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PETITIONED PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

LAFARGE CORPORATION - ALPENA PLANT
ALPENA, ALPENA COUNTY, MICHIGAN


APPENDIX A


Figure 1. Site Location


Figure 2. Off-Site Sampling Locations


Figure 3. Background Sampling Locations

APPENDIX B

Table 1:
Selected demographic and economic information for populations near the Lafarge Corporation Alpena Plant, from the 1990 U.S. Census.

Radius from Lafarge Plant 1 Mile 3 Miles
Population 2,592 13,686
Urban 2,592 11,272
Rural 0 2,414
Age    
Average Age (years) 37.3 39.0
Children Ages 0-17 26.5 % 25.1 %
Age 0-4 8.1 % 6.3 %
Age 5-14 14.6 % 14.6 %
Age 15-24 13.2 % 11.6 %
Age 25-34 16.1 % 15.5 %
Age 35-44 11.8 % 13.2 %
Age 45-54 8.3 % 10.3 %
Age 55-64 10.0 % 9.9 %
Age 65+ 17.9 % 18.6 %
Race    
White 97.4 % 99.0 %
Black 0.0 % 0.0 %
American Indian 0.7 % 0.5 %
Asian, Pacific 2.0 % 0.5 %
Other 0.0 % 0.0 %
Hispanic (any race) 0.0 % 0.2 %
Major Ethnic Groups    
Polish 33.7 % 20.3 %
German 22.5 % 28.8 %
French (not Basque) 12.9 % 13.7 %
English 10.6 % 9.9 %
Irish 7.7 % 7.4 %
Annual Household Income    
Median $ 12,138 $ 21,043
Average $ 21,153 $ 28,251
Population in Poverty (%) 18.5 % 13.3 %
Home Value    
Median $ 21,625 $ 34,912
Average $ 30,532 $ 44,174

Reference: 7


Table 2.
MDCH Fish consumption advisories applicable to Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, and the Thunder Bay River, 1999.

Water body Species Contaminant(s) General Population Nursing Mothers, Pregnant Women, Women Who Intend to Have Children, and Children under Age 15
Lake Huron # Brown Trout PCBs shorter than 18 inches, unlimited consumption; longer than 18 inches, 1 meal per week shorter than 18 inches, 1 meal per month; longer than 18 inches, no consumption
Burbot PCBs unlimited consumption, all sizes 1 meal per week, all sizes
Chinook Salmon PCBs unlimited consumption, all sizes shorter than 30 inches, 1 meal per month; longer than 30 inches, 6 meals per year
Coho Salmon PCBs unlimited consumption, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Lake Trout PCBs, Chlordane, Dioxins shorter than 22 inches, 1 meal per week; longer than 22 inches, no consumption no consumption, all sizes
Lake Whitefish PCBs, Dioxins shorter than 22 inches, unlimited consumption; longer than 22 inches, no consumption shorter than 18 inches, 1 meal per week; between 18 and 22 inches, 1 meal per month; longer than 22 inches, no consumption
Rainbow Trout PCBs unlimited consumption, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Thunder Bay # Carp PCBs 1 meal per week, all sizes shorter than 14 inches, 1 meal per month; 14 to 18 inches, 6 meals per year; longer than 18 inches, no consumption
Walleye PCBs(A) unlimited consumption, all sizes shorter than 22 inches, 1 meal per week; longer than 22 inches, 1 meal per month
All Inland Lakes, Reservoirs, and Impoundments (including Lake Besser(B) on the Thunder Bay River) Crappie Mercury longer than 8 inches, 1 meal per week longer than 8 inches, 1 meal per month
Largemouth Bass Mercury 1 meal per week, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Muskellunge Mercury 1 meal per week, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Northern Pike Mercury 1 meal per week, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Rock Bass Mercury longer than 8 inches, 1 meal per week longer than 8 inches, 1 meal per month
Smallmouth Bass Mercury 1 meal per week, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Walleye Mercury(C) 1 meal per week, all sizes 1 meal per month, all sizes
Yellow Perch Mercury longer than 8 inches, 1 meal per week longer than 8 inches, 1 meal per month

Reference: 9
Based on data on edible portions of fish (fillet, with or without skin, depending on the species). No advisory was issued for chub or channel catfish from Thunder Bay because of the small sample size.

# Advisories on Lake Huron and Thunder Bay also apply to the Thunder Bay River below the Ninth Street Dam and to other rivers tributary to the water body below their first dams, especially for migratory species.

A There is no advisory based on mercury for walleye from Thunder Bay because there was only one fish containing more than 0.5 ppm mercury in the two edible-portion walleye collections in 1989 and 1993. MDCH considered this insufficient data to define a size range where the fish might be expected to exceed the Level of Concern.

B There is no advisory on carp from Lake Besser because there was only one fish that exceeded the MDCH Level of Concern for any chemical (0.05 ppm PCBs) in the edible-portion carp collection in 1989. MDCH considered this insufficient data to define a size range where the fish might be expected to exceed the Level of Concern.

C There is no advisory based on PCBs for walleye from Lake Besser because there was only one fish containing more than 0.05 ppm PCBs in the edible-portion walleye collection in 1989. MDCH considered this insufficient data to define a size range where the fish might be expected to exceed the Level of Concern.


Table 3.
Chemicals found in the environmental data used in this assessment.

Metals U.S. EPA Carcin. Class* Volatile Organic Compounds U.S. EPA Carcin. Class* Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
U.S. EPA Carcin. Class*
aluminum D acetone D acenaphthene D
antimony D benzene A acenaphthylene D
arsenic A bromomethane D anthracene D
barium D carbon tetrachloride B2 benzo(a)anthracene B2
beryllium B2 chlorobenzene D benzo(a)pyrene B2
bismuth D chlorodibromomethane C benzo(b)fluoranthene B2
cadmium B1 chloroethane D benzo(e)pyrene D
chromium A chloroform B2 benzo(g,h,i)perylene D
copper D chloromethane D benzo(k)fluoranthene B2
lead B2 dichlorobromomethane B2 chrysene B2
manganese D dichlorodifluoromethane D dibenzo(a,h)anthracene B2
mercury D 1,2-dichloroethane C fluoranthene D
molybdenum D ethylbenzene D fluorene D
nickel D methylene chloride B2 indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene B2
potassium D styrene D 2-methylnaphthalene D
selenium D tetrachloroethylene UR naphthalene D
silver D toluene D perylene D
sodium D 1,1,1-trichloroethane D phenanthrene B2
thallium D trichloroethylene UR pyrene D
vanadium D trichlorofluoromethane D Other Semi-Volatile
Organic Compounds
zinc D 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane D
    trihalomethanes (total) B2
    vinyl chloride A
    xylene D benzyl chloride B2
  bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate B2
Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans, and other Chlorinated Organic Compounds 1,2-dichlorobenzene D
1,4-dichlorobenzene D
  1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene D
alpha-chlordane B2 heptachlor epoxide B2 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene D
gamma-chlordane B2 heptachlorostyrene D 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene D
cis-nonachlor B2 hexachlorobenzene B2 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene D
trans-nonachlor B2 hexachlorostyrene D    
oxy-chlordane B2 octachlorostyrene D The concentrations of the shaded chemicals exceeded the ATSDR Comparison Values (or the chemicals were present but no Comparison Value has been established) in at least one environmental medium.
4,4'-DDD B2 PCBs B2
4,4'-DDE B2 pentachlorostyrene D
4,4'-DDT B2 toxaphene B2
dieldrin B2    
chlorinated
dibenzodioxins and
dibenzofurans
B2     *U.S. EPA Carcinogen Class:
A Human carcinogen
B1, B2 Probable human carcinogen
C Possible human carcinogen
D Unclassifiable
UR Classification Under Review
     
   

Table 4.
Summary of TRI information for Alpena Facilities, 1987-1997.

Facility Chemical Reported Releases or Transfers
Air Water Land Off-site Transfer
POTW Other
ABT Co. (Abitibi-Price) ammonia x x
chlorine x x
formaldehyde x x
methanol x
phenol x x
sodium hydroxide (solution) x
sulfuric acid x x
Fletcher Paper Co. acetone x x
formaldehyde x x x x
hydrochloric acid x x
methanol x x
toluene x x
Lafarge Corporation (main plant) acetone x
ammonium nitrate (solution) x
benzene x x
n-butyl alcohol x
tert-butyl alcohol x
chlorobenzene x x
chromium x x x x
chromium compounds x x x
1,2-dichloroethane x
dichloromethane* x x
diethanolamine x
diethyl phthalate x
dimethyl phthalate x
2-ethoxyethanol x
ethylbenzene x x
ethylene glycol x
Freon 113** x
glycol ethers x x
hydrochloric acid x
isopropyl alcohol x
methanol x
methyl ethyl ketone x x
methyl isobutyl ketone x x
methyl methacrylate x
naphthalene x
phenol x
polychlorinated biphenyls x
styrene x
tetrachloroethylene x
toluene x x
1,1,1-trichloroethane x
1,1,2-trichloroethane x
trichloroethylene x
vinyl acetate x
xylene (mixed isomers) x x
Lafarge Corp. (M-32 Paxton Quarry) ammonium nitrate (solution) x
Panel Processing Inc. acetone x x
n-butyl alcohol x x
certain glycol ethers x
methyl ethyl ketone x x
methyl isobutyl ketone x x
toluene x x
xylene (mixed isomers) x x
Systech Environmental Corp. acetone x x
benzene x x
dichloromethane* x x
ethylbenzene x x
certain glycol ethers x
methyl ethyl ketone x x
methyl isobutyl ketone x x
toluene x x
xylene (mixed isomers) x x
Thunder Bay Manufacturing copper x
methanol x
nickel x

Reference: 12

x    A transfer or release was reported in at least one year's report.

—  No transfer or release was reported.

POTW      Publicly Owned Water Treatment Works

* Dichloromethane is more commonly called methylene chloride.

** Freon 113 is also known as 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane.


Table 5.
Concentrations of metals in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells in the vicinity of the cement kiln dust pile at the Lafarge Corporation Alpena Plant during the IRIA, January-July, 1997.

Chemical Date Concentration
(ppm)
No. of samples exceeding MDEQ Contact Criteria (Ref. 13) No. of samples exceeding U.S. EPA or MDEQ Drinking Water Standards (Refs. 11, 13) Comparison Value
(ppb)
Maximum Median
acetone 1/97 330 190 0 0 1,000R
7/97 260 ND 0 0
aluminum 1/97 total 46,000 14,000 0 0 20,000Ei
dissolved 6,500 2,200 0 0
7/97 total 48,000 12,000 0 0
dissolved 6,400 3,100 0 0
antimony 1/97 total 5 ND 0 0 3A
dissolved 8 ND 0 1
7/97 total 12 ND 0 2
dissolved 12 ND 0 1
arsenic 1/97 total 190 87.5 0 6 3E, 0.023C
dissolved 140 49 0 3
7/97 total 180 89.5 0 8
dissolved 180 ND 0 6
barium 1/97 total 380 ND 0 0 700R
dissolved ND ND 0 0
7/97 total 1,600 405 0 0
dissolved ND ND 0 0
beryllium 1/97 total 2 ND 0 0 4M, 0.0081C
dissolved ND ND 0 0
7/97 total ND ND 0 0
dissolved ND ND 0 0
cadmium 1/97 total 16 2 0 4 2E, carcinogen
dissolved 14 3.1 0 3
7/97 total 16 ND 0 5
dissolved 14 ND 0 4
chloroform 1/97 ND ND 0 0 100E, 5.7C
7/97 1.9 ND 0 0
chromium 1/97 total 200 ND 0 1 30R, carcinogen (VI)
dissolved 100 ND 0 1
7/97 total 260 100 0 4
dissolved 110 ND 0 1
copper 1/97 total 190 ND 0 0 1,300MG
dissolved ND ND 0 0
7/97 total 440 94 0 0
dissolved ND ND 0 0
lead 1/97 total 300 32 0 10 15PL, carcinogen
dissolved 14 ND 0 4
7/97 total 380 37.5 0 12
dissolved ND ND 0 0
manganese 1/97 total 2,100 430 0 5 NA
dissolved 800 ND 0 2
7/97 total 8,900 1,100 0 8
dissolved 1,100 ND 0 3
mercury 1/97 total 2.4 0.95 0 1 2A
dissolved 3.5 ND 0 1
7/97 total 2.675 ND 0 1
dissolved 2.54 ND 0 1
nickel 1/97 total 520 83.5 0 2 100A, carcinogen
dissolved 330 ND 0 1
7/97 total 640 ND 0 2
dissolved 510 ND 0 2
potassium 1/97 total 7,800,000 810,000 0 0 NA
dissolved NS NS NS NS
7/97 total 9,800,000 2,200,000 0 0
dissolved 10,000,000 1,500,000 0 0
selenium 1/97 total 60 30.5 0 2 50E
dissolved 63 34 0 2
7/97 total 65 ND 0 2
dissolved 69 ND 0 2
silver 1/97 total 7.4 ND 0 0 50R
dissolved 11 ND 0 0
7/97 total ND ND 0 0
dissolved ND ND 0 0
sodium 1/97 total 540,000 190,000 0 6 NA
dissolved NS NS NS NS
7/97 total 660,000 200,000 0 7
dissolved 660,000 200,000 0 7
thallium 1/97 total 14 ND 0 1 0.4A
dissolved ND ND 0 0
7/97 total ND ND 0 0
dissolved ND ND 0 0
trichloroethylene 1/97 1.1 ND 0 0 5M, 3.2C
7/97 ND ND 0 0
Other Parameters Date Value
(standard units)
No. of samples exceeding MDEQ Contact Criteria (Ref. 14) No. of samples outside U.S. EPA Drinking Water Standards (Ref. 11) Comparison Value
Maximum Median Minimum
pH 1/97 12.8 12.2 7.2 8 9 NA
7/97 13.3 12.1 6.8 9 10

Reference: 3

Shaded chemicals exceeded ATSDR Comparison Values
ND -- Not Detected - for medians, in more than ½ of the samples
NS -- Not Sampled
(VI) -- For chromium(VI)
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases:

E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)
R -- ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs),calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose
C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)
M -- U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (11)
MG -- U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (11)
A -- U.S. EPA Drinking Water Lifetime Health Advisory (11)
PL -- U.S. EPA Proposed Action Level for Lead in Drinking Water (11)


Table 6.
Concentrations of metals in samples of cement kiln dust collected from a pile on the lakeshore behind the Lafarge Corporation Alpena plant by the MDNR (March 1993, August 1993) and during the IRIA (December 1996).

Chemical Date Concentration
(ppm)
No. of samples above MDEQ Industrial/Commercial Criteria (Ref. 13) No. of samples above MDEQ Residential Criteria (Ref. 13) Comparison Value
(ppm)
Maximum Median
antimony 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS 0.8R
8/93 NS NS NS NS
12/96 0.52 ND 0 0
arsenic 3/31/93 27.1 23.2 0 3 0.6E, 0.47C
8/93 65 60.5 0 2
12/96 32 12 0 9
barium 3/31/93 70 68 0 0 140R
8/93 160 157 0 0
12/96 100 82 0 0
beryllium 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS 10R, 0.16C
8/93 0.4 0.35 0 0
12/96 1.6 0.52 0 0
cadmium 3/31/93 0.6 0.52 0 0 0.4E, carcinogen
8/93 ND ND ND ND
12/96 2.8 1.1 0 0
chromium 3/31/93 15 15 0 0 6R, carcinogen (VI)
8/93 36 33 0 0
12/96 21 15 0 0
copper 3/31/93 18 16 0 0 NA
8/93 45 43 0 0
12/96 26 18 0 0
lead 3/31/93 51 36 0 0 carcinogen
8/93 125 108.5 0 0
12/96 180 64 0 0
manganese 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS NA
8/93 NS NS NS NS
12/96 260 210 0 0
mercury 3/31/93 0.121 ND 0 0 NA
8/93 2.4 1.27 0 0
12/96 ND ND ND ND
molybdenum 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS 10R
8/93 23 21.5 0 0
12/96 NS NS NS NS
nickel 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS 40R, carcinogen
8/93 31 30 0 0
12/96 26 19 0 0
selenium 3/31/93 3.15 2.65 0 0 10E
8/93 7.1 6.35 0 0
12/96 4.3 2.6 0 0
silver 3/31/93 0.2 0.2 0 0 10R
8/93 NS NS NS NS
12/96 0.51 ND 0 0
thallium 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS NA
8/93 NS NS NS NS
12/96 6.2 2.9 0 0
titanium 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS NA
8/93 1,100 1,100 0 0
12/96 NS NS NS NS
vanadium 3/31/93 NS NS NS NS 6Ei
8/93 67 62.5 0 0
12/96 NS NS NS NS
zinc 3/31/93 134 115 0 0 600E
8/93 350 345 0 0
12/96 NS NS NS NS

Reference: 3
Shaded chemicals exceeded ATSDR Comparison Values
ND -- Not Detected - for medians, in more than ½ of the samples
NS -- Not Sampled or Not Analyzed for
(VI) -- For chromium(VI)
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases:
E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), chronic exposure
Ei -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), intermediate-duration exposure
R -- ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose
C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)


Table 7.
Concentrations of metals in soil samples collected at two residences in Alpena by the MDNR, June-July 1992.

 
Chemical Date - Depth Concentration
(ppm)
No. of samples above MDEQ Industrial/Commercial Criteria (Ref. 13) No. of samples above MDEQ Residential Criteria (Ref. 13) Comparison Value
(ppm)
Residence A Residence B
Maximum Median Maximum Median
arsenic 6/92 - 6" 2.9 2.1 5.8 3.8 0 2 0.6E, 0.47C
7/92 - 1" 2.6 2.2 5 3.2 0 0
cadmium 6/92 - 6" ND (2) ND (2) ND (2) ND (2) 0 0 0.4E, carcinogen
7/92 - 1" ND (2) ND (2) ND (2) ND (2) 0 0
chromium 6/92 - 6" 7.9 7.1 7.5 6.45 0 0 6R, carcinogen (VI)
7/92 - 1" 9 7 6 5 0 0
copper 6/92 - 6" 15 9 24 20 0 0 NA
7/92 - 1" 24 13 19 11 0 0
lead 6/92 - 6" 219 141 287 209 0 0 carcinogen
7/92 - 1" 221 172 218 110 0 0
mercury 6/92 - 6" ND ND 0.12 ND 0 0 NA
7/92 - 1" ND ND 0.25 ND 0 0
nickel 6/92 - 6" ND ND 7.5 ND 0 0 40R, carcinogen
7/92 - 1" 13 9.45 ND ND 0 0
zinc 6/92 - 6" 190 100 200 190 0 0 600E
7/92 - 1" 170 130 160 130 0 0

References: 18
Shaded chemicals exceeded ATSDR Comparison Values
ND -- Not Detected (with detection level) - for medians, in more than ½ of the samples
-- = Not relevant, only one sample collected
Note: The MDEQ Industrial and Commercial Clean-Up Criteria for lead were developed using the U.S. EPA Integrated Uptake Biokinetic Model for children, and are equal to the Residential Criteria, 400 ppm. No risk assessment methods are currently available to evaluate lead toxicity in adults.
(VI) -- For chromium(VI)
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases:

E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), chronic exposure
R -- ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose
C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)


Table 8.
Concentrations of metals in surface soil samples collected at residences, school yards, and parks in Alpena by the MDNR (June-August 1992), the Alpena Public Schools (November-December 1992), and Encotec (1996).

Chemical Date Concentration
(ppm)
No. of samples above MDEQ Industrial/Commercial Criteria (Ref. 13) No. of samples above MDEQ Residential Criteria (Ref. 13) Comparison Value
(ppm)
Maximum Median
antimony 1996 0.1 ND 0 0 0.8R
arsenic 6-8/92 33 3.2 0 7 0.6E, 0.47C
11/30/92 9.2 1.2 0 2
12/22/92 15 1.7 0 4
1996 5.3 1.4 0 0
barium 1996 79 32 0 0 140R
beryllium 1996 0.5 ND 0 0 10R, 0.16C
cadmium 6-8/92 ND (2) ND (2) 0 0 0.4E, carcinogen
1996 2.6 0.85 0 0
chromium 6-8/92 16 7 0 0 6R, carcinogen (VI)
1996 13 5.7 0 0
copper 6-8/92 42 13 0 0 NA
1996 11 6.5 0 0
lead 6-8/92 595 64 1 1 carcinogen
11/30/92 1,150 13.3 1 1
12/22/92 2,600 62.2 4 4
1996 150 19 0 0
manganese 1996 1,400 160 0 0 NA
mercury 6-8/92 0.33 ND 0 0 NA
1996 ND ND 0 0
nickel 6-8/92 19 7.25 0 0 40R, carcinogen
1996 13 4.2 0 0
zinc 6-8/92 800 84.2 0 0 600E
1996 140 53 0 0

Reference: 18, 19, 21
Shaded chemicals exceeded ATSDR Comparison Values
These statistics include data also presented in Tables 7 and 10.
ND -- Not Detected - for medians, in more than ½ of the samples
Note: The MDEQ Industrial and Commercial Clean-Up Criteria for lead were developed using the U.S. EPA Integrated Uptake Biokinetic Model for children, and are equal to the Residential Criteria, 400 ppm. No risk assessment methods are currently available to evaluate lead toxicity in adults.
(VI) -- For chromium(VI)
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases:

E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), chronic exposure
R -- ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose
C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)


Table 9.
Concentrations of metals in subsurface soil samples collected at residences, school yards, and parks in Alpena by the MDNR, June-August 1992, and Encotec (1996).

Chemical Date Concentration
(ppm)
No. of samples above MDEQ Industrial/Commercial Criteria (Ref. 13) No. of samples above MDEQ Residential Criteria (Ref. 13) Comparison Value
(ppm)
Maximum Median
antimony 1996 2.2 ND 0 0 0.8R
arsenic 6-8/92 8.2 2 0 4 0.6E, 0.47C
1996 5 1.3 0 0
barium 1996 94 23 0 0 140R
beryllium 1996 0.3 ND 0 0 10R, 0.16C
cadmium 6-8/92 ND (2) ND (2) 0 0 0.4E, carcinogen
1996 1.8 0.7 0 0
chromium 6-8/92 15.5 6.3 0 0 6R, carcinogen (VI)
1996 10 6.1 0 0
copper 6-8/92 36 17.5 0 0 NA
1996 35 4.55 0 0
lead 6-8/92 451 134 1 1 carcinogen
1996 260 8.4 0 0
manganese 1996 240 140 0 0 NA
mercury 6-8/92 0.12 ND 0 0 NA
1996 ND ND ND ND
nickel 6-8/92 20 ND 0 0 40R, carcinogen
1996 8.2 4.5 0 0
thallium 1996 2.3 ND 0 0 NA
zinc 6-8/92 350 100 0 0 600E
1996 210 24 0 0

Reference: 18, 21
Shaded chemicals exceeded ATSDR Comparison Values
These statistics include data also presented in Table 7.
ND -- Not Detected - for medians, in more than ½ of the samples
Note: The MDEQ Industrial and Commercial Clean-Up Criteria for lead were developed using the U.S. EPA Integrated Uptake Biokinetic Model for children, and are equal to the Residential Criteria, 400 ppm. No risk assessment methods are currently available to evaluate lead toxicity in adults.
(VI) -- For chromium(VI)
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases:

E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), chronic exposure
R -- ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose
C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)


Table 10.
Concentrations of metals in surface soil samples collected at Ella White and Lincoln Elementary schools in Alpena by the MDNR (June-August 1992) and contractors for the Alpena Public Schools (November-December 1992).

Chemical Date Concentration
(ppm)
No. of samples above MDEQ Industrial/Commercial Criteria (Ref. 13) No. of samples above MDEQ Residential Criteria (Ref. 13) Comparison Value
(ppm)
Maximum Median
Ella White
arsenic 8/25/92 23 -- 0 1 0.6E, 0.47C
11/30/92 0.9 0.7 0 0
12/22/92 15 1.2 0 1
chromium 8/25/92 16 -- 0 0 6R, carcinogen (VI)
copper 8/25/92 42 -- 0 0 NA
lead 8/25/92 115 -- 0 0 carcinogen
11/30/92 17 9.11 0 0
12/22/92 83 15.2 0 0
nickel 8/25/92 6.9 -- 0 0 40R, carcinogen
zinc 8/25/92 250 -- 0 0 600E
Lincoln
arsenic 6/9/92 6.1 3.35 0 1 0.6E, 0.47C
11/30/92 9.2 5.2 0 2
12/22/92 7.8 2.85 0 3
chromium 6/9/92 7 5.5 0 0 6R, carcinogen (VI)
copper 6/9/92 21 10.75 0 0 NA
lead 6/9/92 161 43 0 0 carcinogen
11/30/92 1,150 41.3 1 1
12/22/92 2,600 186 4 4
nickel 6/9/92 9.9 5.75 0 0 40R, carcinogen
zinc 6/9/92 210 90.5 0 0 600E

Reference: 18, 19
Shaded chemicals exceeded ATSDR Comparison Values
These statistics include data also presented in Table 8.
ND -- Not Detected - for medians, in more than ½ of the samples
-- = Not Relevant - only one sample collected.

Note: The MDEQ Industrial and Commercial Clean-Up Criteria for lead were developed using the U.S. EPA Integrated Uptake Biokinetic Model for children, and are equal to the Residential Criteria, 400 ppm. No risk assessment methods are currently available to evaluate lead toxicity in adults.
(VI) -- For chromium(VI)
NA -- None Available
carcinogen -- Carcinogen (proven, probable, or possible) but no CREG available

Comparison Value Bases:
E -- ATSDR Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs), chronic exposure
R -- ATSDR Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs), calculated from U.S. EPA Reference Dose
C -- ATSDR Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs)


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  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #