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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

ALBION-SHERIDAN TOWNSHIP LANDFILL
SHERIDAN TOWNSHIP, CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN


APPENDIX A.

FIGURES


LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. Site Location.

Figure 2. Current Approximate Property Boundaries (from Reference 1, Figure 2).


Figure 1. Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill


Figure 2. Current Approximate Property Boundaries



APPENDIX B.

TABLES


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Population of governmental units near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site (1990 Census).
Table 2. Contaminants of concern at the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 3. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater from on-sitemonitoring wells at the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, 1980-1981.
Table 4. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater from on-sitemonitoring wells at the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, from the remedialinvestigation, December 1992 - March 1993.
Table 5. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in water from the residential well onthe Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 6. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in leachate from the Albion-SheridanTownship Landfill.
Table 7. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface soil collected within thefence on the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 8. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface soil collected from the areaaround the residence on the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 9. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sludge (1980) and drum contents(1989) from the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.
Table 10. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in landfill wastes from the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 11. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater from off-sitemonitoring wells near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.
Table 12. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in water from residential wells near theAlbion-Sheridan Township Landfill.
Table 13. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface soil samples collected nearthe Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 14. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface water from the KalamazooRiver near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.
Table 15. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface water from wetlandsadjoining the Kalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.
Table 16. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sediment samples collected from theKalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 17. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sediment collected from wetlandsadjoining the Kalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.
Table 18. Number of observed1 and expected2 cases of invasive cancer among residents ofZIP Code 49224, by year of diagnosis, 1985-1991.


Table 2. Contaminants of concern at the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

METALS AND INORGANIC
CHEMICALS
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC
HYDROCARBONS

Aluminum
Ammonia
Antimony
Arsenic
Barium
Cadmium
Calcium
Chromium
Cobalt
Copper
Cyanide
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Potassium
Sodium
Vanadium
Zinc


VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Benzene
Chloroethane
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
1,1-Dichloroethane
2-Hexanone
4-Methyl-2-pentanone
1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Vinyl chloride

Benzo(a)anthracene
Benzo(a)pyrene
Benzo(b)fluoranthene
Benzo(ghi)perylene
Benzo(k)fluoranthene
Chrysene
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene
2-Methylnaphthalene
Naphthalene
Phenanthrene


OTHER SEMI-VOLATILE ORGANIC
COMPOUNDS

p-Chloro-m-cresol
1,4-Dichlorobenzene
Di-n-octyl phthalate
4-Methylphenol


PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED
BIPHENYLS (PCBs)

Heptachlor
Heptachlor epoxide
Lindane
PCBs




Table 3. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater from on-sitemonitoring wells at the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, 1980-1981.

ChemicalDateConcentration
(ppb)
Comparison Values
(ppb)
northsoutheastsouth
Ammonia19801010,0002403,000Ei
19817038,000230
Calcium198072,000180,00094,000NA
198150,000150,000110,000
Chromium (total)1980ND (50)ND (50)ND (50)10,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
1981ND (50)5555
Copper1980ND (20)30ND (20)1,300MG
198175130110
Iron198014,00049,0002,600NA
198112,00049,0001,000
Lead198070ND (50)ND (50)15PL, carcinogen
1981220200400
Magnesium198019,00047,00031,000NA
198116,00055,00055,000
Potassium19811,400120,0002,800NA
Sodium19806,60099,00045,000NA
19812,000130,000220,000
Zinc1980ND (50)23,0001103,000R
198111,00012,00014,000

Reference: 18

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    MG -- EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of waterper day
    PL -- EPA Proposed Action Level for Lead in Drinking Water




Table 4. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater from on-sitemonitoring wells at the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill, from the remedialinvestigation, December 1992 - March 1993.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppb)
upgradientdowngradient
Ammonia12/92NU203,000.J33,000Ei
3/93ND (100)28,000.J1
Arsenic12/92ND (2.2)46.130.02C
3/93ND (1)27.2J1
Barium12/9286.1J4623700R
3/9392.94681
Calcium12/92113,000174,0003NA
3/93135,000172,0001
Chloroethane12/92ND (10)ND (10)3NA
3/93ND (1)0.9J1
Cobalt12/92ND (12.2)6.7J3NA
3/93ND (9)9.4J1
Copper12/92ND (7.8)ND (7.8)31,300MG
3/93ND (7)7.J1
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane3/93ND (1)81carcinogen
Di-n-octyl phthalate12/922.JND (10)3NA
3/930.9J5.J1
Heptachlor12/920.0096JPND (0.05)30.008C
3/93ND (0.01)ND (0.01)1
Iron12/926645,8903NA
3/931,220.J4,490.J1
Lead12/92ND (1.1)ND (10)315PL, carcinogen
3/934.7ND (1)1
Magnesium12/9229,40048,0003NA
3/9334,60051,1001
Manganese12/92360.J888350R
3/933027901
Nickel12/92ND (32.2)26.1J3carcinogen
3/93ND (18)27.4J1
Potassium12/929,15056,9003NA
3/9314,200.J57,000.J1
Sodium12/9284,300753,0003NA
3/93105,000125,0001
Zinc12/92ND (10)ND (15.8)33,000R
3/93ND (10)66.91

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.
Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

upgradient -- north and east of the landfill
downgradient -- south and west of the landfill

J -- Estimated Value
P -- The two columns used in the Pesticide/PCB analysis had more than a 25% difference in the results reported. The lower value is reported.
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen ( EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    A -- EPA Drinking Water Health Advisory (Lifetime)
    MG -- EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of waterper day
    PL -- EPA Proposed Action Level for Lead in Drinking Water




Table 5. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in water from the residential well onthe Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Value
(ppb)
Aluminum10/9247.1J3NA
Ammonia10/9228330,000Ei
Arsenic10/921.1J30.02C
Barium10/9230.93700R
Calcium10/9282,9003NA
Iron10/9292.2J3NA
Magnesium10/9224,0003NA
Manganese10/9263350R
Sodium10/9217,6003NA
Zinc10/9234.1JN33,000R

Chemicals that were not detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J, JN -- Estimated Value

NA -- None Available

Comparison Value Bases

    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide, for 10-6 risk on lifetime exposure
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of water per day



Table 6. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in leachate from the Albion-SheridanTownship Landfill.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppb)
Ammonia12/92473,000.J33,000Ei
3/93450,000.J1
Arsenic12/9221.4J30.02C
3/9312.6J1
Barium12/92126.J3700R
3/932021
Benzene12/926.J31C
3/937.J1
Benzo(a)anthracene12/9211.J3carcinogen
3/93ND (50)1
Benzo(b)fluoranthene12/9214.J3carcinogen
3/93ND (50)1
Calcium12/9267,200.J3NA
3/9377,1001
Chloroethane12/92ND (10)3NA
3/935.J1
Chromium (total)12/9241.4J310,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
3/9361.71
Cobalt12/9221.7J3NA
3/9323.9J1
1,1-Dichloroethane12/92ND (10)3carcinogen
3/931.J1
Heptachlor epoxide12/920.015JP30.004C
3/930.12JP1
2-Hexanone 12/921503NA
3/93ND (10)1
Iron12/925,600.J3NA
3/9311,300.J1
Lead12/923.3J315PL, carcinogen
3/93NU1
Lindane12/920.032J33R, carcinogen
3/93ND (0.05)1
Magnesium12/92183,000.J3NA
3/93235,0001
Manganese12/9259.7J350R
3/93861
2-Methylnaphthalene 12/9232.J3NA
3/9319.J1
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 12/92193NA
3/93ND (10)1
4-Methylphenol 12/924003carcinogen
3/9311.J1
Naphthalene12/9238.J320A
3/9315.J1
Nickel12/92185.J3carcinogen
3/932791
Potassium12/92450,000.J3NA
3/93566,000.J1
Sodium12/921,600,000.J3NA
3/931,800,0001
Vanadium12/9216.4JB3NA
3/9320.9B1
Vinyl chloride12/921432E, carcinogen
3/93ND (10)1

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
P -- The two columns used in the Pesticide/PCB analysis had more than a 25% difference in the results reported. The lower value is reported.
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)
NU -- Unusable Data

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    A -- EPA Drinking Water Health Advisory (Lifetime)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of waterper day
    PL -- EPA Proposed Action Level for Lead in Drinking Water



Table 7. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface soil collected within thefence on the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
Aluminum10/924,7103NA
Arsenic10/9252.230.4C
Barium10/922203100R
Benzo(a)anthracene10/920.35J3carcinogen
Benzo(a)pyrene10/920.046J30.1C
Benzo(b)fluoranthene10/920.06J3carcinogen
Benzo(ghi)perylene10/920.059J3NA
Benzo(k)fluoranthene10/920.04J3carcinogen
Cadmium10/92331E, carcinogen
Calcium10/9257,3003NA
Chromium (total)10/9263.332,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Chrysene10/920.075J3carcinogen
Cobalt10/924.J3NA
Copper10/9273.93NA
Cyanide10/921340R
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene10/920.17J3carcinogen
Iron10/9214,6003NA
Lead10/921603carcinogen
Magnesium10/9212,3003NA
Manganese10/92832.J3300R
Nickel10/9239.43carcinogen
PCBs10/920.09130.04E, 0.09C
Phenanthrene10/920.049J3NA
Potassium10/921,3903NA
Sodium10/92485.J3NA
Vanadium10/92133NA
Zinc10/922783600R

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior




Table 8. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface soil collected from the areaaround the residence on the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
Aluminum10/923,9403NA
Arsenic10/9211.130.4C
Barium10/9223.4J3100R
Benzo(a)anthracene10/920.041J3carcinogen
Benzo(a)pyrene10/920.043J30.1C
Benzo(b)fluoranthene10/920.11J3carcinogen
Benzo(ghi)perylene10/920.037J3NA
Benzo(k)fluoranthene10/920.12J3carcinogen
Calcium10/9234,3003NA
Chromium (total)10/929.532,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Chrysene10/920.057J3carcinogen
Cobalt10/923.5J3NA
Copper10/9212.53NA
Di-n-octyl phthalate10/9216.B3NA
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene10/920.04J3carcinogen
Iron10/9211,6003NA
Lead10/9216.93carcinogen
Magnesium10/929,2003NA
Manganese10/92277.J3300R
Nickel10/9211.53carcinogen
Phenanthrene10/920.026J3NA
Sodium10/92158.J3NA
Vanadium10/9211.13NA
Zinc10/9243.5J3600R

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior



Table 9. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sludge (1980) and drum contents(1989) from the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.

ChemicalDateMaximum
Concentration

(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
Cadmium198010181E, carcinogen
Chromium (total)1980250,000182,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Cyanide19802,1001840R
Iron198045,00018NA
Lead198028018carcinogen
Nickel19801,00018carcinogen
Zinc1980150,00018600R
Ethylbenzene19890.03125200R
Tetrachloroethylene19890.006510C
Toluene19890.0175400R
1,1,1-Trichloroethane19890.01755NA
Xylenes (total)19890.3195400Ei

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide




Table 10. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in landfill wastes from the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
Aluminum12/922,9603NA
Antimony12/9252330.8R
Arsenic12/9213.130.4C
Barium12/9274.83100R
Benzo(a)anthracene12/920.10J3carcinogen
Benzo(a)pyrene12/920.086J30.1C
Benzo(b)fluoranthene12/920.17J3carcinogen
Cadmium12/92431E, carcinogen
p-Chloro-m-cresol12/924.13NA
Chromium (total)12/9213.532,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Chrysene12/920.11J3carcinogen
Cobalt12/923.2J3NA
Copper12/9235.13NA
1,4-Dichlorobenzene12/920.21J3carcinogen
Iron12/9215,2003NA
Lead12/922083carcinogen
Magnesium12/9211,5003NA
Manganese12/92366.J3300R
2-Methylnaphthalene 12/920.15J3NA
4-Methyl-2-pentanone 12/920.0123NA
4-Methylphenol 12/92153carcinogen
Naphthalene12/921.4J3NA
Nickel12/9212.83carcinogen
PCBs12/920.2130.04E, 0.09C
Phenanthrene12/920.26J3NA
Potassium12/92516.J3NA
Sodium12/92768.J3NA
1,1,1-Trichloroethane12/920.003J3NA
Vanadium12/929.1J3NA
Zinc12/921393600R

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior



Table 11. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in groundwater from off-sitemonitoring wells near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppb)
upgradientdowngradient
Aluminum12/92442ND (46.7)3NA
3/93ND (51.6)2,5301
Ammonia12/92NU6,340.J33,000Ei
3/93ND (100)27,0001
Antimony12/92ND (66.7)71.434R
3/93ND (25)ND (53)1
Arsenic12/92ND (2.2)85.130.02C
3/93ND (1)126.J1
Barium12/9279.1J2913700R
3/9388.83801
Cadmium12/92ND (5.6)ND (3.3)37E, carcinogen
3/93ND (4)0.15J1
Calcium12/92104,000143,0003NA
3/93120,000131,0001
Chromium (total)12/92ND (10)5.9J310,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
3/93ND (6)6.5J1
Cobalt12/92ND (12.2)8.2J3NA
3/93ND (5)161
Copper12/9210.4J5.6J31,300MG
3/93ND (13.8)8.8J1
1,1-Dichloroethane12/92ND (10)ND (10)3carcinogen
3/93ND (1)0.2J1
Di-n-octyl phthalate12/928.JND (10)3NA
3/932.JND (5)1
Iron12/926372,5503NA
3/938353,4201
Lead12/921.7J2.6J315PL, carcinogen
3/93ND (1)4.71
Magnesium12/9228,30041,0003NA
3/9331,10041,9001
Manganese12/92345.J443350R
3/933634111
Potassium12/9248,70032,200.J3NA
3/9365,300.J38,600.J1
Sodium12/9258,80084,1003NA
3/9364,900102,0001
Vinyl chloride12/92ND (10)ND (10)32E, carcinogen
3/93ND (1)21
Zinc12/92ND (10)6.7J33,000R
3/93ND (23.5)19.4J1

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

upgradient -- north and east of the landfill
downgradient -- south and west of the landfill

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)
NU -- Unusable Data

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    A -- EPA Drinking Water Health Advisory (Lifetime)
    MG -- EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of waterper day
    PL -- EPA Proposed Action Level for Lead in Drinking Water



Table 12. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in water from residential wells near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Value
(ppb)
upgradientdowngradient
Aluminum10/9282.146.J3NA
Ammonia10/92381,20033,000Ei
Arsenic10/921.4J1.7J30.02C
Barium10/92118773100R
Calcium10/92118,00093,2003NA
Heptachlor10/920.0110.02230.008C
Iron10/921,5302,2303NA
Magnesium10/9232,20028,2003NA
Manganese10/92185104350R
Potassium10/926,14027303NA
Sodium10/9243,700188,0003NA
Zinc10/92103.J71.7J33,000R

Chemicals that were not detected are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

upgradient -- north and east of the landfill
downgradient -- south and west of the landfill

B -- Also found in blank sample
J -- Estimated Value
NA -- None Available

Comparison Value Bases

    Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide, Intermediate-term exposure
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide, for 10-6 risk on lifetime exposure
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram childdrinking 1 liter per day of water per day



Table 13. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface soil samples collected near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
Aluminum10/9217,7003NA
Arsenic10/928.230.4C
Barium10/922123100R
Benzo(a)anthracene10/920.19J3carcinogen
Benzo(a)pyrene10/920.21J30.1C
Benzo(b)fluoranthene10/920.25J3carcinogen
Benzo(ghi)perylene10/920.21J3NA
Benzo(k)fluoranthene10/920.19J3carcinogen
Chromium (total)10/9221.432,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Chrysene10/920.25J3carcinogen
Cobalt10/925.4J3NA
Copper10/9226.83NA
Cyanide10/921340R
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene10/920.055J3carcinogen
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene10/920.24J3carcinogen
Iron10/9213,4003NA
Lead10/9278.33carcinogen
Magnesium10/929,2003NA
Manganese10/921,540.J3300R
Nickel10/9215.73carcinogen
Phenanthrene10/920.075J3NA
Sodium10/92305.J3NA
Vanadium10/9229.83NA
Zinc10/9296.J3600R

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior



Table 14. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface water from the Kalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
Comparison Values
(ppb)
upstreamdownstream
unfilteredfilteredunfilteredfiltered
Aluminum10/9238.9JND (42)40.5JND (42)NA
Arsenic10/92ND (2)1.1JND (2)ND (2)0.02C
Barium10/922629.525.826.5700R
Cadmium10/92ND (0.1)0.55ND (0.1)0.13J7E, carcinogen
Calcium10/9279,40076,000.J75,60078,200NA
Chromium (total)10/92ND (9)ND (10)ND (9)32.110,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Iron10/92109.J11688.286.3NA
Magnesium10/9224,50025,200.J23,30024,600.JNA
Manganese10/929.8J16.7J10.69.6J50R
Potassium10/921,650.JND (1,370)1,510621.JNA
Sodium10/927,6407,9907,7408,170NA
Zinc10/927.2JND (9)ND (5)32.53,000R

Reference: 3

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    A -- EPA Drinking Water Health Advisory (Lifetime)
    PM -- EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Proposed Maximum Contaminant Level
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of waterper day



Table 15. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface water from wetlandsadjoining the Kalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
Comparison Values
(ppb)
upstreamdownstream
unfilteredfilteredunfilteredfiltered
Aluminum10/928,980.JND (42)1,120.JND (42)NA
Arsenic10/9267.55.92.2J1.2J0.02C
Barium10/9230754.966.459.5700R
Cadmium10/921.9JND (0.1)0.29JND (0.1)7E, carcinogen
Calcium10/92215,00097,300.J130,00087,100.JNA
Chromium (total)10/9223ND (10)9.2JND (10)10,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Cobalt10/9211.2ND (10)ND (10)ND (10)NA
Copper10/9228.4ND (8)ND (6)ND (8)1,300MG
Iron10/92124,000.J1,4204,640.J88.4JNA
Lead10/9212.6ND (1)11.6ND (1)15PL, carcinogen
Magnesium10/9226,30027,600.J25,20025,100.JNA
Manganese10/922,790805.J525290.J50R
Potassium10/921,940.J2,4202,2003,370NA
Sodium10/928,7309,56017,60018,100NA
Zinc10/92219ND (9)26.9ND (9)3,000R

Reference: 3

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    A -- EPA Drinking Water Health Advisory (Lifetime)
    MG -- EPA Safe Drinking Water Act Maximum Contaminant Level Goal
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child drinking 1 liter per day of waterper day
    PL -- EPA Proposed Action Level for Lead in Drinking Water



Table 16. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sediment samples collected from the Kalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
upstreamdownstream
Aluminum10/922,7102,2703NA
Antimony10/9218.615.J30.8R
Arsenic10/9244.44.5J30.4C
Barium10/9230.1J22.1J3100R
Cadmium10/92ND (2)38.5J31E, carcinogen
Calcium10/9246,900.J58,6003NA
Chromium (total)10/9212.34832,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Cobalt10/929.5J2.9J3NA
Copper10/9210.514.73NA
Cyanide10/92ND (1)1340R
Iron10/9215,0006,8103NA
Lead10/927.14.93carcinogen
Magnesium10/9214,100.J15,4003NA
Manganese10/92239.J604.J3300R
Mercury10/920.07J0.09J3NA
4-Methylphenol10/920.11JND (0.66)3carcinogen
Nickel10/9219.3213carcinogen
Potassium10/92ND (420)384.J3NA
Sodium10/92139.J76.9J3NA
Vanadium10/928.4J7.8J3NA
Zinc10/9239.523.43600R

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior



Table 17. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sediment collected from wetlandsadjoining the Kalamazoo River near the Albion-Sheridan Township Landfill site.

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
ReferenceComparison Values
(ppm)
upstreamdownstream
Aluminum10/926,0705,4703NA
Arsenic10/928.412.4J30.4C
Barium 10/9293.J74.8J3100R
Benzo(b)fluoranthene10/920.19J0.48J3carcinogen
Benzo(k)fluoranthene10/920.18J0.33J3carcinogen
Calcium10/9266,000.J226,0003NA
Chromium (total)10/92138.932,000R (III)
carcinogen (VI)
Chrysene10/920.15J0.32J3carcinogen
Copper10/9219.J15.9J3NA
Iron10/9216,00034,8003NA
Lead10/9259.184.93carcinogen
Magnesium10/924,460.J4,170.J3NA
Manganese10/92677.J1,040.J3300R
Mercury10/92ND (0.2)0.75J3NA
2-Methylnaphthalene 10/92ND (1.3)0.16J3NA
Phenanthrene10/92ND (1.3)0.28J3NA
Sodium10/92200.J367.J3NA
Vanadium10/9214.5J10.J3NA
Zinc10/921301843600R

Chemicals that were never detected in this medium are not listed.

Shaded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J -- Estimated Value
B -- Analyte Detected in Laboratory Blank Sample
ND -- Not Detected (with detection limit)

NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (EPA Class C or above) but no CREG available
(III) -- Chromium(III)
(VI) -- Chromium(VI)

Comparison Value Bases

    E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
    C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)
    R -- Concentration calculated from EPA Reference Dose (Chronic) by Ingestion, based on 10-kilogram child subject to pica behavior



Table 18. Number of observed1 and expected2 cases of invasive cancer among residents ofZIP Code 49224, by year of diagnosis, 1985-1991.

Year of DiagnosisObserved Cases1Expected Cases2SMR3
19854657.30.80
19865862.90.92
19875267.20.77
19883867.00.57
19895556.10.98
19904556.10.80
19915256.10.93
1985-91346422.70.82

Reference: 50

  1. Includes cases reported to the Michigan Department of Public Health, Office of the State Registrar and Center for Health Statistics, by December 31, 1992.
  2. Expected number of cases is based on ZIP Code population estimates and annual average age- and sex-specific incidence rates from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  3. SMR = Standard Mortality Ratio. Observed number of cases divided by expected numberof cases (49).

RESPONSIVENESS STATEMENT

The Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) released a draft of this Public HealthAssessment for public comment on November 22, 1995. The comment period lasted untilDecember 22, 1995. No comments from the public were received by MDPH in this period.

FOOTNOTES

1. Reference numbers in parentheses refer to the list of References on pages 34-38.

2. As of October 1, 1995, the environmental protection and regulation functions of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) were transferred to the newly formed Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ).

3. On April 1, 1996, the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH), Division of Health Risk Assessment (DHRA), was absorbed into the newly formed Michigan Department of Community Health (MDCH). The site history and background section of this document uses the departmental identifiers in effect at the time of the events.

4. Pica behavior is an abnormal consumption of nonfood materials, such as soil, most often seen in children under 5 years of age.

5. The topsoil samples were, with one exception, primarily sand, according to the RI report (1). The other sample, collected near the west side of the site, was primarily silt, and contained the highest off-site arsenic concentration, above the range of concentrations found in silt samples from that part of the state (29).

6. EPA has issued separate RfDs for manganese for ingestion in food and ingestion in water. No adverse health effects from ingestion of manganese in food have been documented well enough to determine a LOAEL. However, epidemiological studies have shown a connection between neurological disorders and exposure to manganese through the drinking water (37, 38).

7. The estimates were computed by multiplying the national age- and sex-specific cancer incidence rates compiled by the SEER Program by the number of people in each age group living in the ZIP Code area according to U.S. Census data and estimates. These products are then summed to give the total cancer rate estimate (49).


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