FRESH KILLS LANDFILL
STATEN ISLAND, RICHMOND COUNTY, NEW YORK
- Under typical exposure scenarios, exposures at the levels found in the NYSDEC monitoring data are unlikely to result in adverse health effects. However, several aldehydes were detected in the NYSDEC monitoring program at levels above health standards. Levels above health comparison values were detected in a majority of the samples collected for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and propionaldehyde samples. ATSDR considers the health evaluation incomplete because data are limited and may not be representative of long-term exposure concentrations.
- Results of the intensive landfill gas source sampling indicate that some data gaps exist in the NYSDEC data. ATSDR considers the lack of ambient air data for hydrogen sulfide to be a significant data gap which needs to be addressed before ATSDR can fully evaluate the public health implications of the site.
- New scientific information suggests that standards for PM10 may not be protective of
public health. EPA has proposed revisions to standards for particulate matter that include
fine particles, those less than 2.5 microns in size. Based on this information, ATSDR
concluded that the health evaluation of particulate matter is incomplete because data for
fine particles were not available.
ATSDR classifies the air pathway from Fresh Kills Landfill as an Indeterminate Public Health Hazard pending review of forthcoming data.
- Significant data gaps exist regarding ambient air data for hydrogen sulfide and PM2.5 which should be addressed with sampling so that a health evaluation of the site can be completed.
- In order to address public health concerns raised by the community and using information about potential exposure developed in working drafts of this Health Consultation, ATSDR proposed a Respiratory Health Investigation for this site. During completion of this document, ATSDR's Division of Health Studies initiated the field work portions of such a study. This work included investigation of potential health effects associated with possible ambient air exposures and associated sampling for ambient offsite hydrogen sulfide and PM2.5. As results and data become available from this study, they will be incorporated into future ATSDR documents regarding Fresh Kills Landfill.
- ATSDR should continue to review aldehyde data as made available by NYSDEC and incorporate long-term analysis of the data into the PHA document planned by ATSDR.
This document is part of a series of consultations; future documents will examine any additional data made available to ATSDR. The conclusions and recommendations in this report are based on the data currently available to ATSDR. If additional clarification is necessary, please contact this office at (404) 639-0600 or by writing to the authors at:
ATSDR - Fresh Kills Landfill Site
1600 Clifton Rd. - MS: E-32
Atlanta, GA 30333
Environmental Health Scientist, PRB, DHAC
Toxicologist, PRB, DHAC
M. C. West
Section Chief, SB, PRB, DHAC
M. C. West for Dan Joe
Branch Chief, PRB, DHAC
Robert C. Williams
- ATSDR. Health Consultation Air Monitoring Data, Staten Island, New York. May 14, 1993.
- ATSDR. Fresh Kills Landfill Health Consultation, Staten island, New York. March 15, 1996.
- NYSDEC. Ambient Air Quality Characterization of Fresh Kills Landfill, 1994 Preliminary Report. February 1995.
- NYCDOS. Final Scoping Document for the Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Fresh Kills Landfill. February 10, 1995.
- USEPA Region 2. Determination of Landfill Gas Composition and Pollutant Emission Rates at Fresh Kills Landfill. Radian Corporation. EPA 902-R-95-0016. November 1995.
- EPA. Mercury and other metals testing at the GSF Energy Inc. Gas recovery plant at the Fresh Kills Landfill. EPA 902-R-97-001. January 1997.
- NYCDEP. Staten Island Air Toxics Monitoring Program, Annual Report, March 1994 - February 1995.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990. Public Law 94-171. Washington D.C.
- NY City Department of Sanitation. DOS Report - An Update of Activities at Fresh Kills Landfill. February 1996.
- NY City Department of Health. Staten Island Cancer Incidence Study. March 1996.
- NYSDOH. New York City Department of Sanitation Employees Health Study Summary. October 1996.
- USEPA.Screening Procedures for Estimating the Air Quality Impact of Stationary Sources, Revised. USEPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, October 1992.
- ATSDR. 1992. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan.
- American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures - 1997.
- NYSDEC. New York State Air Guide-1, Guidelines for the Control of Toxic Ambient Air Contaminants. 1991 edition. Division of Air Resources.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1995.
- EPA. 1995 Urban Air Toxics Monitoring Program. Eastern Research Group. 1997.
- Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund. Volume I: HUMAN Health Evaluation Manual (Part A). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response. December 1989.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for 1,2-dichloroethane. Section 5.2. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, May 1994.
- EPA. National ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) database update. 1988. EPA/600/3-88/010.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for 1,2-dichloroethane. Section 5.4.1. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, May 1994.
- EPA. Region III risk-based concentration tables. Internet address www.epa.gpv/reg3hwmd/riskmenu.htm?=risk+guidance.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for carbon tetrachloride. Section 5.4.1. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, May 1994.
- Singh HB, Salas L, Viezee W, et al. 1992. Measurement of volatile organic chemicals at selected sites in California. Atmos Environ 16:2929-2946.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for carbon tetrachloride. Section 5.2.1. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, May 1994.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for chloroform. Section 5.4.1. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, August 1995.
- New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Staten Island Air Toxics Monitoring Program. Annual Report March 1994 - February 1995.
- ATSDR. Toxicological profile for benzene. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, August 1995.
- Brett SM, Rodricks JV, and Chinchilli VM. 1989. Review and update of leukemia risk potentially associated with occupational exposure to benzene. Environmental Health Perspectives 82: 267-281.
- Aksoy M, Ozeris S, Sabuncu H, et al. 1987. Exposure to benzene in Turkey between 1983 and 1985: A haematological study on 231 workers. Br J Ind Med 44:785-787.
- Infante PF. 1978. Leukemia among workers exposed to benzene. Tex Rep Biol Med 37:153-161.
- Yin SN, Li GL, Tain F-D, et al. 1989. A retrospective cohort study of leukemia and other cancers in benzene workers. Environ Health Perspect 82:207-213.
- Hayes RB, Yin SN, Dosemeci M, et al. 1997. Benzene and dose related incidence of hematological neoplasms in China. Chinese Academy of Preventive medicine - National Caner Institute Benzene Study Group. J of National Can Instit 89:1065-1071.
- Kelly TJ, Callahan PJ, Pleil J, and Evans GF. 1993. As cited in ATSDR's Toxicological Profile for Benzene. Method development and field measurements for polar volatile organic compounds in ambient air. Environ Sci Technol 27(6):1146-1152.
- Staten Island/New Jersey Urban Air Toxics Assessment Project Report. USEPA Document # EPA/902/R-93-001. January 1993.
- New York State Department of Health. Health Consultation South Bronx Community BronxCount, New York. September 13, 1996.
- Clary, JJ and JB Sullivan. Hazardous Materials Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. JB Sullivan and GR Krieger, editors. Chapter 99. Other Aldehydes. pp 981-985. 1992. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland.
- Hayes RB et al. 1986. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and formaldehyde exposure. Int J Cancer 37:487-492.
- Olsen JH and Asnaes S. 1986. Formaldehyde and the risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the sinonasal cavities. Br J Ind Med 43:769-774.
- Blair A et al. 1987. Cancers of the nasopharynx and oropharnyx and formaladehyde exposure. J Natl Cancer Inst 78:191-192.
- Vaughn TL et al. 1986. Formaldehyde and cancers of the pharynx, sinus, and nasal cavity. II. Residentail exposures. Int J Cancer 36:685-688.
- Blair A, Stewart P, and O'Berg M, et al. Mortality among industrial workers exposed to formaldehyde. J Natl Cancer Inst 1986:76:1071-1084.
- Acheson ED, Garner MJ, Pannett B, et al. Formaldehyde in the British chemical industry - an occupational cohort study. Lancet 1984:1:611-616.
- Clary, JJ and JB Sullivan. Hazardous Materials Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. JB Sullivan and GR Krieger, editors. Chapter 98. Formaldehyde. Pp 973-980. 1992. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, Maryland.
- Hathaway, GJ, NH Proctor, et al. Chemical Hazards of the Workplace. 1991. Van Rostrand Reinhold, New York, New york.
- NIOSH. Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. June 1994. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
- EPA. "Read Me" File For Final OAQPS Particulate Matter Staff Paper, july 15, 1996: Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter - Policy Assessment of Scientific and Technical Information.
- EPA. Fact Sheet, EPA's Proposal on the Particulate Matter Standard. November 29, 1996.