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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

IONIA CITY LANDFILL
IONIA, IONIA COUNTY, MICHIGAN




APPENDIX A

FIGURES



Figure 1. Site Location


APPENDIX B

TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. Contaminants of concern for this assessment.

Table 2. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in on-site groundwater monitoring wells (1981-1993).

Table 3. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from shallow sub-surface soil samples on the site, from the RI (1987).

Table 4. Maximum concentrations of indicator and other chemicals in the drums found on the site, from the RI (1987).

Table 5. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from sub-surface soil samples collected from trenches on the site, from the RI (1987).

Table 6. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from sub-surface soil boring samples on the site, from the RI (1987).

Table 7. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sediment from the unnamed tributary (1982-1987).

Table 8. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface water samples from the unnamed tributary (1982).

Table 9. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in off-site air samples from the RI (1987).

Table 10. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in off-site shallow subsurface soil samples collected near the site during the RI (1987).

Table 11. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from off-site soil borings from the RI (1987).

Table 12. Maximum concentrations of indicator and other chemicals in groundwater samples from off-site monitoring wells (1987-93).

Table 13. Maximum concentrations of indicator and other chemicals in groundwater samples from residential wells near the site collected during the RI (1987).

Table 14. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in surface water samples from the Grand River near the site, from the RI (1987).

Table 15. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in sediment samples from the Grand River near the site, from the RI (1987).


Table 1. Contaminants of concern for this assessment.

arsenic
benzene
butyl benzyl phthalate
cadmium
chloroethane
chloroform
chloromethane
chromium
1,1-dichloroethane
1,1-dichloroethylene
1,2-dichloroethylene (total)
lead
manganese
mercury
methyl ethyl ketone
methylene chloride
nickel
styrene
1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
tetrachloroethylene
toluene
1,1,1-trichloroethane
1,1,2-trichloroethane
trichloroethylene
vinyl chloride
zinc

Table 2. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in on-site groundwater monitoring wells (1981-1993).
ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Value
(ppb)
ShallowIntermediate
arsenic11/9348.6NS133E, 0.02C
benzene8/924NS131C
11/933.JNS13
cadmium198120NS127E, Carcinogen
1987-82261
11/93NDNS13
chloroethane8/92160NS13NA
11/93260NS13
chloroform8/92NDNS13100E, 6C
11/9312NS13
chloromethane8/92NDNS133A
11/939.JNS13
chromium (total)1981640NS1210,000R (III)

Carcinogen (VI)

1987-81861321
11/937.JNS13
1,1-dichloroethane198122NS12Carcinogen
1987-826ND1
8/9273NS13
11/931,400NS13
1,1-dichloroethylene8/92NDNS1390E, 0.06C
11/934.2NS13
1,2-dichloroethylene (total)1981150NS12200R (trans)
70A (cis)
1987-831.aND1
8/92120NS13
11/931,118NS13
lead19812,000NS1215PL, Carcinogen
1987-83.6ND1
11/932.6JNS13
manganese198765844150R
11/931,000NS13
methylene chloride8/9213NS13600E, 5C
11/9393,000.JNS13
nickel11/931,210NS13carcinogen
styrene8/92NDNS13carcinogen
11/932.JNS13
1,1,2,2-tetrachlorethane8/92NDNS130.2C
11/93440.JNS13
tetrachloroethylene8/92NDNS130.7C
11/935.JNS13
toluene19812,500NS122,000R
8/92520NS13
11/93300NS13
1,1,1-trichloroethane 198132NS12200A
8/923NS13
11/93350NS13
1,1,2-trichloroethane8/92NDNS130.6C
11/934.JNS13
trichloroethylene198116NS123C
8/92840NS13
11/933,300NS13
vinyl chloride1987-869ND10.2E, Carcinogen
8/9242NS13
11/9331NS13
zinc1981110,000NS123,000R
1987-839311
11/93119NS13

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.
NS – Not Sampled
ND – Not Detected
J – Estimated Concentration: below Contract Required Detection Level, but above Instrument Detection Limit

(III)– For chromium(III)
(VI)– For chromium(VI)

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion
    A –    U.S. EPA Drinking Water Lifetime Health Advisory
    PL –    U.S. EPA Proposed Drinking Water Action Level for Lead
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)
a      Trans-1,2-dicloroethylene

Table 3. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from shallow sub-surface soil samples on the site, from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
cadmium31E, Carcinogen
lead59.aCarcinogen
methyl ethyl ketone0.015B1,000R
methylene chloride0.009B100E, 90C

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed
Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.
B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.
NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion
a      Value within typical range in soils.

Table 4. Maximum concentrations of indicator and other chemicals in the drums found on the site, from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
butyl benzyl phthalate12,000400R
chromium2,8502,000R (III)
Carcinogen (VI)
lead10,100Carcinogen
mercury1NA
methylene chloride110.B100E, 90C
styrene1,900.B Carcinogen
toluene460400R
1,1,1-trichloroethane 640NA
trichloroethylene260C

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.

(III)– For chromium(III)

(VI)– For chromium(VI)

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 5. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from sub-surface soil samples collected from trenches on the site, from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
butyl benzyl phthalate2,400400R
cadmium6.71E, Carcinogen
lead478Carcinogen
mercury1.5NA
methylene chloride2,220.B100E, 90C
styrene4,600.B Carcinogen
tetrachloroethylene0.01310C
toluene9.8400R
1,1,1-trichloroethane 0.94NA
trichloroethylene0.034B60C

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 6. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from sub-surface soil boring samples on the site, from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
cadmium3.61E, Carcinogen
methyl ethyl ketone0.024B1,000R
methylene chloride0.011B100E, 90C
toluene0.120400R

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 7. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in sediment from the unnamed tributary (1982-1987).

Chemical Date Maximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
cadmium1982<0.11E, Carcinogen
19872.2
chromium1982172,000R (III)
Carcinogen (VI)
198716
1,2-dichloroethylene (total)19820.05540R (trans)
NA (cis)
manganese19823,40010R
methylene chloride19820.3100E, 90C
19870.037
trichloroethylene19820.01560C<

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

(III)– For chromium(III)
(VI)– For chromium(VI)

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E – ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R – ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C – ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk ofdeveloping cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 8. Concentrations of contaminants of concern in surface water samples from the unnamed tributary (1982).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
Comparison Value
(ppb)
chromium<1010,000R (III)
Carcinogen (VI)
1,1-dichloroethane13Carcinogen
1,2-dichloroethylene (total)42200R (trans)
70A (cis)
manganese1,05050R
methylene chloride11600E, 5C
1,1,1-trichloroethane <10200A
trichloroethylene<103C
vinyl chloride230.2E, Carcinogen

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

(III)– For chromium(III)
(VI)– For chromium(VI)

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion
    A –    U.S. EPA Drinking Water Lifetime Health Advisory
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 9. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in off-site air samples from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
Comparison Value
(ppb)
1,1,1-trichloroethane 1.5NA

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

NA – None Available

Table 10. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in off-site shallow subsurface soil samples collected near the site during the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
cadmium21E, Carcinogen
lead286Carcinogen
methyl ethyl ketone0.019B1,000R
methylene chloride0.031B100E, 90C

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 11. Concentrations of contaminants of concern from off-site soil borings from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
cadmium3.51E, Carcinogen
methyl ethyl ketone0.083B1,000R
methylene chloride 0.029B100E, 90C
toluene0.230400R

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 12. Maximum concentrations of indicator and other chemicals in groundwater samples from off-site monitoring wells (1987-93).

ChemicalDateMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
ReferenceComparison Value
(ppb)
ShallowIntermediate
benzene1987-86ND11C
8/921.JNS13
11/930.6JNS13
cadmium1987-8101517E, Carcinogen
8/92NDNS13
11/93NDNS13
chromium 1987-81414110,000R (III)
Carcinogen (VI)
8/92NDNS13
11/93NDNS13
1,2-dichloroethylene (total) 1987-8 17.aND 1 200R (trans)
70A (cis)
8/92 ND NS 13
11/93 24NS13
manganese1987-889770150R
8/92734NS13
11/93634NS13
methylene chloride1987-82.BJND1600E, 5C
8/92NDNS13
11/939.BJNS13
vinyl chloride1987-886ND10.2E, Carcinogen
8/92NDNS13
11/9322NS13
zinc1987-8203013,000R
8/92250NS13
11/93774NS13

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

ND – Not Detected

B – Detected in laboratory quality control blank sample.
J – Estimated Concentration: below Contract Required Detection Level, but above Instrument Detection Limit

(III)– For chromium(III)
(VI)– For chromium(VI)
NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion
    A –    U.S. EPA Drinking Water Lifetime Health Advisory
    C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)
a          Trans-1,2-dicloroethylene

Table 13. Maximum concentrations of indicator and other chemicals in groundwater samples from residential wells near the site collected during the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
Comparison Value
(ppb)
manganese2050R
tetrachloroethylene 0.70.7C
zinc8243,000R

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

Comparison Value Bases

R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion
C –    ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 14. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in surface water samples from the Grand River near the site, from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppb)
Comparison Value
(ppb)
cadmium107E, Carcinogen
1,2-dichloroethylene (total)3200R (trans)
70A (cis)
vinyl chloride1.J0.2E, Carcinogen

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

J – Estimated Concentration: below Contract Required Detection Level, but above Instrument Detection Limit

Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion
    A –    U.S. EPA Drinking Water Lifetime Health Advisory
    C – ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

Table 15. Concentrations of contaminants of concern found in sediment samples from the Grand River near the site, from the RI (1987).

ChemicalMaximum Concentration
(ppm)
Comparison Value (soil)
(ppm)
cadmium2.61E, Carcinogen
chromium 192,000R (III)
Carcinogen (VI)
methylene chloride0.077100E, 90C

Reference: 1

Only chemicals that were detected are listed

Bolded chemicals exceed comparison values.

(III)– For chromium(III)
(VI)– For chromium(VI)

NA – None Available
Carcinogen– Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases

    E –    ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
    R –    ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose, assuming child ingestion, with pica behavior
    C – ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs), for 1 x 10-6 estimated excess cancer risk (a significant additional risk of developing cancer is taken to be one additional case of cancer in a population of 1 million people experiencing the exposure)

RESPONSIVENESS STATEMENT

The Michigan Department of Public Health released a draft of this health assessment for publiccomments on March 8, 1991. The open comment period was in effect until April 8, 1991. During that time, one comment was received from an individual representing the City of Ioniaregarding site remediation actions referred to in the health assessment and an associated pressrelease. The health assessment information was checked and found to be accurate in representingthe remedial plans. The press release, however, stated that remedial efforts included "capping therest of the site" which is an overstatement of the situation. The remedy in the U. S.Environmental Protection Agency Record of Decision actually calls for "upgrading the landfillcover and repairing the side slopes".

No other comments were received during the Public Comment Period.

The MDPH released a second draft of this Public Health Assessment for public comment onDecember 14, 1994. The comment period lasted until January 13, 1995. The MDPH received noadditional comments in this period.


FOOTNOTES

1. Ingestion of soil may be incidental at any age, or a child may deliberately ingest soil (pica).


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