Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

IONIA CITY LANDFILL
IONIA, IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN


CONCLUSIONS
  1. The Ionia City Landfill site poses an indeterminate public health hazard because of the potential risks resulting from possible exposure to hazardous substances at concentrations that may result in adverse health effects. As noted in the Environmental Contamination and Other Hazards and Pathways Analyses Sections above, human exposure to metals and organic chemicals may be occurring and may have occurred in the past via direct contact with contaminated soils, inhalation of fugitive dusts, or inhalation of volatile organic compounds. With future erosion of the site, buried wastes may become exposed and human exposure may occur through direct contact, ingestion, or inhalation of volatile chemicals.
  2. There is no data available on surface soil contamination, and we therefore cannot fully evaluate the health risks from exposure to the soils through direct contact or inhalation of fugitive dust.
  3. There is a depression in the northeast corner of the site where surface runoff can collect and contamination in the surface materials may concentrate.
  4. The groundwater at and southwest of the site is contaminated with volatile organic chemicals, and is not safe for use.
  5. The groundwater from the site discharges into the Grand River south and west of the site, and could contribute to contamination of the river, though dilution should reduce the concentrations of contaminants below detectable levels. There is no evidence of contamination of the river associated with the site.
  6. Decomposing organic material in the landfill could generate methane and other gases. Volatile organic chemicals in the waste could also evaporate. These gases and vapors can migrate through soils into nearby basements and other structures, where people could be exposed to them or the gases could concentrate to flammable levels.

RECOMMENDATIONS

To mitigate the impact of contamination at the site on human health, the following actions are recommended:

  1. Access to the entire site should be further restricted to minimize contact with the contaminants on the site. The source control ROD prescribes fencing the entire site. In the interim, the site should be posted to warn trespassers of the hazards present on the site.
  2. Representative surface soil samples (top 3 inches of soil) from all sections of the site are required to more accurately access the hazards from direct contact, incidental ingestion, and fugitive dust. Samples from areas of discolored soil and other locations where it appears that surface contamination may have occurred should be collected.
  3. Soil and sediments in the depression in the northeast corner of the site should be sampled and analyzed for contaminants.
  4. Local authorities should consider zoning, deed restriction, or other institutional or regulatory controls on use of the land west of Cleveland Street to protect against use of the contaminated aquifer. This is included in the source control ROD.
  5. Decontamination of the groundwater should be considered in order to limit further contamination of the river and human exposure through associated pathways. This will be addressed by the U.S. EPA in the future groundwater ROD.
  6. The potential for migration of landfill gases and accumulation in structures near the site should be further investigated.

Further analyses of media from the site should include identification of the oxidation state of any chromium contamination found, to permit a more precise health effects evaluation.

HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATION PANEL STATEMENT

A Health Activities Recommendation Panel convened by the ATSDR and MDPH has evaluated the data and information developed for the Ionia City Landfill public health assessment for appropriate follow-up health activities. The Panel determined that Federal, State, and Local health officers should work together on a program of public health information, education, and advice for the local community. This program should include information and advice about the hazards of being on the site, intended to reduce the reported activity in unfenced areas of the site.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

Public Health Action Plans (PHAP) are developed to describe actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) at and in the vicinity of sites subsequent to the completion of Public Health Assessments. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this Public Health Assessment not only identifies public health hazards, but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included is a commitment on the part of ATSDR and MDPH to follow up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented.

Health Actions Accomplished

At MDPH's request, the Ionia County Health Department (ICHD) surveyed residents of the site area to determine whether they had noticed unusual odors in their basements that might be related to soil gas migrating from the site.

The ICHD, at MDPH's request, posted MDPH-supplied warning signs on the site perimeter.

Health Actions Planned

ATSDR, MDPH, and the Ionia County Health Department will develop a program of public and physician health education concerning the health hazards at the Ionia City Landfill site.

ATSDR and MDPH will coordinate with federal and state environmental agencies to carry out the recommendations made in this assessment.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions and recommendations may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

If future ATSDR evaluations indicate that a substantive completed exposure pathway exists or that the community has expressed specific health concerns, then health outcome data bases should be evaluated and the results reported in future assessments for this site.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Michigan Department of Public Health

    John W. Filpus, Environmental Engineer

    Robin Freer, GIS Specialist

    Brendan Boyle, Health Assessment Coordinator

    John L. Hesse, Principal Investigator

    Vaughn Wagner, Toxicologist

ATSDR Regional Representative
    Louise Fabinski
    Regional Services, Region V
    Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer
    William Greim
    Technical Project Officer
    Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
    Superfund Site Assessment Branch

CERTIFICATION

This Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Michigan Department of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health assessment was initiated.


William Greim, M.S., M.P.H
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this health assessment and concurs with its findings.


Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR

REFERENCES
  1. Rollins Environmental Services (FS), Inc., Draft Remedial Investigation Report for the Ionia City Landfill, April 13, 1989.

  2. Wieczorek, T., City Manager, City of Ionia. Personal Communication. November 23, 1993.

  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Preliminary Health Assessment for Ionia City Landfill. March 10, 1989.

  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Operable Unit Record of Decision, Ionia City Landfill site. September 29, 1989.

  5. O'Donnell, D., MDNR site manager. Personal Communication. April 21, 1993.

  6. Lewis, P., Ionia County Health Department. Personal Communication. January 11, 1991.

  7. Van Otteren, B., MDNR Site Manager. Personal Communication. March 29, 1994.

  8. Van Otteren, B., MDNR Site Manager. Personal Communication. August 31, 1995.

  9. Michigan Department of Public Health, for ATSDR. Interim Public Health Assessment for Ionia City Landfill. March 12, 1992.

  10. Rollins Environmental Services (FS), Inc. Endangerment Assessment: Ionia City Landfill. September 1988.

  11. McClellan, T.D. Historic filtration plant shuts its pumps off today. Grand Rapids Press. October 27, 1992.

  12. Lundgren, R., MDNR Water Quality Division. Report on Pollution Incident Number 248-81, Thursday, February 19, 1981. November 1981.

  13. The Earth Technology Corporation. Technical Memorandum, November 1993 Monitor Well Sampling at the Ionia City Landfill, Ionia, Michigan. March 3, 1994.

  14. Rollins Environmental Services (FS), Inc., Technical Memorandum: Drum Location and Sampling (Task 320) Ionia City Landfill, August 19, 1987.

  15. Novak, M., Ionia County Health Department. Personal Communication. January 30, 1992.

  16. Michigan Department of Public Health, Bureau of Laboratory and Epidemiologial Services. Unpublished Laboratory Report. March 25, 1988.

  17. Hoffmaster, G., MDNR Site Manager. Personal Communication. June 6, 1989.

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Appendix D. Lewis Publishers. 1992.

  19. Little, J.C. Applying the Two-Resistance Theory to Contaminant Volatilization in Showers. Environ. Sci. Technol., 26(7), 1341-1349. 1992.

  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/18. April 1993.

  21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/12. December 1990.

  22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethene. ATSDR/TP-90/13. December 1990.

  23. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride. ATSDR/TP-88/18. April 1989.

  24. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/27. December 1990.

  25. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/19. April 1993.

  26. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/20. April 1993.

  27. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/06. April 1993.

  28. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chromium, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/08. April 1993.

  29. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/12. April 1993.

  30. Hewitt, W.R., Brown, E.M., and Plaa, G.L., "Acetone-Induced Potentiation of Trihalomethane Toxicity in Male Rats," Toxicology Lett., 16, 285-96 [1983].

  31. Hewitt, W.R., Miyajima, H., Côté, M., and Plaa, G.L., "Modification of Haloalkane-Induced Hepatotoxicity by Exogenous Ketones and Metabolic Ketosis," Federation Proc., 39(13), 3118-3123 [1980].

  32. Hewitt, W.R., and Plaa, G.L., "Dose-Dependent Modification of 1,1-Dichloroethylene Toxicity by Acetone," Toxicology Lett., 16, 145-152 [1983].

  33. Plaa, G.L., Hewitt, W.R., du Souich, P., Caillé, G., and Lock, S., "Isopropanol and Acetone Potentiation of Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity: Single Versus Repetitive Pretreatments in Rats," J. Tox. Env. Health, 9, 235-250 [1982].

  34. Traiger, G.J., and Bruckner, J.V., "The Participation of 2-Butanone in 2-Butanol-Induced Potentiation of Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity," J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., 196(2), 493-500 [1976].

OTHER INFORMATION SOURCES NOT SPECIFICALLY CITED IN REPORT

  1. MDNR Files.

  2. Rollins Environmental Services (FS), Inc., Technical Memorandum: On-site Subsurface Soil Sampling (Task 410) Ionia City Landfill, June 30, 1987.

  3. Rollins Environmental Services (FS), Inc., Technical Memorandum: Hydrogeologic Investigation (Task 600) Ionia City Landfill, January 1988.

  4. Rollins Environmental Services (FS), Inc., Draft Feasibility Study Report, Ionia City Landfill, Ionia, Michigan, June 1989.



Next Section     Table of Contents

  
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #