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HEALTH CONSULTATION

JACO PLATING
JACKSON, MICHIGAN


DISCUSSION

The sampling results discussed in this consultation were taken from the available investigations of the property, and are not adjusted for limitations or bias in the sampling programs. The Tables presented in this consultation include maximum and median concentrations in the samples collected. Health discussions are based on the maximum concentrations reported and long-term, frequent exposure scenarios, reasonably conservative assumptions.

The plating waste abandoned on the property posed urgent public health hazards from dermal contact with the corrosive and caustic components and the presence of reactive incompatible materials. Such materials have been removed, except for traces found in soil on the property. The building on the property is dilapidated, with large areas of the roof fallen in. Access to the building is not effectively restricted. The property is in a strip of commercial and light industrial concerns along Airline Drive. The nearest residences are along Mansion Street west of Airline Drive, approximately 0.2 miles away. There are several parks or playgrounds within 1 mile of the property. In its current condition, the building poses a physical hazard to trespassers.

During the IA in July 1997, the MDEQ collected 20 surface soil samples from the JACO Plating Property (Table 2). Two samples, one collected from the northeast corner of the property, the other from outside the south wall of the building, contained lead concentrations above the MDEQ Generic Clean-Up Criteria for Industrial, Commercial, and Residential Use(1). Seventeen of these samples contained arsenic concentrations above the MDEQ Generic Clean-Up Criteria for Residential Use. The two samples with high lead concentrations cited above, one soil sample from outside the northeast corner of the building, one from the east side of the property, and a background sample from a property across Airline Drive from the northwest corner of the property contained arsenic concentrations above the range of concentrations found in background surface soil samples in Michigan (6). The sample from the south side of the building also contained cadmium, chromium, manganese and PCBs at concentrations above the MDEQ Residential Use Criteria (3, 4, 5).

The U.S. EPA has heard rumors that drums of chemicals were dumped in the woods southeast of the building. In July 1997, U.S. EPA staff investigated the area in question after the removal action at the building was complete.

Access to the property is not restricted and there are signs within the building that trespass has occurred. Adjacent properties are either industrial/commercial operations or undeveloped parcels. The nearest residences are approximately 0.2 miles to the west, behind the industrial/commercial properties along Airline Drive. The City of Jackson Business Development Center intends to develop the J.A.C.O. property for an unspecified new commercial/industrial operation (1).

A child subject to pica behavior(2) might ingest more arsenic, body weight for body weight, from the surface soil on the property than did some people who had changes in the skin color and texture after drinking water containing high concentrations of the metal for between 12 and 15 years. Pica children are not likely to be on the property without supervision, so such exposure is not likely. Some people who drank water or wine containing high concentrations of arsenic developed elevated rates of cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder, and liver. The U.S. EPA has classified arsenic as a proven human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class A). Lifetime incidental ingestion of soil containing the arsenic concentration found on the property might result in a low increased risk of contracting cancer (7).

A child subject to pica behavior might ingest more cadmium, body weight for body weight, from the surface soil on the property than did some people whose kidneys were damaged after living in an environment containing high concentrations of the metal for more than 25 years. Pica children are not likely to be on the property without supervision, so such exposure is not likely. Some people working in cadmium processing plants and laboratory animals who ingested or inhaled cadmium developed increased rates of cancers of the prostate or lungs. The U.S. EPA has classified cadmium as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B1). There is not enough information on cadmium or its compounds to evaluate the increased cancer risk from ingestion of the metal or its compounds (8).

A pica child might ingest more total chromium, body weight for body weight, from the surface soil on the property than did people in China whose drinking water was contaminated with hexavalent chromium and who suffered gastro-intestinal distress and changes in the blood. Pica children are not likely to be on the property without supervision, so such exposure is not likely. There is no information on the valence state of the chromium found in samples from the property. Hexavalent chromium is the less common in the environment of the two valence states of the metal, and naturally-occurring chemical reactions tend to change hexavalent chromium to the more common and much less toxic trivalent chromium. Any child might incidentally ingest more total chromium from the surface soil on the property than did people with histories of sensitivity chromium whose dermatitis was aggravated after they were fed hexavalent chromium. Some workers in chromium processing facilities and laboratory animals who inhaled hexavalent chromium developed increased rates of lung cancer. The U.S. EPA has classified hexavalent chromium as a proven human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class A). There is no evidence available that connects exposure to trivalent chromium with any cancer. There is not enough information available to evaluate the increased cancer risk from ingesting hexavalent chromium (9).

Any child might incidentally ingest as much lead, body weight for body weight, from the surface soil on the property as did people who volunteered to be dosed with lead acetate over 5 to 21 days and showed changes in blood chemistry during the study. Lead is a cumulative poison, and long-term low-level exposure might cause as much harm as a single high dose. Some laboratory animals whose food or water contained lead acetate developed increased rates of cancer of the kidneys. The U.S. EPA has classified lead as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B2). There is not enough information available on lead to evaluate the risk of contracting cancer after exposure (10).

Any child might incidentally ingest more manganese, body weight for body weight, from the soil on the property than people did from drinking water contaminated with manganese who showed minor neurological changes after lifetime exposure. It should be noted that manganese in water is much more readily absorbed into the body than is manganese in soil. There is no evidence linking exposure to manganese with cancer (11).

No one is likely to ingest as much polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), body weight for body weight, from the surface soil on the property as has been observed to cause adverse health effects in humans or laboratory animals. Some people who worked with PCBs and some laboratory animals who were fed food containing PCBs developed increased rates of cancers of the liver. The U.S. EPA has classified PCBs a probable human carcinogens (U.S. EPA Class B2). No one is likely to ingest enough PCBs from the surface soil on the property to incur any apparent increased risk of contracting cancer (12).

During the IA in July 1997, the MDEQ collected groundwater samples from 4 temporary monitoring wells on or near the property (TMW-1 through TMW-4 in Figure 2) (3). In December 1997, the MDEQ collected 30 additional groundwater samples from additional temporary monitoring wells at nine locations on the property (TMW-5 through TMW-13), and analyzed the samples only for inorganic chemicals, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethylene. MDEQ collected up to four samples from different depths at each location in the December collection (13).

As seen in Table 3, water from TMW-2, inside the northeast corner of the building, contained cadmium, chromium, cobalt, cyanide, manganese, methylene chloride, nickel, sodium, tetrachloroethylene, thallium, trichloroethylene, zinc at concentrations above the U.S. EPA/MDEQ drinking water standards or criteria (3, 5). At least one sample from each location sampled in December 1997 contained chromium and manganese concentrations above the drinking water standards. The majority of these locations also contained arsenic, cobalt, lead, nickel, sodium, and vanadium concentrations above the standards. Some of the wells sampled in December 1997 contained beryllium, cadmium, cyanide, thallium, or zinc above the drinking water standards. The concentration of tetrachloroethylene in water from TMW-2 also exceeded the MDEQ Groundwater Contact Criteria (14). TMW-2 contained the maximum concentrations of most of these chemicals in the July sampling, with the exception of nickel (TMW-3, in the northeast section of the property) (3). In December, the maximum concentrations of the chemicals were primarily found in 5 locations around the building -- TMW-5 (lead, nickel, trichloroethylene), TMW-6 (beryllium, chromium, cobalt, manganese, vanadium, zinc), TMW-9 (cadmium, cyanide), TMW-10 (sodium, thallium), and TMW-13 (arsenic). Water from these locations frequently also exceeded drinking water standards for several other chemicals. The maximum trichloroethylene concentration in samples collected at TMW-5 was in the shallowest sample, the maximum at TMW-9 (east of the building) was in the third sampling interval down from the surface. The metals concentrations generally increased with depth (13).

The City of Jackson municipal water system operates two well fields, the Mansion Street Field (12 wells, 370-402 feet deep, cased to 64-121 feet deep) approximately 100 yards east of the property and the Sharp Park Field (1 well 380 feet deep, cased to 81 feet deep approximately 1 mile southwest of the property (15). Water from various wells in the Mansion Street Field has contained traces (less than 3 ppb) of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene for approximately 15 years. A combination of selective pumping, mixing with water from the uncontaminated Sharp Park Field, and quarterly sampling for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) keeps the cis-1,2-dichloroethylene concentration in the finished water below 1.5 parts per billion (ppb)(3). The MDEQ regularly monitors all municipal water supplies in the state, with sampling for selected metals on a three-year cycle, and sampling for all metals on the U.S. EPA Total Analyte List every nine years. The City of Jackson water system has never contained any contamination with inorganic chemicals (16).

There is no record that anyone is using the shallow groundwater in the vicinity of the property for any household use, including drinking. The following conservative evaluation describes the potential health hazards of using drinking water from a new well drilled into the area where the highest concentrations of chemicals were found (in the vicinity of the building).

A child might ingest as much arsenic, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property as has been linked with thickening or darkening of the skin, gastrointestinal irritation, cardiovascular changes, nervous abnormalities, and increased rates of cancer of the skin, lungs, bladder, and liver in long-term epidemiological studies of humans. The U.S. EPA has classified arsenic as a proven human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class A). Lifetime consumption of water containing the arsenic concentration found on the property might result in a high increased risk of contracting cancer (7).

No one is likely to ingest as much beryllium, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property as has been observed to cause adverse health effects during epidemiological studies of humans or laboratory animals. Some workers in beryllium industries and laboratory animals who inhaled beryllium compound dust developed elevated rates of lung cancer. There is no evidence linking ingestion of beryllium compounds with cancer. The U.S. EPA has classified beryllium as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B2). Lifetime consumption of water containing the beryllium concentration found on the property might result in a high increased risk of contracting cancer (17).

A child might ingest as much cadmium each day, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property as did people who suffered kidney damage from living in a cadmium-contaminated environment for decades. Some industrial workers and laboratory animals who inhaled cadmium compound dust developed increased rates of lung cancer. Some laboratory animals whose food or water contained cadmium developed increased rates of breast or prostate cancer. The U.S. EPA has classified cadmium as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B1). There is not enough information available to evaluate the increased cancer risk from ingestion of cadmium (8).

A child might ingest more total chromium each day, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property than did chromium-sensitive people whose contact dermatitis was exacerbated after consuming hexavalent chromium compounds. Again, there is no information available on the valence state of the chromium in the groundwater, and environmental reactions tend to change hexavalent chromium to the less-toxic trivalent form. Inhalation of hexavalent chromium compounds has been linked with increased rates of lung cancer in chromium workers and laboratory animals, and the U.S. EPA has classified hexavalent chromium as a known human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class A). There is not sufficient information available to evaluate the increased risk of contracting cancer from ingesting hexavalent chromium compounds. There is no evidence linking exposure to trivalent chromium with cancer (9).

A child might ingest as much cobalt each day, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property as did people who suffered heart and liver damage after drinking beer containing cobalt sulfate for years. There is no evidence linking exposure to cobalt with cancer (18).

Anyone might ingest as much lead each day, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property as did volunteers who were dosed with lead acetate for 7 weeks and showed changes in blood chemistry during the study. Lead is a cumulative poison, and long-term low-level exposure might cause as much harm as a single high dose. Some laboratory animals whose food or water contained lead acetate developed increased rates of cancer of the kidneys. The U.S. EPA has classified lead as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B2). There is not enough information available on lead to evaluate the risk of contracting cancer after exposure (10).

The maximum concentration of manganese in the shallow groundwater on the property was comparable to that in the drinking water in a town in Greece whose elderly residents showed higher rates of various minor neurological effects than did those in a neighboring town where the manganese concentration was lower (19). Exposure to manganese has not been observed to be related to cancer rates (11).

No one is likely to ingest as much methylene chloride, body weight for body weight, from the groundwater on the property as has been observed to cause adverse health effects during epidemiological studies of humans or laboratory animals. Some laboratory animals who inhaled or ingested methylene chloride developed elevated rates of cancer of the lungs, liver, or breast. The U.S. EPA has classified the chemical as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B2). Lifetime consumption of water containing the concentration of methylene chloride found in the groundwater on the property might result in a low increased risk of contracting cancer (20).

A child using the groundwater on the property for drinking water might ingest more nickel each day, body weight for body weight, than did nickel-sensitive human experimental subjects who experienced a flare-up of dermatitis after one to four doses of nickel sulfate over a two-day period or one volunteer who developed a temporary partial loss of vision after a single dose of nickel sulfate. Some humans in occupations involving handling of nickel compounds and laboratory animals who inhaled dust containing nickel compounds developed increased rates of cancers of the lungs, nose, and adrenal glands. The U.S. EPA has classified nickel refinery dust and nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2) as proven human carcinogens (U.S. EPA Class A). There is no information available linking ingestion of nickel or its compounds with cancer (21).

No one is likely to ingest as much tetrachloroethylene, body weight for body weight, from the property as has been seen to be linked to adverse health effects in laboratory animals or human subjects in epidemiological studies. Some laboratory animals who ingested or inhaled tetrachloroethylene experienced increased rates of liver cancer or leukemia. The U.S. EPA is reevaluating its past classification of the chemical as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B2). Lifetime consumption of drinking water containing the concentration of tetrachloroethylene found in the groundwater at the property might result in a high increased risk of contracting cancer (22).

No one is likely to ingest as much trichloroethylene, body weight for body weight, from the property as has been seen to be linked to adverse health effects in laboratory animals or human subjects in epidemiological studies. Some laboratory animals who ingested or inhaled trichloroethylene experienced increased rates of liver, lung, or kidney cancer. The U.S. EPA is reevaluating its past classification of the chemical as a probable human carcinogen (U.S. EPA Class B2). Lifetime consumption of drinking water containing the concentration of trichloroethylene found in the groundwater at the property might result in a low increased risk of contracting cancer (23).

A child using the groundwater on the property for drinking water might ingest more zinc, body weight for body weight, than did human experimental subjects who experienced minor changes in blood chemistry after short-term (from single dose to twice a day for 12 weeks) consumption of zinc sulfate or zinc gluconate. There is no evidence linking exposure to zinc with increased risk of contracting cancer (24).

It is not likely that anyone would ingest as much cyanide, thallium, or vanadium from the groundwater, body weight for body weight, as has been seen to cause adverse health effects in epidemiological studies of humans or laboratory animals (25, 26, 27).

The concentration of tetrachloroethylene in air that has been in contact with the groundwater on the property, as in a shower using the water (28), might exceed the concentrations encountered by people working with tetrachloroethylene in dry cleaning establishments who showed changes in color vision after approximately 9 years of workplace exposure. Lifetime breathing of such air might result in a high increased risk of contracting cancer (22).

The concentrations of methylene chloride or trichloroethylene in air that has been in contact with the groundwater on the property, as in a shower using the water (28), would not attain those at which adverse health effects have been observed. Lifetime breathing of such air might result in a high increased risk of contracting cancer (20, 23).

The temporary monitoring wells were not deep enough to follow MDCH advice on drinking water well construction, for protection from surface contamination. This advice is not binding, nor does the State of Michigan or Jackson County have a well permitting system. Professional well drillers are aware of and attempt to follow the MDCH advice. There is a thick and heavy slate layer beneath the area, which should reduce the transfer of contaminated water from the shallow groundwater to the deep aquifer tapped by the deeper nearby municipal wells.


1 The MDEQ Industrial and Commercial Clean-Up Criteria for lead were developed using the U.S. EPA Integrated Uptake Biokinetic Model for children, and are equal to the Residential Criteria. No risk assessment methods are currently available to evaluate lead toxicity in adults.

2 Pica behavior is an abnormal consumption of non-food materials, such as soil, most often seen in children under 5 years of age.

3 The U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for Drinking Water (also used by the MDEQ) for cis-1,2-dichloroethylene is 70 ppb (5).


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