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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

OSSINEKE GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION
OSSINEKE, ALPENA COUNTY, MICHIGAN

CONCLUSIONS

The Ossineke Ground-water Contamination site poses no apparent public health hazard under current conditions. It did pose a public health hazard in the past, due to past exposure to environmental contaminants at levels of health concern. The site may pose a public health hazard again in the future due to the potential for future exposures to ground-water contaminants at levels of public health concern. As noted in the Environmental Contamination and Physical Hazards section, human exposure to benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, xylene, and phenol may have occurred in the past and may occur in the future via ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact with groundwater. The affected groundwater is not used at this time, though it was used in the past prior to the detection of the contamination. The contamination is still present in the ground water, and new wells drilled into affected aquifer, despite the advisories currently in place, could be contaminated.

Air sampled from basements at and near the site contained low concentrations of various volatile organic chemicals. The concentrations were generally not high enough to be expected to cause non-cancer adverse health effects. However, there could be some increased risk of developing cancer after exposure to benzene, chloroform, and methylene chloride that were found in the basement air. The presence of these chemicals in the basement air is not necessarily related to the contamination in other environmental media at the site, in that the chemicals were also found in areas where no contamination in other media were found, the concentrations found were comparable to those found in studies of residential air with no known environmental contamination, and some of the chemicals were found in laboratory quality control samples as well as the field samples.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The following actions are recommended:

  1. Residents of the site area are advised not to use water from the contaminated aquifer, and are encouraged to take measures to prevent future use of endangered wells.
  2. Residential wells that have been replaced because of contamination should be properly abandoned to prevent future use of the wells.
  3. Regular monitoring of the contaminant plume should be a part of any remediation at this site.
  4. Residential wells that may be threatened by contamination should be monitored periodically until clean-up is complete.
  5. Water and sediment from the Devils River, in the area where groundwater from the site is likely to discharge, should be sampled and analyzed to evaluate the possibility of exposure to site-related contamination.

HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATION PANEL STATEMENT

A Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) convened by ATSDR and MDPH has evaluated the data and information developed for the Ossineke Ground-water Contamination Public Health Assessment for appropriate follow-up health actions. The panel determined that there are indications that human exposure to on-site contaminants has occurred, and that a program of public health education for the community and for health professionals serving the area should be implemented. The HARP did not recommend any other follow-up health activities at this time because the residents were probably not exposed to the contaminated groundwater for a length of time that is likely to cause adverse health effects.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION PLAN

Public Health Action Plans (PHAP) are developed to describe actions to be taken by ATSDR and/or the Michigan Department of Public Health (MDPH) at and in the vicinity of sites subsequent to the completion of Public Health Assessments. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that Public Health Assessments not only identify public health hazards, but also provide a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions to be implemented by ATSDR and/or MDPH are as follows:

Health Actions Taken

In 1984, before this health assessment was begun, the MDPH assisted in procuring funds under the Michigan Environmental Response Act (Act 307) to provide replacement wells to residents of the Ossineke area whose wells were contaminated.

Health Actions Planned

ATSDR, the MDPH, and the Alpena County Health Department will develop a program of community and health professionals education regarding this site.

ATSDR and MDPH will consult with the Alpena County Health Department, MDNR, U.S. EPA, and Alpena County and Sanborn Township governments on implementation of appropriate institutional controls to more effectively deter use of the contaminated aquifer.

ATSDR and MDPH will coordinate with federal and state environmental agencies to carry out the recommendations made in this assessment.

ATSDR will reevaluate and expand the Public Health Action Plan when needed. New environmental, toxicological, or health outcome data, or the results of implementing the above proposed actions and recommendations may determine the need for additional actions at this site.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Michigan Department of Public Health

    John W. Filpus, Environmental Engineer

    James Bedford, Environmental Toxicologist

    Brendan T. Boyle, Health Assessment Coordinator

    John L. Hesse, Principal Investigator

ATSDR Regional Representative

Louise Fabinski
Regional Services, Region V
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officer

William J. Greim
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Superfund Site Assessment Branch

CERTIFICATION

The Ossineke Ground-Water Contamination Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Michigan Department of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health assessment was initiated.


William Greim, M.S., M.P.H
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this health assessment and concurs with its findings.


Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES
  1. Ecology and Environment, Inc. Site Inspection Report for Ossineke Laundromat, Ossineke, Michigan. January 15, 1988.

  2. Michigan Department of Public Health, for ATSDR. Preliminary Health Assessment for Ossineke Groundwater (Ossineke Residential Wells). March 10, 1989.

  3. PRC Environmental Management. Remedial Investigation Report for Ossineke Ground-Water Contamination Site, Ossineke, Michigan. January 1991.

  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Record of Decision for the Ossineke Groundwater Contamination Site. June 28, 1991.

  5. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Letter from Frank Ruswick, Acting Deputy Director, to Valdas V. Adamkus, Regional Administrator, U.S. EPA. June 16, 1991 (included as Attachment A to Ref. 4).

  6. Silver, R., District Health Department #4, Personal Communication, August 30, 1995.

  7. Roy F. Weston, Inc. Assessment of the Ossineke Ground Water Problem. January 17, 1985.

  8. PRC Environmental Management. Final Work Plan, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study, Ossineke Ground-Water Contamination Site. March 20, 1989.

  9. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Hydrogeologic Investigation, Ossineke, Michigan. August 1985.

  10. Mastrolonardo, R., PRC Environmental Management. Personal communication. February 19, 1993.

  11. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System). Reviewed October 18, 1993.

  12. Ratliff, J., MDPH Division of Water Supply. Personal communication. March 8, 1994

  13. Gauthier, K., Sanborn Township Supervisor. Personal communication. October 11, 1993.

  14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Total Exposure Assessment Methodology (TEAM) Study. June 1987.

  15. Cook, R., MDPH Division of Water Supply. Personal communication. September 30, 1993.

  16. Little, J.C. Applying the Two-Resistance Theory to Contaminant Volatilization in Showers. Environ. Sci. Technol., 26(7), 1341-1349. 1992.

  17. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/03. April 1993.

  18. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Toluene, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.

  19. Andersen, I., Lundqvist, G.R., Molhave, L., et al. Human Response to Controlled Levels of Toluene in Six-Hour Exposures. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 9(5), 405-418. 1983.

  20. Baelum, J., Andersen, I., Lundqvist, G.R., et al. Response of Solvent-Exposed Printers and Unexposed Controls to Six-Hour Toluene Exposure. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 11(3), 271-280. 1985.

  21. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Ethylbenzene. ATSDR/TP-90/15. December 1990.

  22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Total Xylenes. ATSDR/TP-90/30. December 1990.

  23. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Styrene, Draft for Public Comment. October 1990.

  24. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethylene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/18. April 1993.

  25. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/19. April 1993.

  26. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 1,2-Dichloroethane, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.

  27. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. ATSDR/TP-90/27. December 1990.

  28. Stuik EJ. 1974 Biological response of male and female volunteers to inorganic lead. Int Arch Arbeitsmed 33:83-97.

  29. Cools A, Salle HJA, Verbeck MM, et al. 1976. Biochemical response of male volunteers ingesting inorganic lead for 49 days. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 38:129-139.

  30. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/12. April 1993.

  31. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. ATSDR/TP-90/20. December 1990.

  32. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Benzo(a)pyrene. ATSDR/TP-88/05. May 1990.

  33. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Phenol. ATSDR/TP-89/20. December 1989.

  34. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for 2-Butanone. ATSDR/TP-91/08. July 1992.

  35. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Tetrachloride, Update, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.

  36. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chloroform, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/07. April 1993.

  37. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Methylene Chloride, Update. ATSDR/TP-92/13. April 1993.

  38. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Acetone, Draft for Public Comment. October 1992.

  39. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Carbon Disulfide. ATSDR/TP-91/09. September 1992.

  40. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. IRIS (Integrated Risk Information System), Health Effects Assessments Summary Tables (HEAST), Table 2. March 1993.

  41. Michigan Department of Public Health, Office of the State Registrar and Center for Health Statistics. Unpublished Cancer Mortality Statistics, 1985-1991. January 5, 1993.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION SOURCES NOT CITED IN TEXT

  1. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Site Summary. February 1988.
  2. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Work Plan for RI/FS. April 1988.
  3. Versar, Inc. Draft Report, Collection and Analysis of Soils for PAHs. EPA Contract 68-02-4254. September 30, 1989.

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