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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ROBINTECH, INC./NATIONAL PIPE CO.
VESTAL, BROOME COUNTY, NEW YORK


Table 12.

Summary of Metals Detected in Off-Site
Subsurface Soils from Monitor Well Borings
Near the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site,
Vestal, Broome County.


  Reported Concentrations (mg/kg)
Chemical Name MW3

MW4

MW5 MW6

aluminum 9,460 12,800 142,000 149,000
antimony 13 3 ND ND
arsenic 6 5 * 9.22
barium ND ND 78.0 50.6
cadmium 6 ND ND ND
calcium 1,350 2,520 1,430 747
cobalt 12 12 ND ND
copper 24 18 19.8 19.4
iron 25,100 34,300 21,200 16,300
lead (10)+ (10)+ * *
magnesium 3,820 4,480 3,440 2,280
manganese 783 607 604 354
mercury ND ND ND 0.12
nickel 35 39 21.5 12.9
potassium 629 950 677 587
sodium 126 105 117 133
vanadium 19 17 ND ND
zinc 64 68 64.9 53.9

Adapted from McLaren Hart, 1990.

mg/kg = milligrams per kilogram
ND = not detected

* = indicates value reported as an estimated concentration

(see Table 15 for public health assessment comparison values)

+NOTE: Reported concentrations of lead in soil and sediment samples collected during the remedial investigation (RI) were considered suspect. Supplemental sampling of lead in soils and sediment at the site and the adjacent Skate Estate Facility was conducted in February and September of 1992. Of the 194 supplemental soil and sediment samples collected, analytical results indicated that lead ranged from "not detected" to 344 mg/kg. Only one sample contained lead at 344 mg/kg which is only slightly above the general background range (0-300 mg/kg); 157 of the samples contained lead at levels below 50 mg/kg, 28 samples contained lead within 50 mg/kg-100 mg/kg, 4 samples contained lead within 100 mg/kg to 150 mg/kg and 3 samples contained lead within 200 mg/kg-250 mg/kg. Background soil samples were collected during the February 1992 supplemental sampling from three locations unassociated with the site. Results of the background samples reported lead at 52 mg/kg and 93 mg/kg; one background soil sample reportedly contained lead at 2,550 mg/kg and is considered anomalous as it was collected from a location characterized by "historical disposal of household debris and automotive waste materials, including oil cans and used oil filters." Based on the results of the supplemental investigations of lead in soils and sediment, lead is not being considered as a contaminant selected for further evaluation.


Table 13.

Summary of Contaminant Air Emissions and Releases for Toxic
Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) Facilities Near the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site,
Vestal, Broome County.


Facility Name Approx.
Distance
From Site
(miles)
Chemical
Name
Contaminant Emissions (lbs/yr)
Stack/
Point Source
Fugitive/
Non-Point
Total (#)

Amphenol
Interconnect
Products Corp.

1.5 freon 113 - 27,600 27,600
Azon Corporation
(Division of
Defiance)

1.5 acetone
methanol
26,900
25,800
3,300
9,400
30,200
35,200
General Electric
Air Force
Plant 59

1.0 freon 113
1,1,1-Tri-chloroethane
-
-
54,141
14,300
54,141
14,300
Endicott Johnson
Injection Mold
Facility

2.5 bis(2-ethyl-
hexyl)phthalate
- 1-499 499
Endicott Johnson
Sunrise Plant

2.5 bis(2-ethyl-
hexyl)phthalate
phthalatic
anhydride

1-499

1-499
1-499

1-499
499

499
Endicott Johnson,
Walter Johnson
Facility

2.0 bis(2-ethyl-
hexyl)phthalate
500-999 1-499 1,498
Anitec Image
Corporation
3.25 acetone
methanol*
methylene chloride*
propylene oxide
sulfuric acid
formaldehyde

70,000
180,000
260,000
1,000
-
18
180,000
920,000
1,500,000
1,000
100
-
250,000
1,100,000
1,760,000
2,000
100
18
IBM Corporation
Systems Manuf.
Division
2.65 formaldehyde
methanol
1,1,1-tri-
chloroethane
methylene chloride
tert-butyl-
alcohol
freon 113
methyl ethyl ketone
1,2-dichlorobenzene
ethylbenzene
ethylene glycol
phenol
2-methoxyethanol
tetrachloroethene
*xylene

7,400
7,700
63,200

50,000
500-999

362,000
9,000
2,100
3,800
3,600
500-999
6,700
55,000
18,600

1-499
1-499
57,000

70,500
1-499

122,200
1-499
8,100
500-999
1-499
1-499
1-499
54,000
500-999
7,899
8,199
120,200

120,500
1,498

484,200
9,499
10,200
4,799
4,099
1,498
7,199
109,000
19,599

 

Table 13.

Summary of Contaminant Air Emissions and Releases for Toxic
Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) Facilities Near the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site,
Vestal, Broome County (page 2).


Facility Name Approx.
Distance
From Site
(miles)
Chemical
Name
Contaminant Emissions (lbs/yr)
Stack/
Point Source
Fugitive/
Non-Point
Total (#)

IBM Corporation
Systems Manuf.
Division (cont.)
2.65 copper
hydrochloric acid
phosphoric acid
sulfuric acid
nitric acid
chromium compounds
copper compounds
manganese compounds
lead compounds
1-499
29,400
1-499
15,400
1-499
1-499
1,250
2,200
30
1-499
1-499
1-499
1-499
1-499
1-499
1-499
1-499
-
998
29,899
998
15,899
998
998
1,749
2,699
30

Adapted from: Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI), Calendar Year 1989.

Note: All emissions data reported in pounds/year (lbs/yr).
* Contaminant anticipated to exceed 1 microgram per cubic meter within 1/2 mile of the Robintech site.
- Indicates no emissions/release data reported.
# Indicates estimated worst case emissions based on reported data.

Table 14.

Public Health Assessment Comparison Values for Ambient
Air Contaminants at the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site, Vestal, Broome County.
(All values in micrograms per cubic meter; mcg/m3)


Chemical Typical
Background*
Comparison Value**

Cancer

Source*** Noncancer Source***

ethylbenzene

0.7-6.5 - - 1,000 EPA RfC

methylene chloride

0.2-5.3 2 EPA CPF 60 NYS EMEG

tetrachloroethene

0.2-11.2 2 EPA CPF 100 NYS EMEG

toluene

3-142 - - 400 EPA RfC

1,1,1-trichloroethane

0.6-2.3 - - 1,000 EPA RfC

o-xylene

<1-10 - - 700 EPA RfC

m, p-xylenes

1-20 - - 300 EPA RfC

< - less than

*References: Bozzelli, J.W. and B. Kebbukus (1979); Brodzinsky and Singh (1982) ; Lillian et al. (1975); Singh et al. (1981)

**Comparison values based on a 70 kilogram adult inhaling 20 cubic meters of air per day.

***EPA CPF = EPA Cancer Potency Factor
EPA RfC = EPA Risk Reference Concentration
NYS EMEG = New York State Environmental Media Evaluation Guide


Table 15.

Public Health Assessment Comparison Values for Soil Contaminants
at and Near the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site, Vestal, Broome County.
(All values in milligrams per kilogram; mg/kg)


Chemical Typical
Background*
Comparison Value**
Cancer Source*** Noncancer Source***

Volatile Organics          
           

acetone

ND -- -- 5,000 EPA RfD

carbon disulfide

ND -- -- 5,000 EPA RfD

chloroethane

ND -- -- -- --

chloroform

ND 110 ATSDR CREG 500 ATSDR EMEG

1,1-dichloroethane

ND -- -- 5,000 NYS RfG

1,2-dichloroethene

ND -- -- 500 NYS RfG

methylene chloride

ND 93 ATSDR CREG 3,000 ATSDR EMEG

toluene

ND -- -- 10,000 EPA RfD

1,1,1-trichloroethane

ND -- -- 4,500 EPA RfD

trichloroethene

ND 65 NYS CREG 370 EPA RfD

vinyl chloride

ND 0.4 NYS CREG 1 ATSDR EMEG

xylene

ND -- -- 100,000 EPA RfD
           

Semi-Volatile Organics

         
           

benzo(a)anthracene

+ -- -- -- --

bis(2-ethylhexyl)
phthalate

ND 50 NYS CREG 1,000 EPA RfD

chrysene

+ -- -- -- --

di-n-butylphthalate

ND -- -- 5,000 EPA RfD

fluoranthene

+ -- -- 2,000 EPA RfD

phenanthrene

+ -- -- -- --

pyrene

+ -- -- 1,500 EPA RfD
           

Metals

         
           

aluminum

7,000-100,000 -- -- -- --

antimony

0.6-10 -- -- 20 EPA RfD

arsenic

10-20 -- -- 15 ATSDR EMEG

barium

300-500 -- -- 3,500 EPA RfD

beryllium

<1-7 0.16 ATSDR CREG 250 EPA RfD

cadmium

<0.5-1 -- -- 10 ATSDR EMEG

calcium

100-400,000 -- -- -- --

chromium

10-40 -- -- 250 ATSDR EMEG

cobalt

<0.3-70 -- -- -- --

copper

<1-25 -- -- 6,500 EPA RfD

iron

10,000-40,000 -- -- -- --

lead

10-300 -- -- -- --

magnesium

50-6,000 -- -- -- --

manganese

500-3,000 -- -- 5,000 EPA RfD

mercury

0.01-3.4 -- -- 15 EPA RfD

nickel

<5-20 -- -- 1,000 EPA RfD

potassium

50-30,000 -- -- -- --

silver

0.1-5 -- -- 250 EPA RfD

sodium

3,000-50,000 -- -- -- --

vanadium

3-500 -- -- 350 EPA RfD

zinc

50-100 -- -- 10,000 EPA RfD

ND - not detected
< - less than

*References: Adriano (1986); Clarke et al. (1985); Connor et al. (1957) ; Davis and Bennett (1983); Dragun, J. (1988); Frank et al. (1976); Klein, D.H. (1972); McGovern (1988) and Shacklette and Boerngen (1984)

**Comparison values for organic and metal contaminants based on ingestion of 100 milligrams of soil per day by a 70 kilogram adult (cancer value) or 200 milligrams of soil per day by a 10 kilogram child (non-cancer value).

***NYS RfG = New York State Risk Reference Guideline
NYS EMEG = New York State Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
ATSDR EMEG = ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
EPA RfD = EPA Reference Dose

+Reported background levels for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of <1 to 13 milligrams per kilogram in soil (Edwards, 1983).


APPENDIX 3

Response to Public Comments
Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co.
Town of Vestal, Broome County, New York

This summary responds to the public's comments on the draft Public Health Assessment for the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site. The public comment period ran from June 22, 1993 to July 28, 1993. Some comments were consolidated or grouped together to incorporate similar concerns raised by more than one person. If you have any question about this responsiveness summary, contact the New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) Health Liaison Program at the toll-free number 1-800-458-1158, extension 402.

General Comments

  • Comments were received from the US EPA regarding clarification of factual, historical and technical information about the site. Changes have been incorporated into the public health assessment.
  • The Town of Vestal submitted copies of correspondence to the US EPA following the January 12, 1993 public meeting. This correspondence presented community health concerns about lead in soils and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in drinking water as well as other comments about the March 1992 Record of Decision (ROD) for remediation of groundwater at the site and the proposed measures for remediation of soils and sediment. The information about community health concerns has been incorporated into the Community Health Concerns section of this public health assessment.

Specific Comments

Comment #1

I disagree that no specific health concerns or questions were raised at the January 12, 1993 public meeting; several attendees were quite concerned about lead and other chemicals found.

Response #1

Both the Community Health Concerns and Community Health Concerns Evaluation sections of this Public Health Assessment have been revised to include and address these concerns.

Comment #2

How effective is air stripping as a method for removal of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate? If this compound is not removed, it will contaminate the aquifers.

Response #2

Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was not detected in groundwater at the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site or in off-site groundwater samples. Therefore, groundwater remediation at the site does not address removal of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Air stripping is an established and effective method for treatment of water that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This method is effective for removal of VOCs in water because, generally, the chemicals classified as VOCs have a high vapor pressure and can be easily volatilized out of water. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is a semi-volatile organic compound (SVOCs). Chemicals which are classified as SVOCs generally have lower vapor pressures than VOCs and are less volatile. Air stripping has been used to treat water that is contaminated with SVOCs, such as bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.

Comment #3

Is OSHA aware of exposure of workers to VOCs in groundwater used in pipe production?

Response #3

We referred this to the OSHA office in Syracuse for possible investigation and follow-up. Once the remedy for treatment of groundwater is in place, worker exposure to volatile organic contaminants in groundwater will be eliminated. This remedy is expected to be in place by 1995.

Comment #4

In view of the VOCs found in air sampling of on-site areas, why was there no off-site air sampling in the immediate vicinity of the site?

Response #4

New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) in conjunction with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) will evaluate the need for additional sampling of ambient air both on- and off-site.

Comment #5

A 4-year study of cancer incidence in the area is much too short a period for valid conclusions to be drawn.

Response #5

The 1986 study of cancer incidence prepared by the Broome County Health Department (BCHD) evaluated cancer cases newly diagnosed between 1976 and 1980, as reported to the New York State Cancer Registry. This study evaluated cancer incidence in areas of the county where organic chemical contamination of a water supply had occurred or where there was a public perception that contamination had occurred. The report acknowledges the limitations of the investigation, including the limited exposure to organic chemicals in drinking water. The NYS DOH has recommended that this study be updated to evaluate if more recent cancer incidence patterns are similar to those found in the earlier study.

Comment #6

The characterization of PVC as a nuisance dust brushes off a potentially serious health threat. Upper respiratory irritation is a serious matter for those who suffer from sinus problems. For those who suffer from asthma, dusts are far more than a "nuisance", to use your wording.

Response #6

The text has been revised.

Comment #7

The storm sewers along Old Vestal Road do not drain into the Susquehanna River - they drain into a swampy area overlying the aquifer.

Response #7

The NYS DOH contacted the Town of Vestal engineers office and confirmed that the storm sewers along Old Vestal Road drain to the Susquehanna River. The storm sewers discharge to an open ditch system near the intersection of Old Vestal Road and Jensen Road, west of the site. The open ditches carry storm water runoff past and existing tank farm and bituminous plant to the Susquehanna River, where the water is discharged.

Comment #8

Periods of airborne particulates are not limited to material transfer operations; trucks leaving the site also spread PVC dust from uncovered loads. We have PVC dust on our vehicles and driveway several times per week.

Response #8

This information has been incorporated into the Environmental Contamination and Other Hazards section (subsection D, Physical and Other Hazards) of the final public health assessment document.

Comment #9

Large quantities of PVC dust has blown into vented attic areas; what will be the effect if toxic vapors are released in the event of a fire?

Response #9

Many synthetic products used in industrial and household settings are made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC is used in building products such as pipes and fittings, flooring, siding, construction products, electrical insulation for wiring and cables, and interior furnishings. Fires release many toxic components and the chemical nature of these emissions is determined by several factors, including the availability of oxygen and the temperature. The contribution of toxic emissions from burning PVC dust that has accumulated in an attic is likely to be negligible compared to the total emissions released by other burning materials in a household fire.

Comment #10

Warnings should be posted where private wells are known to be contaminated; municipal water availability is no assurance that private well water will not be used for drinking.

Response #10

The availability of municipal water does not guarantee that water from an existing private well will be used for potable purposes. However, past sampling of private wells near the site has not detected contamination, although elevated levels of iron and manganese have been detected in some wells (Environmental Contamination and Other Hazards section, subsection B, Off-Site Contamination). These metals are naturally occurring constituents of groundwater. The drinking water standards that have been established by the New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) for iron and manganese in public water supplies are secondary standards; that is, they have been developed to address aesthetic water quality concerns such as taste, odor and staining of fixtures.

Comment #11

A primary concern is the contamination of Town wellfield 4, if the plume starts to migrate downgradient.

Response #11

As described in the final March 31, 1992 Record of Decision (ROD), one of the primary goals of the selected remedy for groundwater remediation at the Robintech, Inc./National Pipe Co. site is to control migration of the contaminant plume to off-site areas, including the wellfield for the Town of Vestal's water district number 4.

Comment #12

PVC dust floats on many swimming pools and holding ponds in the Skate Estate recreational park.

Response #12

This information has been incorporated into the Pathways Analyses section (subsection A, Completed Exposure Pathways) of the final public health assessment, as appropriate.

Comment #13

No mention is made of containing the contaminant plume by continuous pumping; this was viewed as a major factor in controlling migration of the plume and should be emphasized in the final report.

Response #13

A brief discussion of the March 1992 Record of Decision (ROD) for groundwater remediation at the site is presented in the Background section (subsection A, Site Description and History) of this public health assessment. The selected remedy as described in this ROD indicates that pumping of contaminated groundwater will continue until the cleanup goals are achieved. Actual pumping rates and pumping well configurations are still to be determined during the design phase of the remedy and may include alternate pumping of wells to eliminate stagnation parts or pulsed pumping to allow for aquifer equilibration and to allow adsorbed contaminants to partition into groundwater. Their discussion of this remedy in the text of the public health assessment has been revised to include this information.

Comment #14

The replacement of the compressed air transport system for PVC should be studied; a rigid house-keeping program should be mandated to minimize dispersion of PVC dust.

Response #14

The NYS DOH has recommended that additional measures to control PVC dust migration in surface water runoff and ambient air from storage and manufacturing areas on-site be considered. Through the public health action plan (PHAP) for this site, the NYS DOH and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) will coordinate with the appropriate environmental agencies to develop plans to implement the recommendations of the public health assessment.

Comment #15

One chemical found in soil borings, surface water drainage and sediments in drainage ditches was bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate; an isolation test stand with large hydraulic dampers may have been a major source of this contaminant.

Response #15

The findings of the remedial investigation (RI) attributed the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in surface water soils and sediments to on-site operations. Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate is widely used as a plasticizer for many plastic resins. It is likely that PVC dusts and resins at the site migrated to low lying areas at the site by wind and surface water runoff and were incorporated into the sampled media. However, information about the hydraulic dampers as a possible contaminant source has been forwarded to representatives of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYS DEC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for appropriate follow-up.


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