complete, long-term monitoring is being planned.
Residential:

Engine Oil Spill (SS-015)
Former Army Range (SS-040)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination on-site, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • future resident exposure to gases migrating from shallow fuel-contaminated groundwater from the Base Exchange Service Station into homes in the Kentucky and Kansas Avenues presents no public health hazard
  • SS-015, SS-040: investigations at these sites are complete and each is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment
  • the AFBCA has conducted soil gas and indoor air sampling in 1998, to evaluate the future risk, sampling data shows levels consistent with ambient regional background levels.
Public / Recreational

Golf Course Drainage (SD-001)
Fire Training Area (FT-002)
Building 205 Fuel Oil Spill (SS-003)
Flightline and Industrial Area (SS-004)
Former Engine Test Stand (SS-007)
POL Storage Area (ST-012)
Munitions Maintenance Squadron (SS-013)
Alert Area (SS-014)
Former Landfill 1956-1969 (LF-021)
Former Landfill 1966-1981 (LF-023)
Industrial Pretreatment Facility (ST-032)
South Clear Zone (SS-034)
Golf Course Pesticide Storage (SS-037)
  • no past exposure situations were identified for these sites
  • no one is currently coming into contact with contaminated materials
  • lease and transfer documents will provide notification of residual contamination on-site, minimizing the likelihood that workers will be exposed during future development of the properties
  • Solvent concentrations in shallow groundwater discharging to Stream C-19 and flowing off-base (east) to Lake Champlain will increase in the future. ATSDR has identified future exposure of people playing or wading in the stream no apparent public health hazard
  • SD-001,, SS-007, SS-014, ST-032, SS-034, SS-037: investigations at these sites are complete and each is designated as "No Further Action" needed for protection of public health and the environment
  • SS-003, SS-004: Investigations are on-going.
  • ST-012:Semiannual groundwater monitoring is being conducted.
  • FT-002: removal actions are on-going
  • SS-013: supplemental RI planned.
  • LF-021: cap installed
  • LF-023: clean-up activities at this site are complete and long term operation and maintenance activities are on-going

Installation Restoration Program Sites within Land Use Areas obtained from the PAFB Environmental Impact study (1995), Table 4.3-2.


APPENDIX C: Public Health Assessment Conclusion Categories

Category Definition Criteria
A. Urgent public health hazard This category is used for sites that pose an urgent public health hazard as the result of short-term exposures to hazardous substances.
  • evidence exists that exposures have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur in the future AND
  • •estimated exposures are to a substance(s) at concentrations in the environment that, upon short-term exposures, can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor population AND/OR
  • community-specific health outcome data indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health that requires rapid intervention AND/OR
  • physical hazards at the site pose an imminent risk of physical injury
B. Public health hazard This category is used for sites that pose a public health hazard as the result of long-term exposures to hazardous substances.
  • evidence exists that exposures have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur in the future AND
  • estimated exposures are to a substance(s) at concentrations in the environment that, upon long-term exposures, can cause adverse health effects to any segment of the receptor population AND/OR
  • community-specific health outcome data indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health that requires intervention
C. Potential (indeterminate) public health hazard This category is used for sites with incomplete information.
  • limited available data do not indicate that humans are being or have been exposed to levels of contamination that would be expected to cause adverse health effects; data or information are not available for all environmental media to which humans may be exposed AND
  • there are insufficient or no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health
D. No apparent public health hazard This category is used for sites where human exposure to contaminated media is occurring or has occurred in the past, but the exposure is below a level of health hazard.
  • exposures do not exceed an ATSDR chronic MRL or other comparable value AND
  • data are available for all environmental media to which humans are being exposed AND
  • there are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health
E. No public health hazard This category is used for sites that do not pose a public health hazard.
  • no evidence of current or past human exposure to contaminated media AND
  • future exposures to contaminated media are not likely to occur AND
  • there are no community-specific health outcome data to indicate that the site has had an adverse impact on human health



APPENDIX D: Exposure Estimates

Both in the past and currently, people recreating at the Lake Champlain beach in Cliff Haven were not likely to experience adverse health effects from chemical contaminants originating from PAFB.

Because of community concerns about these chemicals migrating off-base to the Cliff Haven Community, ATSDR has evaluate the likelihood for people in the Cliff Haven Community to experience adverse health effects (cancer and non-cancer effects) from their contact with the stream that runs off base, through their community and to the beach at Lake Champlain. ATSDR estimated that people would be recreating in swim suits or shorts exposing the most skin to the environment during April through September for an average of 70 years.

The low frequency of skin contact with contaminants in the stream, the low likelihood of accidental ingestion of the contaminants in water and sediments during swimming or wading activities at the beach, and low concentrations of pollutants, make health effects from exposures to the oil, grease, and detergents, pesticides and herbicides, solvents (VOCs), iron and sewage unlikely.

The likelihood of resident exposure to chemicals in the stream must be inferred primarily from the types and concentrations of chemicals detected in sampling conducted at Outfall-003. Prior to sampling of the Outfall -003, concentrations of contaminants were likely greater during peak activity at PAFB. ATSDR estimated exposure durations from types of recreational activities in which people likely participated such as swimming, wadding, and incidental ingestion of surface water.

Deicing compounds:
Ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and urea are readily broken down by the environment. State and local pollution prevention activities in communities have increased public awareness of the hazards of glycol-based compounds such as ethylene glycol. People may be exposed to ethylene glycol when using automobile antifreeze, photographic developing solutions, and brake fluids (39). Historically, ethylene glycol has also been used to deice aircraft during winter. Aircraft operations, including the Air Force, have shifted from ethylene glycol to use of propylene glycol and other compounds which are less toxic to the environment and human health. People typically encounter propylene glycol in cosmetics, food additives, paints, and lubricants (39).

Eating or drinking large amounts of ethylene glycol can cause nausea, slurred speech, and heart and kidney problems. This type of exposure typically occurs when children ingest improperly stored or discarded bottles of antifreeze at the home. Glycols released into surface waters, whether from ethylene or propylene glycol, cause the death of plant and animal life by reducing the availability of dissolved oxygen in the water (39).

Since swimming and wading activities in the stream and at the beach would be concentrated in the summer months, and aircraft deicing activities occurred during the winter months, people are not likely to have been exposed to the higher concentrations of glycols leaving the base in Stream C-19. Exposure to the lower concentrations of glycols flushing from the ramp area soils during the summer months through stream wading or playing at the edge of the creek was likely to have been infrequent and of short duration. Exposures to lower levels of glycols by summer swimmers at the Cliff Haven beach area would also have been short term and infrequent: glycols discharging to Lake Champlain would have been further diluted and dispersed by wave action.

Using the available glycol data, ATSDR estimated the exposure dose experienced by a child playing in the stream and swimming at the beach. This exposure dose may be compared to ATSDR's Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for ethylene glycol. The MRL is an estimate of the daily exposure to a hazardous chemical that is likely to be without adverse non-cancer health effects. The MRL for chronic exposure to ethylene glycol through ingestion is 2 mg/kg/day (39).

Exposure Dose Estimate = 0.12 mg/kg/day
ATSDR MRL = 2.0 mg/kg/day

The estimated exposure dose for a child ingesting ethylene glycol contaminated water from PAFB is less than the ATSDR health screening value. Health effects from skin contact are not considered to be significant: playing and wading activities expose a limited skin surface area (hands and feet). Although swimming exposes the entire body surface area to the contaminated water, dilution and dispersion of the chemical in the lake water would dramatically reduce the concentration of the chemical to which a person is exposed. Finally, studies of people working with ethylene glycol and animal studies have not indicated that this chemical is a carcinogen. Therefore, ATSDR concludes that the health of children playing in the stream and at the beach was not at risk from exposure to aircraft deicing fluid in these surface waters.

Urea has a low level of toxicity. It is a normal metabolite of protein, and large amounts are present in urine. There is no demonstrated exposure problem in US industrial experience; the carcinogenicity assay suggests that urea is not carcinogenic (AIHA 1988). Urea is an excellent source of organic nitrogen for plants. Although increased plant and algal growth in the Golf Course Drainage streams and ponds and stream C-19 probably occurred, the urea in the stream did not pose a health hazard to people at Cliff Haven beach.

Pesticides and herbicides:

Pesticide and herbicide sampling data are available for Outfall 003 from December 1987 through June 1989. Only two herbicides were detected in the Golf Course Drainage surface waters entering Stream C-19; 2,4-D and Pramitol (also known as Prometon). Twenty-two other chemicals for which the water samples were tested were not detected.

The maximum detected concentrations of 2,4-D and Pramitol were used in t exposure dose calculations for a child ingesting water from Stream C-19 for the beach area. The estimated exposure doses were compared to EPA's reference doses (Rfd) for each of these chemicals (ATSDR has not developed MRLs for these chemicals). Similar to ATSDR's MRLs, EPA's RfD is an estimate of the daily exposure to a hazardous chemical that is likely to be without adverse non-cancer health effects.

2,4-D
Exposure Dose Estimate = 0.0000041 mg/kg/d
EPA RfD = 0.01 mg/kg/d

Pramitol
Exposure Dose Estimate = 0.000143 mg/kg/d
EPA RfD = 0.015 mg/kg/d

The estimated exposure doses for a child ingesting herbicide contaminated water from PAFB is far below the reference doses for both 2,4-D and Pramitol, indicating that non-cancer health effects would not be expected. Health effects from skin contact are not considered to be significant: playing and wading activities would expose a limited skin surface area (hands and feet). In addition, 2,4-D and Pramiitol have not been classified as to their potential to cause cancer. Therefore, ATSDR concludes that based on available data, the health of children playing in the stream and at the beach was not at risk from incidental ingestion of herbicides in the stream water.


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