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PETITIONED HEALTH CONSULTATION

Public Comment Release

TEN MILE/LANGE/REVERE DRAINAGE SYSTEM
(a/k/a TEN MILE DRAINAGE SYSTEM PCB SPILL)
ST. CLAIR SHORES, MACOMB COUNTY, MICHIGAN


TABLES


Table 1. PCB Concentrations Found in Water Samples Taken from the Ten Mile/Lange/Revere Drainage SystemA

Chemical of Interest MDEQ Generic GCC Adjusted GCCB Storm Water Sewer Catch Basin Sanitary Sewer Canal Wahby Pond
n Range n Range n Range n Range n Range
Total PCBs 3.3 1 55 ND-510 17 0.61-12.5 10 ND-4.1 6 ND-5.8 1 52
Arsenic 4,300 NA 55 ND-46 17 ND-5.8 10 ND-11 6 ND 0 NT
Barium 14,000,000 3017 55 20-970 17 10-90 10 40-170 6 18-26 0 NT
Cadmium 190,000 NA 55 ND-6.3 17 ND-0.85 10 ND-3.5 6 ND 0 NT
Chromium 460,000C NA 55 ND-75 17 ND-15 10 ND-26 6 ND 0 NT
Lead ID ID 55 ND-270 17 ND-57 10 7.6-27 6 ND-9.3 0 NT
Mercury 56 NA 55 ND-0.54 17 ND-0.7 10 ND-0.34 6 ND 0 NT
Selenium 970,000 NA 55 ND-28 17 ND-7.3 10 ND-7.2 6 ND 0 NT
Silver 1,500,000 NA 55 ND-0.66 17 ND-0.9 10 ND-0.71 6 ND 0 NT

Reference: MDEQ 2002, Tetra Tech EMI 2002

GCC Groundwater Contact Criteria
ID insufficient data
n number of samples
NA not applicable for this scenario
ND not detected
NT sample not tested for chemical

Notes:

A Concentrations in parts per billion (ppb)
B The MDEQ GCC protects workers in subsurface excavations from adverse health effects that can result from coming into dermal (skin) contact with a hazardous substance. It may be adjusted to address the protection of residents who may come into contact with contaminated surface water, such as swimming in a lake. (See Appendix E.)
C More protective criterion for chromium (VI) used


Table 2. PCB Concentrations Found in Sediment Samples Taken from the Ten Mile/Lange/Revere Drainage SystemA

Chemical of Interest Industrial DCC Storm Water Sewer Catch Basin Sanitary Sewer
n Range n Range n Range
Total PCBs 1 33 ND-121,000 14 0.02-28.5 2 3.9-48
Arsenic 61 33 ND-15 14 1.4-5.5 2 3.9-10
Barium 250,000 33 17-810 14 20-74 2 100-380
Cadmium 4,100 33 ND-20 14 ND-2.3 2 0.36-8.7
Chromium 17,000B 33 9.4-92 14 8.4-140 2 36-74
Lead 900 33 10-990 14 6.3-410 2 51-100
Mercury 1,100 33 ND-0.48 14 ND-1 2 ND-0.3
Selenium 18,000 33 ND-3.1 14 ND-1.1 2 0.45-0.54
Silver 17,000 33 ND-1.1 14 ND-0.4 2 0.1-0.3

Reference: MDEQ 2002, Tetra Tech EMI 2002

DCC Direct Contact Criteria
n number of samples
ND not detected

Notes:

A Concentrations in parts per million (ppm)
B More protective criterion for chromium (VI) used


Table 3. PCB Concentrations Found in Sediment Samples Taken at Varying Depths from the Lange/Revere CanalA

Chemical of Interest Generic Residential DCC Adjusted DCCB 0-6" 6-12" 12-18" 18-24"
n Range n Range n Range n Range
Total PCBs 1 21 33 1.4-150 31 ND-4,900 12 0.36-140 5 1.5-140
Arsenic 7.6 83 33 ND-15 31 3.5-18 12 2.4-14 5 2.5-16
Barium 37,000 NA 33 23-170 31 31-250 12 50-170 5 35-150
Cadmium 550 NA 33 0.38-8.6 31 0.8-8.7 12 0.4-6.2 5 0.39-6.0
Chromium 2,500C NA 33 6.6-110 31 12-100 12 9.9-80 5 12-75
Lead 440 See Note D 33 28-560 31 64-930 12 34-1,400 5 44-1,200
Mercury 160 NA 33 ND-3.3 31 ND-1.5 12 ND-1.4 5 ND-0.64
Selenium 2,600 NA 33 ND 31 ND-3.1 12 ND-1.5 5 ND
Silver 2,500 NA 33 ND-2.9 31 0.11-3.3 12 ND-1.8 5 ND-1.3

Reference: Tetra Tech EMI 2002

n number of samples
NA not applicable for this scenario
ND not detected

Notes:

A Concentrations in parts per million (ppm)
B The MDEQ Residential DCC protects against adverse health effects due to long-term ingestion of and dermal exposure to contaminated soil. It may be adjusted to address the protection of residents who may come into contact with contaminated sediments, such as standing in the Lange/Revere Canal. (See Appendix F.)
C More protective criterion for chromium (VI) used
D IEUBK model does not easily allow for adjustment of the DCC for lead


Table 4. PCB Amounts Found in Wipe Samples Taken from the Ten Mile/Lange/Revere Drainage SystemA

Chemical of Interest Storm Water Sewer Catch Basin Sanitary Sewer
n Range n Range n Range
Total PCBs 28 ND-480 6 2.28-158 17 ND-189
Arsenic 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Barium 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Cadmium 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Chromium 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Lead 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Mercury 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Selenium 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT
Silver 0 NT 0 NT 0 NT

Reference: Tetra Tech EMI 2002

n number of samples
ND not detected
NT sample not tested for chemical

Notes:

A Amounts in micrograms (µg)


FIGURES

Area Map
Figure 1. Area Map

Detailed Area Map
Figure 2. Detailed Area Map


APPENDIX A: "ST. CLAIR SHORES AREA RESIDENTS UNITING TO ADDRESS PCB CONTAMINATION; CITIZEN ORGANIZED PUBLIC FORUM ANNOUNCED"

------------------------------------------------------------------------
Enviro-Mich message from "Brad Wilson" <metrodetroit@cleanwater.org>
------------------------------------------------------------------------

ST. CLAIR SHORES AREA RESIDENTS UNITING TO ADDRESS PCB CONTAMINATION

CITIZEN ORGANIZED PUBLIC FORUM ANNOUNCED

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE: May 16, 2002

Contacts: Donna Hetzel, St. Clair Shores resident, (586) 775-0636
Brad Wilson, Clean Water Action and Clean Water Fund, (586) 783-8900
Dr. Michael Harbut, Chief of the Center for Environmental and Occupational Medicine, (248) 547-9100
Dave Hargrave, Lake St. Clair Bass Anglers, (586) 783-8900 or (586) 469-1600

St. Clair Shores, MI B In the wake of the recently discovered PCB disaster in St. Clair Shores, area residents are saying "enough is enough" as they unite to demand more answers from public agencies.

"We need immediate answers about the PCBs and other contaminants they've found in our neighborhoods", said St. Clair Shores resident Donna Hetzel, who lives on the Revere Street canal. Hetzel's views are shared by a growing number of Metro Detroit residents who are seeking to clean up the contamination in St. Clair Shores and in Lake St. Clair.

"The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency must expand the investigation into Lake St. Clair so we'll know where the emergency ends," said Brad Wilson of Clean Water Action and Clean Water Fund. Wilson indicated that the Agency has only looked at two canals and one storm drain system, and it has not taken any samples in Lake St. Clair or other canals, storm drains or sewer drains. Wilson continued, "How will we know whether or not the emergency clean-up should be extended into Lake St. Clair and other canals if they haven't tested these areas for contamination?"

St. Clair Shores area is one of the worst contaminated sites in Michigan and it appears to be among the worst in U.S. history. Metro Detroit residents are concerned about the extremely high levels of PCBs and other contaminants that have been discovered. Many live and recreate along Lake St. Clair and its tributaries. The majority of Metro Detroit residents are on the drinking water system, and many also consume fish from these waters.

"Because no testing has been done in or under Lake St. Clair or of its fish and wildlife, we do not know if recreational activities pose public health threats," said Dave Hargrave, member of Lake St. Clair Bass Anglers Association and the Michigan United Conservation Clubs. Additional testing must be done to protect the health of the thousands of people who recreate on Lake St. Clair.

Dr. Michael Harbut, Chief of the Center for Environmental and Occupational Medicine, spoke about the health effects of PCBs and other contaminants that have been found in the storm drain system and 10 Mile/Lange/Revere St. canals.

The speakers announced that a citizen-organized public forum will be held on June 5th at 7:00 p.m. at South Lake High School*. Metro Detroit area residents are encouraged to attend so they can ask questions to public agency officials and hear from citizens who have worked in other parts of the U.S. to address PCB contamination in their communities.

The speakers also distributed the list of demands developed by concerned area residents. The demands are aimed at protecting public health and ensuring that investigative and clean-up funds are spent wisely.

"We demand a safe, quick, and effective end to this problem. We are not going away until our neighborhoods are safe," said Hargrave. "We are in this for the long haul."

 

*South Lake High School Auditorium is located at 21900 East Nine Mile Road in St. Clair Shores, Michigan 48080 (between Harper Avenue and Mack Avenue).

###

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
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+

CITIZEN'S DEMANDS FOR IMMEDIATE ACTION

  1. Establish effective methods to monitor Lake St. Clair and all canals, outfalls, storm drains and sanitary sewers and to notify the public in real-time.

  2. Have regulatory agency representatives attend the Public Forum to answer the public's questions.

  3. Designate the affected area as an Emergency Response Site after a full investigation is completed by the US EPA.

  4. Post "NO BOATING, SWIMMING OR FISHING" signs in areas that are determined to contain PCB and other contamination.

  5. Conduct a full investigation in Lake St. Clair and other canals, outflows, storm drains and sanitary sewers, drinking water, fish tissue, and sediment and air samples.

  6. Complete a health study of people in the Emergency Response Site area(s) and make free or low cost tests available for testing people, pets and property.

  7. Complete a supplemental US EPA investigation of lawns and gardens in the Emergency Response Site area(s).

  8. Enforce the Clean Air and the Clean Water Act.

  9. Clean up all affected areas safely, quickly and effectively.

 

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

UNANSWERED QUESTIONS FROM ST. CLAIR SHORES AREA RESIDENTS ABOUT PCBs

The following is a partial list of questions, as of May 15, 2002. Additional questions will be added as they arise from the public.

  • What must be done so this doesn't happen again?
  • When was the last time this area was tested for contaminants?
  • What were the levels of contaminants found?
  • If PCBs aren't in the water, how did they get from the drain to the canals?
  • What should you do if someone comes into contact with PCBs?
  • Exactly how can one tell if PCBs have been dumped recently or if it is from a long term build up?
  • Since no one wants to live with PCBs, what are the economic ramifications for our community?
  • How long will these PCBs be around, how long before they break down?
  • How would somebody who may have been exposed to PCBs get medical treatment and/or tested for cancer?
  • What sediment and water samples have been taken from Lake St. Clair?
  • Is there another public meeting set with the regulatory agencies?
  • Are other drain systems currently being tested for PCB's and other harmful chemicals?
  • How does or how is a company with PCBs supposed to properly dispose of them?
  • Hasn't the government always monitored the water and sewer systems for PCBs and other chemicals?
  • If my house isn't on a canal why should I care about it, is it my problem?
  • How does the sediment flow through and out of the sewer, doesn't it ever mix with the water?
  • If officials can't locate the PCBs in the drain system how can they be sure that the PCBs are: 1. not leaking outside of the canals, and 2. not in the water?
  • How do you flush out drains and such, will the contaminants go in to the lake?
  • How does this get cleaned up?
  • Is anyone sick in that area?
  • What is the time table for the clean-up?
  • How will the clean-up be funded?

Brad Wilson
Macomb County Community Organizer
Clean Water Fund
38875 Harper
Clinton Township, MI 48036

PLEASE NOTE THAT WE HAVE A NEW AREA CODE FOR ALL OF MACOMB COUNTY

(Voice) (586) 783-8900
(Fax) (586) 783-4033
Email: metrodetroit@cleanwater.org
http://www.cleanwaterfund.org

 

 

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APPENDIX B: INSIDE ST. CLAIR SHORES "PCB INFORMATION AND INVESTIGATION: JUST THE FACTS ON THE 10-MILE DRAINAGE DISTRICT" MAY/JUNE 2002

Inside St. Clair Shores 'PCB Information and Investigation: Just the Facts on the 10-Mile Drainage District' May/June 2002


APPENDIX C: THE CITY OF ST. CLAIR SHORES "JUST THE FACTS PCB INVESTIGATION UPDATE" VOLUME 1, ISSUE 3–MAY, 2002

The City of St. Clair Shores 'Just the Facts PCB Investigation Update' Volume 1, Issue 3-May, 2002 (page 1)

The City of St. Clair Shores 'Just the Facts PCB Investigation Update' Volume 1, Issue 3-May, 2002 (page 2)


APPENDIX D: INSIDE ST. CLAIR SHORES "PCB INFORMATION AND INVESTIGATION: JUST THE FACTS ON THE 10-MILE DRAINAGE DISTRICT" JULY/AUGUST 2002

Inside St. Clair Shores 'PCB Information and Investigation: Just the Facts on the 10-Mile Drainage District' July/Augsut 2002


APPENDIX E: ADJUSTMENT OF MDEQ GROUNDWATER CONTACT CRITERIA TO ADDRESS CHILDREN SWIMMING IN THE LANGE/REVERE CANAL

The purpose of the MDEQ Groundwater Contact Criteria (GCC) is to protect workers in subsurface excavations from adverse health effects that can result from coming into dermal (skin) contact with a hazardous substance. The GCC is only protective of chronic, not acute, effects and addresses only dermal exposure, not incidental ingestion nor inhalation of any volatiles. The GCC may be adjusted to address the protection of residents who may come into contact with contaminated surface water, such as swimming in a lake. This exercise will demonstrate how the criteria were adjusted to account for children, ages 9 to 12, swimming in the Canal.

PCBs are probable carcinogens (U.S. EPA 1997). The equation used to determine the GCC of a known or probable carcinogen is below (MDEQ 2001b):

GCC sub carcinogen equals BW times AT times TR times CF sub 1 divided by SF times SA times SP times EV times EF times ED times CF sub 2

BW is the body weight. The range of body weights for a child of either sex, aged 9 to 12 years, is 31.5 to 45.3 kilograms (kg; U.S. EPA 2000). To be protective, the lower weight is used.

AT is the averaging time factor, which, for carcinogens, is equivalent to the average human lifespan of 70 years, or 25,550 days. When a chemical is found to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals, the research typically involves a high dose of the chemical given to the animal over a short period of time. Based on the assumption that a high dose of a carcinogen received over a short period of time is equivalent to a corresponding low dose spread over a lifetime, human exposures are calculated by prorating the total cumulative dose over an average person's lifetime.

TR is the target cancer risk, or the acceptable risk. An "acceptable" risk may range from one in ten thousand to one in one million, meaning that no more than one additional person in ten thousand (1E-4) or one million (1E-6) persons who are exposed to a carcinogen will die from cancer compared to a similar population not exposed to the carcinogen. The target risk in this exercise is set at one in one hundred thousand (1E-5).

CF1 is the first conversion factor used so that the appropriate units appear in the product of the equation. This factor is equal to one thousand micrograms per milligram (1E+3 µg/mg).

SF is the oral cancer slope factor, which is an estimate of the increased cancer risk from a lifetime exposure to a chemical. It is a probability estimate that is used only for comparative purposes. It is not a predictive tool. PCBs have been assigned varying slope factors based on level of exposure-specific risk and persistence. The slope factor chosen for this exercise is 2 per milligram per kilogram-day [2 (mg/kg-d)-1]. It reflects high risk and biological persistence (U.S. EPA 1997) and is the most protective value to use.

SA is the skin surface area. For a child of either sex between the ages of 9 and 12 years, the average total skin surface area is 1.16 square meters (m2) or 11,600 square centimeters (cm2; U.S. EPA 2000).

SP is the skin penetration per event factor and based on the rate at which a specific chemical penetrates the skin and the exposure time, which is assumed to be 2 hours per event. The SP for PCBs is 1.95 cm/event (2002, J. Crum, MDEQ Environmental Response Division, personal communication).

EV is event frequency, or the frequency of contact with the contaminated water. It is assumed to be 1 two-hour event per day.

EF is exposure frequency. It is assumed in this exercise that a nine- to 12-year-old would swim in the Canal five days per week for 12 weeks (three summer months) for a total of 60 days per year. This scenario allows for bad weather and days spent away from the Canal. It may overestimate the frequency of exposure but provides a protective estimate.

ED is exposure duration. It is assumed that the scenario will occur over three years, from age 9 to 12 years. Parents would likely have more control over where younger children would swim, and as a child enters adolescence, he or she might be more apt to use a community pool or beach as a social gathering place as well as for swimming.

CF2 is the second conversion factor used so that the appropriate units appear in the product of the equation. This factor is equal to 1 milliliter per square centimeter (1E-3 L/cm2).

The adjusted GCC for PCBs is calculated as follows:

Adjusted GCC sub PCBs equals 31.5 times 25,550 times 1E minus 5 times 1E plus 3 divided by 2 times 11,600 times 1.95 times 1 times 60 times 3 times 1E minus 3

AdjustedGCCPCBs = 0.99 = 1µg/L

The units µg/L are equivalent to parts per billion (ppb).

If the TR had been set at 1E-4, the resulting Adjusted GCCPCBs would have been 10 ppb. If the TR had been set at 1E-6, the Adjusted GCCPCBs would have been 0.1 ppb.

Barium, toluene, and total xylenes are not classified as carcinogens. The equation used to determine the GCC of a non-carcinogen is below (MDEQ 2001b):

GCC sub noncarcinogen equals THQ times RfD times BW times AT times CF1 divided by SA times SP times EV times EF times ED times CF2

The values for BW, SA, EV, EF, ED, CF1, and CF2 remain the same as discussed above for carcinogens.

THQ is the target hazard quotient. An expected dose is compared to a reference dose (described below), resulting in a hazard quotient, that is, the expected value divided by the reference value. If the quotient is less than or equal to 1, the expected dose is generally considered to be acceptable. The THQ in this exercise is the default, 1.

RfD is the reference dose. A reference dose is an estimate of the daily lifetime exposure to a chemical that is not expected to cause harm. The RfD has safety factors calculated into its value to account for uncertainties when extrapolating from laboratory or epidemiological (human data) research results to anticipated human results. The RfDs for barium, toluene, and total xylenes are 0.07, 0.2, and 2.0 mg/kg/day, respectively (U.S. EPA 1991, 1994, 1999).

AT, the averaging time for noncarcinogens, is the number of days over which the exposure is averaged. When a person is exposed to a noncarcinogen, it is believed that, unlike exposures to a carcinogen, a certain threshold must be reached before adverse health effects occur. Therefore AT for noncarcinogens represents only the exposure period, not the average human lifespan as for carcinogens. Because it was assumed that children would swim in the Canal for 60 days per year for three years, AT for this exercise is 180 days.

The SPs for barium, toluene, and total xylenes are 0.002, 0.086, and 0.13 cm/event, respectively (2002, J. Crum, MDEQ Environmental Response Division, personal communication).

The adjusted GCC for barium is calculated as follows:

Adjusted GCC sub Barium equals 1 times 0.07 times 180 times 1E plus 3 divided by 11,600 times 0.002 times 1 times 60 times 3 times 1E minus 3

AdjustedGCCBarium = 3017 µg/L

The adjusted GCC for toluene is calculated as follows:

Adjusted GCC sub Toluene equals 1 times 0.2 times 180 times 1E plus 3 divided by 11,600 times 0.086 times 1 times 60 times 3 times 1E minus 3

AdjustedGCCToluene = 200µg/L

The adjusted GCC for total xylenes is calculated as follows:

Adjusted GCC sub TotalXylenes equals 1 times 2.0 times 180 times 1E plus 3 divided by 11,600 times 0.13 times 1 times 60 times 3 times 1E minus 3

AdjustedGCCTotalXylenes = 1326 µg/L


APPENDIX F: ADJUSTMENT OF MDEQ RESIDENTIAL DIRECT CONTACT CRITERIA TO ADDRESS CONTACT WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN THE LANGE/REVERE CANAL

The purpose of the MDEQ Residential Direct Contact Criteria (DCC) is to protect against adverse health effects due to long-term ingestion of and dermal exposure to contaminated soil. The DCC is only protective chronic, not acute, effects and does not address inhalation of any volatiles. The Residential DCC may be adjusted to address the protection of residents who may come into contact with contaminated sediments, such as by standing in the Lange/Revere Canal. This exercise will demonstrate how the criteria were adjusted to account for a person standing in the Canal.

PCBs are probable carcinogens (U.S. EPA 1997). The equation used to determine the Residential DCC of a known or probable carcinogen is below (MDEQ 2001c):

ResidentialDCC sub carcinogen = TR times AT times CF divided by SF times [(EF sub i times IF times AE sub i) plus (EF sub d times DF times AE sub d)]

TR is the target cancer risk, or the acceptable risk. An "acceptable" risk may range from one in ten thousand to one in one million, meaning that no more than one additional person in ten thousand (1E-4) or one million (1E-6) persons who are exposed to a specific carcinogen will die from cancer compared to a similar population not exposed to the carcinogen. The target risk in this exercise is set at one in one hundred thousand (1E-5).

AT is the averaging time factor, which, for carcinogens, is equivalent to the average human lifespan of 70 years, or 25,550 days. When a chemical is found to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals, the research typically involves a high dose of the chemical given to the animal over a short period of time. Based on the assumption that a high dose of a carcinogen received over a short period of time is equivalent to a corresponding low dose spread over a lifetime, human exposures are calculated by prorating the total cumulative dose over an average person's lifetime.

CF is the conversion factor used so that the appropriate units appear in the product of the equation. This factor is equal to one billion micrograms per kilogram (1E+9 µg/kg).

SF is the oral cancer slope factor, which is an estimate of the increased cancer risk from a lifetime exposure to a chemical. It is a probability estimate that is used only for comparative purposes. It is not a predictive tool. PCBs have been assigned varying slope factors based on level of exposure-specific risk and persistence. The slope factor chosen for this exercise is 2 per milligram per kilogram-day [2 (mg/kg-d)-1]. It reflects high risk and biological persistence (U.S. EPA 1997) and is the most protective value to use.

EFi is the ingestion exposure frequency. It is assumed in this exercise that a person would be exposed to the sediment in the Canal (by standing in it) no more than 12 days per year.

IF is the age-adjusted soil ingestion factor. It assumes that a child through the age of six years eats 200 mg of soil per day, and that an adult will eat 100 mg of soil per day for 24 years. Each ingestion total is divided by the respective default body weight and the resulting quotients are summed. In this exercise, the ATSDR default child body weight of 10 kg was used rather than the U.S. EPA default of 15 kg, to provide greater protection. Therefore, IF in this exercise is equal to 154 mg-year/kg-day.

AEi is the ingestion absorption efficiency (a science-based estimate of what percentage of a chemical is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract) and is chemical-specific. The value for PCBs is 0.5 (50 percent; 2002, J. Crum, MDEQ Environmental Response Division, personal communication).

EFd is the dermal exposure frequency. Similar to EFi above, it is assumed that a person would be exposed to the sediment in the Canal no more than 12 days per year.

DF is the age-adjusted soil dermal factor. It considers the skin surface area (SA), a soil adherence factor (AF), number of events per day, and the exposure duration and divides the product of those factors by the body weight. Respective subfactors are determined for a child and an adult and then summed. In this exercise, it was assumed that a child through the age of six years would be exposed from the hip downward, assuming the Canal were not too deep for the child. (Although it is unlikely that children of this age would be standing in the Canal, this population is considered in this exercise in order to calculate a protective value.) The average SA of the legs of a child of either sex, ages 0 to 6 years, is 1837 cm2. It was assumed that an adult would be exposed from the knee downward. The average SA of the lower legs of an adult of either sex is 2005 cm2. The AF describes the amount of soil that adheres to the surface of the skin. Generally, wet soil adheres more than does dry soil. Therefore, rather than use the default values that MDEQ uses in derivation of the DCC, the child-in-wet-soil AF of 2.7 mg/cm2 and the adult worker (e.g. irrigation installer) AF of 0.2 mg/cm2 are used (2002, J. Crum, MDEQ Environmental Response Division, personal communication). The numbers of events per day is 1, and the exposure duration is 6 years for a child and 24 years for an adult. As mentioned above, the child BW is assumed to be 10 kg and the adult BW to be 70 kg. The resulting DF is 3,113 mg-year/kg-day.

AEd is the dermal absorption efficiency (a science-based estimate of what percentage of a chemical is absorbed through the skin) and is chemical-specific. The value for PCBs is 0.14 (14 percent; 2002, J. Crum, MDEQ Environmental Response Division, personal communication).

The adjusted Residential DCC for PCBs is calculated as follows:

Adjusted ResidentialDCC sub PCBs equals 1E minus 5 times 25,550 times 1E plus 9 divided by 2 [(12 times 154 times 0.5) plus (12 times 3113 times 0.14)]

Adjusted ResidentialDCCPCBs = 20,759 µg/kg = 21mg/kg

The units mg/kg are equivalent to parts per million (ppm).

If the TR had been set at 1E-4, the resulting Adjusted Residential DCCPCBs would have been 210 ppm. If the TR had been set at 1E-6, the resulting Adjusted Residential DCCPCBs would have been 2.1 ppm.

Arsenic is classified as a human carcinogen (U.S. EPA 1988). Therefore, the same equation as above is used to adjust the Residential DCC for arsenic. All parameters remain the same except for SF, which is 1.5 (mg/kg-day)-1 (U.S. EPA 1988) and AEd, which is 0.03 (3 percent; 2002, J. Crum, MDEQ Environmental Response Division, personal communication). The adjusted Residential DCC for arsenic is calculated as follows:

Adjusted ResidentialDCC sub Arsenic equals 1E minus 5 times 25,550 times 1E plus 9 divided by 1.5 [(12 times 154 times 0.5) plus (12 times 3113 times 0.03)]

Adjusted ResidentialDCCArsenic = 83,306 µg/kg = 83mg/kg

If the TR had been set at 1E-4, the resulting Adjusted Residential DCCArsenic would have been 830 ppm. If the TR had been set at 1E-6, the resulting Adjusted Residential DCCArsenic would have been 8.3 ppm.


APPENDIX G: HEALTH RELATED QUESTIONS RECEIVED AND ANSWERS FROM MDCH

From Toxic Free Shores' Nine Demands (#6):

Complete a health study of people in the Emergency Response Site area(s) and make free or low cost tests available for testing people, pets and property.
At the request of the Macomb County Health Department and the U.S. EPA, MDCH is reviewing the data from the Ten Mile Drainage System and the Ten Mile/Lange/Revere canal sampling. The agency is conducting a public health consultation with ATSDR. A health "consultation" is the process of a health assessment and the resulting document. During this process, MDCH forms a health opinion based on the data and community concerns and recommends any necessary public health actions to prevent or stop any harmful exposures. Recommendations could include a health "study," which is an investigation of exposed persons designed to assist in identifying effects on public health. A health study might include taking biological samples or performing epidemiological analysis. A health study is not planned at this time.

Additional questions from Toxic Free Shores' on-line news release (May 16, 2002):

What should you do if someone comes into contact with PCBs?
It should be noted first that exposure to (contact with) PCBs does not automatically indicate that you are at risk for developing adverse health effects. The duration of contact, the environmental medium that the PCBs are in (water, soil, air), and the concentration of the PCBs all factor into whether or not health effects would occur.

If you are exposed to PCBs dermally (on the skin), washing right away with soap and water will prevent nearly all of the chemical from being absorbed.

If you are in an area where you know there are high concentrations of PCBs in the air, you should leave that area or, if it is your job to be working with the chemicals, you should be wearing the appropriate respirator.

Often, people will not realize they are consuming PCBs in food. It is prudent to educate oneself on what foods might contain PCBs and how to select and prepare those foods to minimize or eliminate any exposure. For instance, the 2002 Michigan Family Fish Consumption Guide provides guidance on preparing and eating various species of freshwater fish.

How long will these PCBs be around? How long before they break down?
PCBs were used by industries because they resist degradation. Therefore, it can be many years before they break down. That is why EPA is going to be cleaning the sewers and Canal.

How would somebody who may have been exposed to PCBs get medical treatment and/or tested for cancer?
There is a blood test that can be used for measuring exposure to large amounts of PCBs. It should be noted that PCBs are ubiquitous in the environment and that people everywhere probably already have a small amount in their bodies. It is not likely that any exposure persons might have had to PCBs in the Ten Mile Drainage System area would be sufficient to change one's blood level of the chemicals. Concerned persons should consult with their family physician.

Is anyone sick in this area?
There are likely people in this area who are currently sick or not feeling well, just as there would be in any community. There are various tracking systems MDCH operates in the state to monitor for and catch any unusual disease patterns. There have been no reports of illnesses in this area that could be linked to exposure to an environmental contaminant.

From "Just the Facts" May/June 2002 newsletter:

Is my drinking water safe?
Yes. The Canal is not a source of drinking water. Also, as explained in the consultation document, MDEQ has tested the drinking water for the affected area and has not found any contamination.

How can I be exposed to PCBs?
The most common way people are exposed to PCBs is by eating foods that have PCBs in them. These chemicals tend to reside in the body fat and can be found in meat, dairy products, and fish. Bottom-feeding fish species accumulate some PCBs, then are eaten by larger, predator fish. The PCBs continue to accumulate up the food chain. The 2002 Michigan Family Fish Consumption Guide discusses what species and lengths of fish can be consumed and with what frequency so that people do not accumulate potentially harmful levels of PCBs. The guide also discusses preparation techniques to minimize potential exposure.

While the contamination remains in the Ten Mile Drainage System area, persons might be exposed if they work in the sewers with no protective equipment, if they spend a significant amount of each day near the Lange Street bridge, or if they swim or stand in the Canal. Once the clean-up is complete, these exposure routes will be eliminated

How can PCBs affect my health?
Whether or not a chemical has a harmful effect on a person's health depends upon the dose (the amount that enters the body), the duration of exposure, a person's sensitivity to that chemical, and whether the person is being exposed to other chemicals at the same time. In some cases, a concurrent exposure to a second chemical will counteract the expected effects of the first chemical (antagonism). In other cases, it may increase the magnitude of the effects (synergism).

It cannot be predicted how the health of a person exposed to PCBs will be affected, if at all. The human population is much more diverse and varied than inbred research animals. Research on laboratory animals has shown that PCBs can cause cancer, however this has not been seen in human subjects. Other animal research suggests that PCBs can affect the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. High levels of PCBs, like those seen in industrial or occupational settings, have caused a skin condition caused chloracne in workers. Much of the current human research into the effects of PCBs is focused on behavioral and learning differences seen in children of women who ate large amounts of sport fish.

Is there a medical test for PCBs?
(This question was answered earlier.)

How can I reduce or prevent my exposure to PCBs?
Avoiding the sediments in the Canal, especially at the west end where the storm drain discharges, will prevent exposure to the highest concentrations of PCBs in the Ten Mile Drainage System area. Also, following the Michigan Family Fish Consumption Guide will reduce or prevent exposure to any PCBs in locally-caught fish.

Should canal water be used for lawn irrigation or watering fruits and vegetables?
Ideally, residents should wait until the clean-up is complete before using the Canal water in their yards. Residents who choose to use the Canal to irrigate should position the water intake sufficiently above the sediment since PCBs adhere to soils and sediments more than to water.

Can I swim or wade in the Canal?
It is advised that swimming or wading in the Canal be stopped until the clean-up is complete. Occasional swimming by errant children, especially at the east end of the Canal where concentrations are lower, is not likely to result in any health effects.

Does the Macomb County Health Department consider the Ten Mile Drainage District a health risk?
The county health department, along with MDCH and ATSDR, does not consider the contamination to be an imminent (immediate) health risk. An imminent health risk would exist if there were danger of explosion, such as with methane, or a release of a lethal gas, such as cyanide.

From June 5, 2002 Toxic Free Shores Forum:

Has the land been tested for PCB contamination caused by irrigation of the property with water from the Lange Street Canal? If not, when will it be tested?
As of the date of this particular meeting, the residential soils had not been tested. Subsequently, however, 16 residential yards have had their soil analyzed for PCBs and metals. (Discussion in consultation document.)

St. Clair Shores and the EPA said 1 ppm was considered safe, yet on the fact sheet [distributed at this meeting, excerpted from the ATSDR ToxFAQs on PCBs] the FDA said food should contain less than 0.2 to 0.3 ppm.
The 1 ppm level used by EPA is a screening level for PCBs in soil, which is not normally eaten by people but may get consumed if someone's hands are dirty. (That number also addresses possible absorption through the skin following dermal contact.) The default (generic) values of how much soil a person might eat are 200 mg/day for a child and 100 mg/day for an adult. The FDA number is pertaining to actual food, which is intentionally eaten and thus, any PCBs in the food would be delivered directly into the body. A person is going to eat more than 100 or 200 mg/day of food. That is why the FDA's number is less than EPA's.

If you dredge up the sediment containing PCBs, are they then airborne?
If the sediment is treated with a demobilizing, thickening agent so that it does not drip out of the trucks, as is the protocol for removal actions, then there should be no increase in PCB air concentrations and therefore no health threat.

Has there been any recommendation for PCB-exposure treatment that has had any documented benefit?
If a person is exposed dermally to PCBs, multiple washings with soap and water immediately following that exposure have been shown to reduce any absorption.

In the cases of PCBs being ingested, the value of administering activated charcoal to decrease absorption is unknown. In rats, rice bran fiber was shown to decrease absorption but the value in humans is unknown. Generally, people consuming PCB-containing food do not realize the presence of PCBs in the food until well after consumption, when the PCBs have been absorbed by the body.

Isn't the damage or "potential" damage from PCBs not reversible?
Depending on the effect, any effects PCBs may have on body systems may or may not be reversible. Also, the body may compensate when systems are altered, even before any measurable symptoms might be noticed.

Are you aware of anyone doing a study of the effects of the St. Clair Shores PCB levels? Do you think this will happen?
If this question is referring to a health study, then at the time of this particular meeting, there is no plan for a health study to be conducted. If the health consultation concludes that one is needed, it will be recommended.

The fact sheet states that PCBs exist in transformers, capacitors and other electrical equipment. Does this mean that we are also at risk from the above?
You can only be at risk if you are exposed to the PCBs. If a transformer explodes and you come into contact with the PCBs, then exposure is taking place. As long as the equipment remains intact, then you are not being exposed.

From June 17, 2002 Toxic Free Shores forum (taken from unofficial transcripts):

The Macomb County Health Department says that I'm not in danger, but in the same publication ["Just the Facts" May/June 2002] it says it's an airborne contaminant.
PCBs can be found in the air and have been detected in air samples taken from the area. The language in the publication indicates that the county health department does not find the contamination to be an imminent (immediate) health risk. Also, the language earlier in the publication was discussing how a person could be exposed to PCBs in general.

Obviously our concerns are for the children playing in the general area. Will they be safe during clean-up [regarding air concentrations]?
The EPA will set up barriers to prevent people from entering the work areas during the removal. Air concentrations will be monitored and the generation of dusts prevented.

When the sediments are disturbed, will we be at greater risks, and will we be able to stay in our homes?
As stated before, the EPA will be monitoring air concentrations during the removal of the sediment in the Canal. If levels become elevated, the work will stop until provisions can be made to correct the situation. It is not expected that people will be asked to leave their homes.

Is our water safe to drink?
Answered previously: yes.

We live near the mouth of the Canal. I talked to someone at the Health Department and they told me no PCBs were found in the sediment behind our house. Can we water our lawn from the Canal?
Ideally, residents should wait until clean-up is complete to use canal water for irrigating.

How safe is it to swim in the Canal a few houses from the lake? My son swam in there in the past week with some of his friends. Do I need to have him tested, plus talk to the other parents?
Although the PCB concentrations are lower at the east end of the Canal, it would be prudent to avoid swimming in it until the clean-up is finished. If your son just swam there on occasion, he would probably not have been exposed to enough, if any, PCBs to have caused any health effects. We not only look at the level of exposure (the concentration) but at the duration and frequency of exposure as well to determine if health effects are likely.

Last year he went under the bridge, where the contamination is high.
Again, because the exposure was infrequent, even though the concentration was high, it is not likely that he has been exposed to enough PCBs to cause harm

So the kids fishing down at the end, should they be fishing there? Should we put a sign up saying don't fish?
There is already a fish advisory that exists for Lake St. Clair that discusses species and sizes of fish that should be avoided and how to prepare your catch. We can provide you with advisory signs if you want to post them.

I'm just curious about the effects they have on Autoimmune Disorders, people that already have them, or if they can contribute to people acquiring the disease. I've had horrible complications and various health problems in the past years, autoimmune-related.
The body system most sensitive to the effects of PCBs seems to be the immune system. It's difficult, if not impossible, to predict what the impact of PCB exposure would be on a person's immune system without knowing what kind of exposure occurred, for how long, a history of past exposures to PCBs or other chemicals suspected of causing autoimmune effects. Even with that information, no predictions can be made with any certainty. There are any number of factors, some still unknown, that determine whether or not a person is affected by a chemical.

Could these contaminants have possibly been building up since they were banned in the '70s? Also we've had constant problems with back-up flooding in our basements when it rains. Could the sediments have been building up over time in our home? It wasn't possible to clean our basement 100% every time that it flooded.
There are not adequate data to determine how long the contaminants have been in the sewers and Canal. Because we do not know how long the PCBs have been there, we cannot predict if any sediments associated with the basement flooding contained PCBs.

I've watered my vegetable garden and lawn for 15 years. Children play on the grass. I want my soil tested and I want clear indicators of safe levels of PCBs. Will you be doing that testing?
As of the date of this particular meeting, EPA was planning on sampling yard soils to determine if any contamination has been transferred from the Canal to residential soils via irrigating. Since that time, sampling has occurred. One of 16 yards had detectable amounts of PCBs in it and that level was below the 1 ppm criterion. There is further discussion about the soil sampling in the consultation document.

Regarding posting, children fishing, fishing off bridge. We tell them. Some listen, some don't. There's no posting. Who is responsible for their safety? Is there any plan for posting?
Because much of the land is private property, the county or state health departments cannot automatically go out and post No Fishing or other signs. The signs are available if people want to post their own property.

When is the community going to be told that the Wahby Park Pond is fed by the lake water coming out of the Lange/Revere Canal? Was the spray from the fountain monitored for safety before they were turned off? Will there be postings to tell people to stay away from the water?
The last time Wahby Pond received water from the Canal, according to the City of St. Clair Shores, was in August of 2001. The EPA tested the water in the pond on April 18, 2002 and the sample results were 52 ppb (for one sample). It is possible that this concentration was not an accurate representation of PCBs in the pond. PCBs tend to adhere to soil and sediments rather than enter the water column. The sample was taken near the inlet from the Canal and may have included suspended sediments containing PCBs.

The fountain spray was not monitored prior to being turned off. Although any PCBs in the water could have been volatized from the spray, any vapors would have dispersed rapidly in the ambient air and likely would not have been at concentrations of concern. Also, because people would not spend a majority of their time at the park, the duration of exposure to any PCBs in the air would have been short and not be expected to cause adverse health effects.

The area around the pond was not posted with signs warning people of the PCBs found in the pond water. The pond is used by waterfowl and it is likely that parents would discourage their children from playing in the water, to avoid exposure to the birds' waste. Also, because people would not spend a majority of their time at the park, any exposure to PCBs in the pond water would have been short and not be expected to cause adverse health effects.

Has any testing been done on the retention basin at the foot of Bon Brae, between Bon Brae and Bon Heur? We have several air samples there. These PCBs have to be going into that retention basin. Can somebody give me an answer? The reason I'm so concerned is that I've lived on Bon Brae for 51 years, and we've had almost 100 cancer deaths between Bon Brae and Bon Heur. And we would like to see action.
The Macomb County Health Department has received information (from the citizen who asked this question) regarding the types of cancer cases, years of diagnoses, and addresses of patients along these two streets and has shared that information with MDCH. Previous to the Ten Mile Drainage System investigation, a request had been submitted to MDCH to interpret cancer statistics for the St. Clair Shores area, specifically, those areas covered by the 48080, 48081, and 48082 ZIP codes. The cancer types being studied are breast, lung, prostate, leukemia, and non-Hodgkins lymphoma, as well as all cancers combined. The epidemiologist reviewing these data expects to complete his review as early as October 2002. His report will be shared with the Macomb County Health Department and made available to interested parties.

The Michigan Cancer Registry has collected information regarding diagnoses and deaths since 1985. Information by county is available on-line at the MDCH website, under "Statistics and Reports."

We know that carcinogens like arsenic are in the canal water that floats into Lake St. Clair, along with barium, PCB, lead, and others. What should I do to protect myself from these contaminants?
As long as you are not exposed to unsafe levels of these chemicals, you are protected. Once the Canal is dredged during clean-up, the possibility for exposure will be eliminated or reduced such that any remaining levels would not be expected to be harmful.

When do you plan to test the other canals, storm drains, and Lake St. Clair for contaminants in the water, air, fish, and sediment?
The PWO will address testing the other canals and storm drains.

MDEQ is in charge of the Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program. This program analyzes fish samples from throughout the state for chemicals of concern (e.g., PCBs, mercury, pesticides). Fish directly from the canals in the St. Clair Shores area are not sampled, but rather from various areas of Lake St. Clair itself. The most recent sampling from the lake was done in 2001 with testing done on smallmouth bass, walleye, and carp. Sampling in 2002 should occur, though the date is as yet unknown, with carp and walleye being tested. The data gathered by MDEQ are used by MDCH to establish fish advisories for the state's lakes and rivers. The advisory is available on-line at the MDCH (a Quick Link under "Statistics and Reports") and is also available in print by contacting the county or state health department.

Is it safe to boat up and down the canals?
People are asked not to use the Revere/Lange Canal for boating. Even if the operator were to minimize any wake, sediments still could be disturbed. Residents who moor their boats in the Canal should confer with the City and consider moving their boats until the clean-up is complete.


CERTIFICATION

This Ten-Mile/Lange/Revere Drainage System Health Consultation was prepared by the Michigan Department of Community Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the health consultation was begun.

Alan W. Yarbrough
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health consultation and concurs with the findings.

Roberta Erlwein
Chief, State Program Section, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


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