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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

BAY CITY MIDDLEGROUNDS
BAY CITY, BAY COUNTY, MICHIGAN


CONCLUSIONS
  1. The Bay City Middlegrounds Landfill site poses a public health hazard. Surface soil, groundwater, and river sediment at and near the site are contaminated with metals, trace levels of pesticides, and volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals. Access to the site is not sufficiently restricted, and trespass has occurred, possibly resulting in contact with contaminated surface materials. The concentrations of contaminants in the surface soil are not likely to result in adverse health effects except upon frequent or prolonged exposure, which is not likely to occur. Trash is also exposed where older trenches were never properly covered.
  2. Groundwater contaminated with PCBs discharges from the site into the Saginaw River. PCBs have been found in the water and sediment from the river, with concentrations higher downstream of the BCM site than upstream. At the concentrations found in the water and sediment, the PCBs are only of human health concern from direct exposure if the exposure continues over a long time, but such direct exposure is not likely. However, PCBs are readily passed up the food chain by aquatic biota. Residents of the area use the Saginaw River near the site for recreation, including fishing. Fish from the river are contaminated with PCBs, from the site and many other potential sources in the river basin for these chemicals. The MDCH has issued an advisory that carp and catfish from the river are not to be eaten and that consumption of other species should be restricted.
  3. There are residences close to the site and the landfill is not adequately covered to prevent migration of contaminated surface material as fugitive dust. Methylene chloride has been detected in samples of the ambient air at the site, including samples collected upwind of the site, at concentrations of human health concern for long-term exposure.
  4. Groundwater is not used as a household water supply on the island, and the contaminated groundwater probably discharges directly to the Saginaw River.
  5. Contaminated leachate from the landfill discharges from surface seeps into ditches along the landfill perimeter.

RECOMMENDATIONS

MDCH and ATSDR make the following recommendations:

  1. Access to the site should be better restricted. For example, warning signs should be posted along the shoreline in the site area to inform boaters of the potential hazards from the chemical contamination in the surface soil and from the trash exposed through the cover over the old trenches. According to a representative of the Potentially Responsible Parties for the site, they are planning to construct a fence along the river bank within the site in the summer of 1996 (5).
  2. Remediation to eliminate the flow of contaminated groundwater from the site to the Saginaw River should be implemented as soon as possible. The MDCH will implement additional channels for publication of the fish consumption advisory in the Saginaw River area to increase anglers' awareness of and compliance with the advisories.
  3. Include in the design of the remediation for the site appropriate precautions to minimize the transport of contaminants from the site as volatile organic chemicals, fugitive dust, or runoff to the river during the remediation.
  4. Investigate the groundwater in the vicinity of the BCM site to determine whether the shallow aquifer is intercepted by the Saginaw River and to identify any actions necessary to ensure that site-related contamination does not reach potable water supplies on the other side of the river. A draft Work Plan submitted to the MDEQ includes an investigation of the groundwater in the vicinity of MW-8 (5).
  5. The remediation for the site should improve controls on leachate seeping into the site ditches. Access to the ditches should be restricted or the ditches should be posted with signs warning of the potential hazard.

HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATION PANEL STATEMENT

A Health Activities Recommendation Panel convened by ATSDR and MDCH has evaluated the data and information developed for the Bay City Middlegrounds Landfill Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up health actions. The panel determined that although there is evidence of human exposure to contaminated soil and leachate at the site, the available evidence does not indicate that sufficient exposure for adverse health effects has occurred. Fish in the Saginaw River are contaminated with PCBs from the BCM site and other sites in the watershed. The MDCH has issued an advisory to limit consumption of fish from the river because of this contamination, but there are questions about the effectiveness of the advisory. There have been community concerns regarding potential health effects from exposure to contaminated media (water in the ditches) at the site reported to ATSDR and MDCH. The panel does not recommend any follow-up health actions at this time, beyond the health education activities that are part of the Health Assessment process. The education activities should include advice about the potential health hazards to children playing on the site or in the ditches around the site.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

Public Health Action Plans (PHAP) are developed to describe actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDCH) at and in the vicinity of sites subsequent to the completion of Public Health Assessments. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that Public Health Assessments not only identify public health hazards, but also provide a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. No public health actions have been identified as necessary at this site at this time except for the health education activities that are part of the Health Assessment process.

Health Actions Undertaken

MDCH has offered to provide to the MDEQ and U.S. EPA warning signs for posting along the river bank and along the ditches in the site area.

Health Actions Planned

MDCH is investigating alternative methods for publicizing and improving compliance with the fish consumption advisory on the Saginaw River.

MDCH and ATSDR will coordinate with the local health department to conduct health education activities as appropriate during the Health Assessment process.

ATSDR and MDCH will coordinate with federal and state environmental agencies to carry out the recommendations made in this assessment.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions and recommendations may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Michigan Department of Community Health

John Filpus, Environmental Engineer
James Bedford, Environmental Toxicologist
Robin Freer, GIS Specialist
Brendan Boyle, Health Assessment Coordinator
John Hesse, Principal Investigator

ATSDR Regional Representative

Louise Fabinski
Regional Services, Region V
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

William Greim
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Superfund Site Assessment Branch

REFERENCES
  1. Braithwaite Consultants, Inc., American Hydrogeology Corporation, and Ann Arbor Technical Services, Inc. Phase I, Initial Remedial Investigation of Bay City Middleground Landfill. February 28, 1990.
  2. Kaelber-Matlock, S., MDNR/MDEQ. Letter to J. Filpus, MDPH/MDCH. July 10, 1995.
  3. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Expanded Site Inspection Report for Bay City Middlegrounds, Bay City, Michigan. March 1993.
  4. Kaelber-Matlock, S., MDNR/MDEQ. Letter to L. Fabinski, ATSDR. January 25, 1996.
  5. Hale, D.W., of Blasland, Bouck & Lee. Letter to J. Filpus, MDCH/MDCH. April 16, 1995.
  6. Kaelber-Matlock, S., MDNR/MDEQ. Personal communication. February 10, 1994.
  7. Eco Logic International, Inc. Final Report, Phase II Remedial Investigation, Middleground Landfill, Bay City, Michigan. July 11, 1991.
  8. Eco Logic International, Inc. Final Report, Phase III Remedial Investigation, Middleground Landfill, Bay City, Michigan. March 9, 1993.
  9. Walczak, J., MDNR/MDEQ. Personal Communication. December 16, 1993.
  10. Michigan Department of Public Health, for ATSDR. Health Consultation, Bay City Middlegrounds Landfill, Bay City, Michigan. May 1994.
  11. U.S. Census Bureau. Preliminary 1990 Census Data. 1990.
  12. Peterson, A., Bay City Municipal Water System. Personal Communication. October 23, 1995.
  13. Kaelber-Matlock, S., MDNR/MDEQ. Personal communication. March 9, 1995.
  14. SEG Engineers and Consultants, Inc. Hydrogeologic Study of the Bay City (Middle Ground) Landfill, Bay County, Michigan. March 1988.
  15. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Unpublished laboratory data. November 8, 1988.
  16. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1993.
  17. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Waste Management Division. Michigan Background Soil Survey. Revised April 1991.
  18. Taszreak, R., MDNR. Letter to S. Matlock, MDNR, Subject: Middleground Landfill Air Study, Bay City, MI. December 21, 1992.
  19. Breithart, M., MDPH. Letter to M. Baranck. December 2, 1988.
  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. March 1992.
  21. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Surface Water Quality Division. Unpublished data. April 6, 1990.
  22. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Surface Water Quality Division. Michigan Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program, 1988 Annual Report. December 1988.
  23. Nauen, C.C. Compilation of Legal Limits for Hazardous Substances in Fish and Fishery Products. FAO Fisheries Circular No. 764. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome, Italy. 1983.
  24. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Surface Water Quality Division. Michigan Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program, 1994 Annual Report. December 1994.
  25. Timm, D., MDPH Division of Water Supply. Personal Communication. June 9, 1995.
  26. Michigan Department of Public Health. Public Health Fish Consumption Advisory. in Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 1993 Michigan Fishing Guide. January 1993.
  27. Timm, D., MDPH Division of Water Supply. Personal Communication. January 18, 1994.
  28. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethene, Update, Draft for Public Comment. August 1994.
  29. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1993.
  30. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta- Hexachlorocyclohexane, Update. ATSDR/TP-93/09. May 1994.
  31. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Selected PCBs (Aroclor -1260, -1254, -1248, -1242, -1232, -1221, and -1016), Update, Draft for Public Comment. August 1995.
  32. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/10. April 1993.
  33. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System. March 2, 1995.
  34. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Manganese. ATSDR/TP-91/19. July 1992.
  35. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. Accessed June 8, 1995.
  36. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/06. April 1993.
  37. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/02. April 1993.
  38. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Beryllium, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/04. April 1993.
  39. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Nickel, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/14. April 1993.
  40. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Barium. ATSDR/TP-91/03. July 1992.
  41. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Vanadium. ATSDR/TP-91/29. July 1992.
  42. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Zinc, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
  43. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/12. April 1993.
  44. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/13. April 1993.
  45. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Total Xylenes. ATSDR/TP-90/30. December 1990.
  46. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/03. April 1993.
  47. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,3-Butadiene. ATSDR/TP-91/07. July 1992.
  48. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride, Update. ATSDR/TP-93/02. May 1994.
  49. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/07. April 1993.
  50. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/12. December 1990.
  51. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,3-Dichloropropene. ATSDR/TP-91/15. September 1992.
  52. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chlorobenzene. ATSDR/TP-90/06. December 1990.
  53. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene. ATSDR/TP-90/15. December 1990.
  54. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/19. April 1993.
  55. West, P.C., J.M. Fly, R. Marans, F. Larkin, D. Rosenblatt. 1991-92 Michigan Sport Anglers Fish Consumption Study. University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources, Natural Resources Sociology Research Lab. Technical Report #6. June 1992.
  56. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chlordane, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
  57. Michigan Department of Public Health, Office of the State Registrar. Cancer Incidence and Mortality, Michigan 1992. August 1994.
  58. Spivak, G., MDCH Office of the State Registrar and Division of Health Statistics. Memorandum to D. Dolanski, MDCH DHRA, Subject: Cancer Incidence - ZIP Codes 48706, 48708. April 24, 1996.
  59. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chlorodibenzofurans. ATSDR/TP-93/04. May 1994.


CERTIFICATION

The Bay City Middlegrounds Landfill Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Michigan Department of Community Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the Health Consultation was initiated.

Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this Health Consultation and concurs with its findings.

Chief, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


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