1. The Duell and Gardner Landfill site currently poses no apparent public healthhazard. As noted in the PathwaysAnalysis section above, human exposure to various contaminants may occur,or has occurred via dermal absorption, ingestion, and inhalation while people worked,played or trespassed on the site. The most probable exposures under current circumstancesare not likely to cause adverse health effects. While the landfill was operating, therewas a public health hazard to workers or trespassers. People who worked in the landfill onthe site reported headaches, probably from exposure to volatile organic chemicals. Accessto the site is not now restricted, and there are reports that trespass does occur.
2. Aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, crystal violet, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, andother chemicals are present in the groundwater at the site at levels potentially of healthconcern if the water is used for household purposes. The contamination has not reachednearby residential wells or surface water bodies, but might in the future unless it isremediated. Future development in the area might result in a well being drilled into thecontaminated groundwater.
3. The material on the site contains volatile organic chemicals that might evaporate ifthe material is excavated or otherwise disturbed.
1. Although the site is in an area of low population density, evidence of publicrecreation activity on-site has been observed as was mentioned in the
2. The groundwater should be monitored to detect whether the contamination approachesany point of potential exposure.
3. Air quality monitoring will be necessary to assess potential exposure of workers andthe surrounding community to harmful substances during excavation in waste areas, soilborings and well installation.
A Health Activities Recommendation Panel convened by ATSDR and MDPH has evaluated thedata and information developed for the Duell & Gardner Landfill public healthassessment for appropriate follow-up health actions. The panel determined that there areindications human exposure to on-site/off-site contaminants may be currently occurring andoccurred in the past. Some people suffered transient adverse health effects in the pastthat may have been related to exposure to site-related contaminants. However, it is notpossible to identify those who may be currently exposed to contaminants or the extent ofexposure for those who were exposed in the past. The panel recommends that a program ofcommunity and health professionals education be developed to improve the identificationand tracking of health effects that may be related to this site. The panel supports theMuskegon County health education program under development by the MDPH.
If future ATSDR or MDPH evaluations indicate that a substantive completed exposurepathway exists or that the community has expressed specific health concerns, then healthoutcome data bases should be evaluated in future assessments for this site.
The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the Duell & Gardner site contains adescription of actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the Michigan Department of PublicHealth (MDPH) at and in the vicinity of the site subsequent to the completion of thispublic health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this public healthassessment not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of actiondesigned to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure tohazardous substances in the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of ATSDR andMDPH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented.
The MDNR has carried out extensive waste removal actions on the site.
At MDPH and community request, the MDNR posted additional signs at the site warning ofthe chemical contamination in December 1992 (23).
MDPH has provided information on the health risks to site area residents who requestedit.
At the request of MDPH and the community, the MDNR sampled nearby residential wells andsediment from the drainage ditch south of the site in February 1993 (7).
MDPH is developing a program of community and physician health education for MuskegonCounty.
No other public health actions have been identified as necessary at this site at thistime.
MDPH and ATSDR will coordinate with the environmental agencies to carry out therecommendations made in this health assessment.
ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. Newenvironmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing theabove proposed actions and recommendations may determine the need for additional actionsat this site.
Michigan Department of Public Health
John Filpus, Environmental Engineer
James Bedford, Environmental Toxicologist
Robin Freer, GIS Specialist
Brendan Boyle, Health Assessment Coordinator
John Hesse, Principal Investigator
ATSDR Regional Representative
Regional Services, Region V
Office of the Assistant Administrator
ATSDR Technical Project Officer
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Programs Branch
The Duell & Gardner Landfill Public Health Assessment was prepared by the MichiganDepartment of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for ToxicSubstances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology andprocedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this publichealth assessment, and concurs with its findings.
Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR
- Warzyn Engineering, for MDNR and U.S. EPA. Remedial Investigation, Duell and Gardner Landfill Site. April 1992.
- Warzyn Engineering, for MDNR and U.S. EPA. Feasibility Study, Duell and Gardner Landfill Site. August 1992.
- Michigan Department of Public Health, for ATSDR. Preliminary Health Assessment for the Duell & Gardner Landfill. April 14, 1989.
- U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1990 Census Data.
- Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Memorandum from T. Eftaxiadis to S. Phillips in re: Duell-Gardner Landfill Groundwater Test Results. February 27, 1984.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Site Summary. no date (ca. 1987)
- Kline, D., MDNR Site Manager. Letter to Karla Johnson, U.S. EPA. April 6, 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/07. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/13. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/18. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/12. December 1990.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Aldrin/Dieldrin, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/01. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, and Delta- Hexachlorocyclohexane, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chlordane, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD), Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Heptachlor/Heptachlor Epoxide, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/11. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Selected PCBs (Aroclor -1260, -1254, -1248, -1242, -1232, -1221, and -1016), Update. ATSDR/TP-92/16. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chromium, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/08. April 1993.
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/02. April 1993.
- Kline, D., MDNR Site Manager. Private communications. January 19, 1993.
OTHER SOURCES NOT REFERENCED IN THE TEXT
1. MDNR. 1988. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Site Status Summary, 2/88