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HEALTH CONSULTATION
Historical VOC Levels
TRANGUCH GASOLINE SITE

HAZELTON, LUZERNE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

APPENDIX A (Cont.)

Indoor air data collected using an Hnu PID in 43 houses in Hazleton, PA by PADEP over a 49 sampling days period in 1993. The highest total VOC concentration from any room in each house was recorded in PID units. The limit of detection for total VOCs by the Hnu PID was 1 part per million (ppm). Hnu PID readings for total VOCs ranged from 0-202 ppm.

Sample Location   15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28
  24-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.2 0 0
  25-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  26-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  27-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5.8 0 0
  29-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0
  4-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  15-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
  18-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
  20-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
  21-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.8 0 2.5 0 0 0 0 0
  23-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
  24-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
  26-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0
  28-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0
  29-Oct 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0
  30-Oct 0 0 0 80 0 0 16 0 0 2 0 0 202 5
  31-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 0
  1-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
  2-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 70 0
  3-Nov 0 0 0 32 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 1.8 0 0
  4-Nov 0 0 0 22 0 0.3 1 1.2 0.8 3.5 0 0 9 3.2
  5-Nov 0 0 0 7 0 0 4 0.6 0 3 0 0.5 0 0.2
  6-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.8 0 0 0.4 0 3.6 0.8 0
  7-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0 0 0 0 2.4 0 0
  8-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0.2
  9-Nov 0 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 0.6 0.6 0.8 2.8 0 0 0.4
  10-Nov 0.2 0 0 0.6 0 0 0 3.2 1.6 0.5 0 1 0 0.8
  1 1-Nov 0 0 0 1.5 0 1 3.4 0 0.8 0.5 0 0.2 0 0.6
  12-Nov 0 0 0 0.4 0 0 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.2 0 0 0 0.3
  1 3-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0.2 2.5 0
  14-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0 0.4 0 0 0 1 0
  15-Nov 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0.2 0 0
  16-Nov 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.5 2 2 0.5 0.3
  17-Nov 0 0 13 0 0 0 0.4 0 0 0.8 0.5 0 0 16
  18-Nov 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 60 0 1
  19-Nov 0 0 3 0 0 0 5.2 0.4 0 0.5 0 0 0 0
  20-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0
  21-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  22-Nov 0 0 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0
  23-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  24-Nov 0 0 0.2 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 0 0
  27-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  28-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 19 0 2 0 0 2 0 0
  29-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0
  30-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0.5 0 0 0
  1-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  2-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  3-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  4-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  AVG 0.004082 0 0.334694 3.181633 0 0.026531 1.240816 0.14898 1.222449 0.497959 0.087755 2.171429 9.914286 0.571429
  COUNT 1 0 4 14 0 2 16 7 24 13 4 16 7 11

Sample Location   29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43  
  24-Sep 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  25-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  26-Sep 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  27-Sep 3.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  29-Sep 16 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  4-Oct 4 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  15-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  18-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  20-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  21-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  23-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  24-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  26-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  28-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  29-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  30-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 15  
  31-Oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  1-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0  
  2-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0  
  3-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 6.8 2.5 0 0 3 0 0 0 2.2  
  4-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.8 0 0 0 5.2 0 4 0 1  
  5-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2.2 0 0 0.5 3  
  6-Nov 0 0 0 4.8 0 0.4 0 3.4 0 0 0.8 0 0 0 0.4  
  7-Nov 0 0 0 2.4 0 0 0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  8-Nov 1.2 0 0 3.8 0 0 0.2 1.2 0 0 0 0 1.3 0 0  
  9-Nov 0 0 0 2 0 0.2 3 12 0 0 2 0 0 0 1.5  
  10-Nov 0 0 0 3.6 0 0 3.2 1 0 0 1.8 0 10 0 0  
  11-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 1 1.2 3 0 0.5 0 4.5 0 0  
  12-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  13-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0.4 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  14-Nov 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2  
  15-Nov 0 0 0 0.4 0 0.2 0 0 0.2 0 4 0 0 0 2  
  16-Nov 0 0 0 0.8 0 1 0 0.9 0 0 1.1 0 0 0 0  
  17-Nov 0.2 0 0.2 1.8 0 0.2 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  18-Nov 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 2.5 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  19-Nov 0 0 0 35 0 5 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5  
  20-Nov 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0 1.8 0 0  
  21-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  22-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  23-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  24-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  27-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  28-Nov 0 0 0 50 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 7  
  29-Nov 0 0 0 18.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  30-Nov 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  1-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 1 18 0 0 0  
  2-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  3-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 6.2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0  
  4-Dec 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  
  AVG 0.542857 0 0.004082 2.593878 0.081633 0.685714 0.640816 0.644898 0.083673 0 0.546939 0.367347 0.95102 0.010204 0.669388 0.774371
  COUNT 6 0 1 14 1 19 13 12 4 0 13 1 8 1 10 5.979167


APPENDIX B: HEALTH HAZARD CATEGORIES

CATEGORY A: URGENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category defines sites where short-term exposures (< 1 yr) to hazardous substances or conditions could result in adverse health effects that require rapid intervention.

This determination represents a professional judgment based on critical data ATSDR considers sufficient to support a decision. This does not necessarily imply that the available data are complete. Additional data may be required to confirm or further support the decision made.

Criteria:

Evaluation of available relevant information* indicates that site-specific conditions or likely exposures have had, are having, or are likely to have an adverse affect on human health that requires immediate action or intervention. Such site-specific conditions or exposures may include the presence of serious physical or safety hazards, such as open mine shafts, poorly stored or maintained flammable/explosive substances, or medical devices which, upon rupture, could release radioactive materials.

* Such as environmental and demographic data; health outcome data; exposure data; community health concerns information; toxicologic, medical, and epidemiologic data.

ATSDR Actions:

ATSDR will expeditiously issue a health advisory that includes recommendations to mitigate the health risks posed by the site. The recommendations issued in the health advisory and/or health assessment should be consistent with the degree of hazard and temporal concerns posed by exposures to hazardous substances at the site. Depending on the degree of hazard posed by the site and the presence of sufficiently defined current, past, or future completed exposure pathways, one or more of the following public health actions can be recommended:

  • biologic indicators of exposure study
  • biomedical testing
  • case study
  • disease and symptom prevalence study
  • community health investigations
  • registries
  • site-specific surveillance
  • voluntary residents tracking system
  • cluster investigation
  • health statistics review
  • health professional education
  • community health education
  • substance-specific applied research

CATEGORY B: PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category defines sites that pose a public health hazard through the existence of long-term exposures (> 1 yr) to hazardous substance or conditions that could result in adverse health effects.

This determination represents a professional judgment based on critical data ATSDR considers sufficient to support a decision. This does not necessarily imply that the available data are complete. Additional data may be required to confirm or further support the decision made.

Criteria:

Evaluation of available relevant information* suggests that, under site-specific conditions of exposure, long-term exposures to site-specific contaminants (including radionuclides) have had, are having, or are likely to have an adverse affect on human health that requires one or more public health interventions. Such site-specific exposures may include the presence of serious physical hazards, such as open mine shafts, poorly stored or maintained flammable/explosive substances, or medical devices which, upon rupture, could release radioactive materials.

*Such as environmental and demographic data; health outcome data; exposure data; community health concerns information; toxicologic, medical, and epidemiologic data.

ATSDR Actions:

ATSDR will make recommendations in the health assessment to mitigate the health risks posed by the site. The recommendations issued in the health assessment should be consistent with the degree of hazard and temporal concerns posed by exposures to hazardous substances at the site. Actions on the recommendations may have occurred before the actual completion of the public health assessment.

Depending on the degree of hazard posed by the site and the presence of sufficiently defined current, past, or future completed exposure pathways, one or more of the following public health actions can be recommended:

  • biologic indicators of exposure study
  • biomedical testing
  • case study
  • disease and symptom prevalence study
  • community health investigations
  • registries
  • site-specific surveillance
  • voluntary residents tracking system
  • cluster investigation
  • health statistics review
  • health professional education
  • community health education
  • substance-specific applied research

CATEGORY C: INDETERMINATE PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category is used for sites when a professional judgment on the level of health hazard cannot be made because information critical to such a decision is lacking.

Criteria:

This category defines sites for which "critical" data concerning exposure and/or toxicologic properties at estimated exposure levels are insufficient. The health assessor must determine, using professional judgment, the "criticality" of such data and the likelihood that the data can be obtained and will be obtained in a timely manner. Where some data are available, even limited data, the health assessor is encouraged to the extent possible to select other hazard categories. The health assessor should support the decision with clear narrative that explains the limits of the data and the rationale for the decision.

ATSDR Actions:

ATSDR will make recommendations in the health assessment to identify the data or information needed to adequately assess the public health risks posed by the site.

Public health actions recommended in this category will depend on the hazard potential of the site, specifically as it relates to the potential for human exposure of public health concern. Actions on the recommendations may have occurred before the actual completion of the public health assessment.

If the potential for exposure is high, initial health actions aimed at determining the population with the greatest risk of exposure can be recommended. Such health actions include the following:

  • community health investigation
  • health statistics review
  • cluster investigation
  • symptom and disease prevalence study

If the population of concern can be determined through these or other actions, any of the remaining follow-up health activities listed under categories A and B may be recommended.

In addition, if data become available suggesting that human exposure to hazardous substances at levels of public health concern is occurring or has occurred, ATSDR will reevaluate the need for any follow up.

CATEGORY D: NO APPARENT PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category defines sites where human exposure to contaminated media may have occurred, may be occurring, and/or may occur in the future, but the exposure is not expected to cause any adverse health effects.

This determination represents a professional judgment based on critical data ATSDR considers sufficient to support a decision. This does not necessarily imply that the available data are complete. Additional data may be required to confirm or further support the decision made.

Criteria:

Evaluation of available relevant information* indicates that, under site-specific conditions of exposure, exposures to site-specific contaminants in the past, present, or future are not likely to result in any adverse affect on human health.

*Such as environmental and demographic data; health outcome data; exposure data; community health concerns information; toxicologic, medical, and epidemiologic data; monitoring and management plans.

ATSDR Actions:

If appropriate, ATSDR will make recommendations for monitoring, removal, and/or remedial actions needed to ensure that humans are not exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous substances in the future. Actions on the recommendations may occur before the completion of the public health assessment.

The following health actions, which may be recommended in this category, are based on information indicating that no human exposure is occurring or has occurred to hazardous substances at levels of public health concern. One or more of the following health actions are recommended for sites in this category:

  • community health education
  • health professional education
  • community health investigation
  • voluntary residents tracking system

If data become available suggesting that human exposure to hazardous substances at levels of public health concern is occurring, or has occurred, ATSDR will reevaluate the need for any follow up.

CATEGORY E: NO PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARD

This category defines sites that, because of the absence of exposure, do NOT pose a public health hazard.

Criteria:

Sufficient evidence indicates that no human exposures to contaminated media have occurred, none are occurring, and none are likely to occur.

ATSDR Actions:

No public health actions are recommended at this time because no human exposure is occurring, has occurred, or is likely to occur that may be of public health concern.


REFERENCES

  1. Werner, L. Strike Team technical assistance request. Tranguch gasoline site. September 30, 2003. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

  2. Environmental Protection Agency. Indoor Air Sampling at Tranguch Gasoline Site. 2001-2002.

  3. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. Indoor air sampling and analysis. 1993.

  4. Environmental Protection Agency. Carcinogenic effects of benzene: an update. 1998: Washington, DC.

  5. Rinsky RA, Smith AB, Jornung R, Filloon TG, Young RJ, et al. Benzene and leukemia: an epidemiologic risk assessment. N Engl J Med, 1987. 316: p. 1044-50.

  6. Aksoy, M. Hematotoxicity and carcinogenicity of benzene. Environ Health Perspect, 1989. 82: p. 193-7.

  7. Aksoy, M. Types of leukemia in chronic benzene poisoning. A study in thirty-four patients. Acta Haemat, 1976. 55: p. 65-72.

  8. Savitz DA, Andrews KW. Risk of myelogenous leukaemia and multiple myeloma in workers exposed to benzene. Occup Environ Med, 1996. 53: p. 357.

  9. Infante PF, Rinsky RA, Wagoner JK, Young RJ. Leukemia in benzene workers. Lancet, 1977. 2: p. 76-8.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Memo from Gregory Zarus to Lora Werner concerning Tranguch site assessment. 2003. Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA.

  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for benzene. 1997. US Department of Health and Human Services: Atlanta.

  12. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Health Consultation concerning Tranguch gasoline site. 2001. US Department of Health and Human Services: Atlanta.

  13. Rinsky R, Young RJ, Smith AB. Leukemia in benzene workers. Am J Ind Med, 1981. 2: p. 217-45.

  14. Duarte-Davidson R, Courage C, Rushton L, Levy L. Benzene in the environment: an assessment of the potential risk to the health of the population. Occup Environ Med, 2001. 58: p. 2-13.

  15. Schnatter AR, Nicholich MJ, Bird MG. Determination of leukemogenic benzene exposure concentrations: refined analyses of the Pliofilm cohort. Risk Anal, 1996. 16: p. 833-40.

  16. Hayes RB, Yin SN, Dosemeci M, Li GL, Wacholder S, et al. Benzene and the dose-related incidence of hematologic neoplasms in China. 1997. 89: p. 1065-71.

  17. Alexander FE, Patheal SL, Biondi A, Brandalise S, Cabera M-E, et al. Transplacental chemical exposure and risk of infant leukemia with MLL gene fusion. Cancer Res, 2001. 61: p. 2542-6.

  18. Rushton R, Romaniuk H. A case-control study to investigate the risk of leukemia associated with exposure to benzene in petroleum marketing and distribution workers in the United Kingdom. Occup Environ Med, 1997. 54: p. 152-66.

  19. Collins JJ, Ireland B, Buckley CF, Shepperly D. Lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality among workers with benzene exposure. Occup Environ Med, 2003. 60: p. 676-9.

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