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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ALBION-SHERIDAN TOWNSHIP LANDFILL
SHERIDAN TOWNSHIP, CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN


CONCLUSIONS

  1. On the basis of information reviewed, the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill (ASTL) site does not pose any apparent public health hazard under current conditions. The site did pose a public health hazard in the past and may pose one in the future because of possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted previously in the Environmental Contaminants and Other Hazards, Pathways Analyses, and Public Health Implications sections, humans may have been exposed to various metals in the past through incidental ingestion of soils on the landfill. Access to the site has probably been infrequent, and the site has recently been fenced to deter future access. In addition, a child subject to pica behavior might ingest enough of various metals from the soil around a residence on former landfill property south of the landfill itself to incur a slight risk of adverse health effects. No children are currently living in this residence, though future inhabitants may include children.
  2. A plume contaminated with arsenic, manganese, and other metals is in the groundwater beneath and downgradient of the landfill. However, this plume apparently has not reached any existing private wells in the area, including one directly south of the landfill. Organic chemicals have been found in leachate within the landfill, though no confirmed organic contamination has been reported in the groundwater below the landfill.
  3. Arsenic, heptachlor, and manganese have been detected at concentrations of human health concern in water from residential wells in the site area. The presence of these chemicals in the private wells near the site is probably not caused by conditions on the site, since the concentrations detected are the same in wells upgradient of the ASTL site as in downgradient wells. None of the reported concentrations of these chemicals exceed the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant limits, and the validity of the reported concentrations of heptachlor has been questioned. The potential adverse health effects from exposure to water containing the reported heptachlor concentrations would be minor.
  4. Cancer incidence data kept by the Michigan Department of Public Health were examined in response to reports of concern about cancer incidence in a nearby community. The data do not indicate any increased incidence of cancer in the ZIP Code area including the site.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. The remediation option selected for this site should provide for the control of off-site migration of contaminants. The Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH) supports the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) decision to cap the landfill as prescribed in its record of decision (ROD) (12). MDCH understands that EPA and the owners of the residence south of the landfill are negotiating to include that portion of the former landfill property in the remediation.
  2. The monitoring wells on and near the site should be sampled on a regular basis to detect migration of the contaminant plume. In addition to sampling for the metals found in the plume to monitor its location, samples should be periodically analyzed for EPA's Target Contaminant List of organic chemicals to determine whether the leachate from the landfill is reaching the groundwater aquifers. The EPA ROD includes monitoring of the groundwater for 5 years to determine whether further treatment is required (12).
  3. Future remedial investigations (RIs) or remedial activities include periodic sampling of private and municipal wells in the vicinity of the site. These wells should be sampled at least once each year for arsenic and manganese. The wells in which heptachlor was reported should be sampled again to confirm the presence of the chemical. Because of the questions about the validity of the data and the detection limits previously mentioned in the Quality Assurance and Quality Control section, the laboratory that performs the analysis must have the capability to accurately measure this compound in the range of concentrations originally reported by the EPA contractor laboratory used for the RI. The EPA ROD for the site includes monitoring of nearby residential wells (12).

HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATION PANEL STATEMENT

A Health Activities Recommendation Panel convened by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and MDCH has evaluated the data and information developed for the Public Health Assessment for the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill to ascertain appropriate follow-up health actions. The panel determined that there is circumstantial evidence that trespassers on the site may have been exposed to environmental contaminants. However, there is no evidence that this exposure was of significant human health hazard. The community around the site has expressed concern about the perceived incidence of cancer in their community, and a program of citizen and physician education should be developed to address these concerns.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

Public health action plans (PHAPs) are developed to describe actions to be taken by ATSDR or MDCH, or both, at and in the vicinity of sites after public health assessments are completed. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that public health assessments not only identify public health hazards, but also provide a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions undertaken and to be implemented by ATSDR or MDCH, or both, are as follows:

Health Actions Undertaken

The Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) referred a report of concerns about increased cancer incidence in a community near the site to the Jackson County Health Department. The Jackson County Health Department, in cooperation with the MDPH, conducted a preliminary investigation of the concerns.

Health Actions Planned

MDCH, ATSDR, the Jackson County Health Department, and the Calhoun County Health Department will develop a program of health education to address the health concerns of the residents of the site area.

ATSDR and MDCH will coordinate with federal and state environmental agencies to carry out the other recommendations made in this assessment.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the PHAP when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions and recommendations may determine the need for additional actions at this site.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

    Michigan Department of Community Health

          John W. Filpus, Environmental Engineer

          James Bedford, Environmental Toxicologist

          Michael Lee, Environmental Toxicologist

          Robin Freer, Geographic Information System Specialist

          John L. Hesse, Principal Investigator

          Brendan Boyle, Health Assessment Coordinator

ATSDR Regional Representative

    Louise Fabinski
    Regional Services, Region V
    Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

    William J. Greim
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
    Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SSAB)

CERTIFICATION

The Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill Area Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Michigan Department of Community Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was initiated.


William Greim
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

  1. WW Engineering and Science. Final remedial investigation report of the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, Albion, Michigan. 1994 Apr.
  2. Kozlowski E, Ecology and Environment, Inc. Memorandum, Subject: Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1986 Mar 19.
  3. WW Engineering and Science. Draft phase 1 summary report, remedial investigation, Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1993 Jun.
  4. Morgan D, MDNR. Memorandum to B. Boyle, MDPH, Subject: Public health assessment for Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1994 Sep 20.
  5. Weston, Inc., for EPA. Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site assessment. 1990 Jan 4.
  6. Environmental Protection Agency. Progress reports on PRP removal action, Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1990 Jun 13, Jul 12, and Aug 17.
  7. WW Engineering and Science. Work plan for the remedial investigation and feasibility study of the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1992 Aug.
  8. Hall G, MDNR site manager. Personal communication. 1992 Oct.
  9. WW Engineering and Science. Final presumptive remedy risk assessment of the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, Albion, Michigan. 1994 Jul.
  10. WW Engineering and Science. Final presumptive remedy feasibility study report of the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, Albion, Michigan. 1994 Sep.
  11. Hall G, MDNR site manager. Personal communication. 1994 Jan 25.
  12. Environmental Protection Agency. Record of decision, Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site. 1995 Mar 28.
  13. Michigan Department of Public Health, for ATSDR. Preliminary health assessment for Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1990 Sep 10.
  14. Sakora K, MDEQ. Personal communication. 1997 Jun 12.
  15. US Bureau of the Census. Preliminary 1990 Census Data. Washington: US Bureau of the Census.
  16. Tetra Tech, Inc., for EPA. Potentially responsible party search, draft report. 1988 May.
  17. Havens T, environmental health director, Calhoun County Health Department. Telephone conversation. 1992 Dec 9.
  18. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Laboratory. Unpublished laboratory data sheets. 1980.
  19. ABB Environmental Systems. Daily air monitoring log. 1994 Jun 6-9.
  20. Michigan Department of Public Health, Division of Water Supply. Albion municipal water supply records. 1992 Nov 20.
  21. Bloemker JW, Michigan Department of Public Health, Division of Water Supply. Memorandum to W.E. Brown, Subject: Public health assessment--draft, Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill. 1994 Jun 8.
  22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (update), draft for public comment. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Oct.
  23. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Surface Water Quality Division. Staff report, Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program, 1989 annual report. 1989 Dec. MI/DNR/SWQ-89/168.
  24. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for heptachlor/heptachlor epoxide (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/11.
  25. Kooistra R, MDNR district supervisor. Memorandum to A. Hogarth, MDNR, Subject: Albion-Sheridan Landfill. 1985 May 6.
  26. Hesse J, MDPH. Memorandum to G. Klepper, MDNR, Subject: Albion-Sheridan Landfill proposed funding. 1985 May 17.
  27. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public health assessment guidance manual. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992 Mar.
  28. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for aluminum. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992 Jul. ATSDR/TP-91/01.
  29. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Waste Management Division. Michigan background soil survey. Revised 1991 Apr.
  30. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for arsenic (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/02.
  31. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for barium. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992 Jul. ATSDR/TP-91/03.
  32. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for cadmium (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/06.
  33. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for chromium (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/08.
  34. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for cobalt. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992 Jul. ATSDR/TP-91/10.
  35. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for copper. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1990 Dec. ATSDR/TP-90/08.
  36. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for lead (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/12.
  37. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for manganese. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992 Jul. ATSDR/TP-91/19.
  38. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Accessed 1995 Jun 8.
  39. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for nickel (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/14.
  40. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for vanadium. Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1992 Jul. ATSDR/TP-91/29.
  41. Brunetti G, Moscato G. Medicine del Lavoro 1984;75(2):120-124.
  42. Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Bethesda: National Library of Medicine, National Toxicology Information Program, 1994 Feb 1.
  43. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/05.
  44. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for selected PCBs (Aroclor -1260, -1254, -1248, -1242, -1232, -1221, and -1016) (update). Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1993 Apr. ATSDR/TP-92/16.
  45. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Surface Water Quality Division. Staff report, Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program, 1991 annual report. 1991 Dec. MI/DNR/SWQ-91/273.
  46. Michigan Department of Public Health. Public health fish consumption advisory. In MDNR, 1994 Michigan fishing guide. 1994 Jan.
  47. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene (update), draft for public comment. 1993 Oct.
  48. Roy F, Weston, Inc. Remedial investigation report for J & L Landfill, Rochester Hills, Michigan. 1991 Dec.
  49. Spivak G, MDPH Office of State Registrar/Division of Health Statistics. Memorandum to J. Filpus. 1995 Feb 3.
  50. Michigan Department of Public Health, Office of State Registrar and Center for Health Statistics. Cancer incidence data for ZIP Code area 49224, 1985-1991. 1994 Apr.
  51. Cecil B, Jackson County Health Department. Personal communication. 1994 Jan 18.



OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES NOT CITED IN TEXT

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Site summary sheet. 1984.
  2. Environmental Protection Agency. Preliminary assessment. 1984.
  3. Environmental Protection Agency. Site inspection report. 1986.
  4. Environmental Protection Agency. Hazard ranking system score sheet. 1986.
  5. Environmental Protection Agency. Hazard ranking system score sheet. 1987.
  6. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Files and interoffice correspondence.


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