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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NORFOLK NAVAL BASE
(a/k/a SEWELLS POINT NAVAL COMPLEX)
NORFOLK, NORFOLK CITY COUNTY, VIRGINIA


APPENDIX A: EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS AT SITES UNDER INVESTIGATION AT NAVAL STATION NORFOLK

Table 1.

Human Health Effects at Various Hydrogen Sulfide Concentrations in Air
Site Site Description/ Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Public Health Evaluation
Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Sites
Site 1:
Camp Allen Landfill
(Area A)
Area A, now vegetated, was used for refuse disposal from the mid-1940s until approximately 1974. Materials accepted at the 45-acre landfill included metal plating and parts cleaning sludge, residues from organic solvents and paint stripping, and fly ash from the power plant, as well as general trash and debris. Part of the area is currently occupied by the base brig and a heliport. Air: In 33 1993 samples collected within the brig, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) detected at levels above comparison values (CVs) were: benzene (1 micrograms/cubic meter [µg/m3]), benzyl chloride (0.9 µg/m3), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) (3,400 µg/m3), hexachlorobutadiene (1 µg/m3), chloroform (0.8 µg/m3), methylene chloride (380 µg/m3), and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (21 µg/m3).
Soil: In 5 1992 surface soil samples, Aroclor-1260 (0.42 milligrams/kilogram [mg/kg]), arsenic (70 mg/kg), cadmium (88.9 mg/kg), and lead (683 mg/kg) exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: Thirty-two 1992 and 1993 shallow groundwater samples contained vinyl chloride (12,000 micrograms/liter [µg/L]), methylene chloride (1,500 µg/L), acetone (2,600 µg/L), 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) (9,500 µg/L), 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) (270 µg/L), trichloroethylene (TCE) (5,600 µg/L), tetrachloroethylene (PCE) (620 µg/L), benzene (430 µg/L), 4-methyl-2-pentanone (25,000 µg/L), toluene (18,000 µg/L), 2-butanone (10,000 µg/L), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (B2EHP) (97 µg/L), phenol (5,100 µg/L), 2,4-dimethylphenol (1,600 µg/L), 2-methylphenol (3,500 µg/L) 4-methylphenol (28,000 µg/L), aldrin (0.026 µg/L), heptachlor epoxide (0.005 µg/L), 4,4'-DDD (0.11 µg/L), aluminum (132,000 µg/L), antimony (1,800 µg/L), arsenic (900 µg/L), barium (7,270 µg/L), beryllium (10.6 µg/L), cadmium (540 µg/L), chromium (117,000 µg/L), iron (226,000 µg/L), lead (58,000 µg/L), manganese (3,220 µg/L), nickel (352 µg/L), thallium (42 µg/L), vanadium (396 µg/L), zinc (7,700 µg/L), and cyanide (380 µg/L) at levels exceeding CVs. Thirty 1997-2001 samples contained, for the most part, the same contaminants present at lower concentrations. Also present was 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) (1 µg/L), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TCA) (0.6 µg/L), and 1,2-dibromoethane (0.3 µg/L). Seventy 1991-1993 deep groundwater samples contained vinyl chloride (350 µg/L), methylene chloride (131 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (8 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (660 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (44 µg/L), TCE (170 µg/L), benzene (3 µg/L), chloroform (8 µg/L), chloromethane (11 µg/L), bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (2 µg/L), B2EHP (3.5 µg/L), heptachlor epoxide (0.0065 µg/L), aluminum (46,900 µg/L), antimony (9.6 µg/L), arsenic (64.4 µg/L), cadmium (6.5 µg/L), chromium (166 µg/L), iron (248,500 µg/L), lead (44.2 µg/L), manganese (2,170 µg/L), thallium (6 µg/L), and vanadium (356 µg/L) at levels above CVs. In 54 samples collected from 1997 to 2001, concentrations of VOCs increased in some wells and decreased in others, but did not exceed the previously-detected maxima overall, except 1,2-DCE (791 µg/L), 1,1,2-trichlorethane (0.9 µg/L), 1,1,2,2-TCA (3 µg/L), and benzene (4.9 µg/L).
Surface Water/Sediment: In 36 1991-1992 sediment samples, benzo(a)pyrene (0.32 mg/kg), Aroclor-1260 (1.5 mg/kg), arsenic (590 mg/kg), cadmium (183 mg/kg), chromium (3,000 mg/kg), iron (95,400 mg/kg), and lead (1,000 mg/kg) exceeded CVs. In 28 1983-1992 surface water samples, vinyl chloride (8 µg/L), methylene chloride (14 µg/L), TCE (18 µg/L), benzene (1 µg/L), PCE (20 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (4 µg/L), B2EHP (13 µg/L), alpha-BHC (0.016 µg/L), dieldrin (0.027 µg/L), 4,4'-DDD (0.26 µg/L), Aroclor-1254 (0.44 µg/L), heptachlor epoxide (0.006 µg/L), aluminum (20,300 µg/L), arsenic (500 µg/L), cadmium (80 µg/L), chromium (400 µg/L), iron (78,300 µg/L), lead (1,300 µg/L), manganese (697 µg/L), mercury (3.9 µg/L), selenium (100 µg/L), thallium (240 µg/L), and vanadium (103 µg/L) exceeded CVs.
After a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) for the landfill were completed in 1994, a Decision Document was issued requiring treatment of soil and groundwater in both aquifers. In July 1997, systems to pump and treat groundwater began operating in Areas A and B. A dual-vapor extraction system to address "hot spots" of contamination in Area A began operating in May 1998. Annual groundwater and surface water monitoring began in 1999. Air poses no apparent public health hazard because VOCs were present at levels that would not be expected to cause adverse health effects. Soil, surface water, and sediment pose no apparent public health hazard, as any exposures would be brief, infrequent, and incidental, and the detected levels of contaminant would not be expected to result in adverse health effects. There are no known wells drawing from either aquifer that are used for drinking water near the site, so groundwater poses no public health hazard.
Site 1:
Camp Allen Landfill (Area B)
Area B is 2 acres in size and is now vegetated. Waste, including drums holding various chemicals from a fire at the Camp Allen Salvage Yard, was buried in trenches in this area in 1971. Air: In 15 samples collected within the Camp Allen Elementary School in 1992, hexachlorobutadiene (0.3 µg/m3) and benzene (0.7 µg/m3) exceeded CVs.
Soil: In 1992, 6 samples contained Aroclor-1260 (0.78 mg/kg), arsenic (13.8 mg/kg), and cadmium (20.5 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Three samples collected from the Camp Allen Elementary School in 1992 and analyzed for metals revealed arsenic (25.1 mg/kg), cadmium (31.3 mg/kg), and chromium (869 mg/kg) at levels exceeding CVs. In 10 1998 samples collected from the landfill after the removal action, benzo(a)pyrene (0.31 mg/kg) and arsenic (42 mg/kg) were detected at levels exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: From 1983 to 2001, 88 samples from monitoring wells and 55 Geoprobe samples contained acetone (8,300 µg/L), vinyl chloride (3,000 µg/L), methylene chloride (24,000 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (180 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (3,900 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (520 µg/L), TCE (2,100 µg/L), benzene (1,200 µg/L), PCE (48 µg/L), toluene (290 µg/L), 4-methyl-2-pentanone (2,100 µg/L), chloroethane (16 µg/L), chlorobenzene (110 µg/L), trichloroflouromethane (2,300 µg/L), pentachlorophenol (110 µg/L), naphthalene (120 µg/L), bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (8 µg/L), B2EHP (9.6 µg/L), heptachlor epoxide (0.006 µg/L), dieldrin (0.94 µg/L), 4,4'-DDD (0.14 µg/L), aluminum (610,000 µg/L), antimony (48.4 µg/L), arsenic (360 µg/L), barium (1,900 µg/L), beryllium (18.5 µg/L), cadmium (80 µg/L), chromium (1,700 µg/L), iron (734,500 µg/L), lead (1,880 µg/L), manganese (4,880 µg/L), nickel (433 µg/L), thallium (270 µg/L), vanadium (1,610 µg/L), and cyanide (920 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Forty-one 1991-2001 deep groundwater samples contained levels of vinyl chloride (4.8 µg/L), methylene chloride (7 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (5 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (1,500 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (83 µg/L), TCE (450 µg/L), benzene (170 µg/L), gamma-BHC (0.15 µg/L), heptachlor epoxide (0.0105 µg/L), dieldrin (0.009 µg/L), aluminum (146,000 µg/L), antimony (25.2 µg/L), arsenic (194 µg/L), beryllium (11.2 µg/L), cadmium (30.8 µg/L), chromium (542 µg/L), iron (428,000 µg/L), lead (183 µg/L), manganese (4,740 µg/L), nickel (203 µg/L), and vanadium (769 µg/L) above CVs.
Surface Water/Sediment: Thirteen 1983-1992 surface water samples contained vinyl chloride (42 µg/L), methylene chloride (12 µg/L), chloroform (24 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (3 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (32 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (78 µg/L), bromodichloromethane (6 µg/L), TCE (130 µg/L), benzene (25 µg/L), PCE (6 µg/L), B2EHP (13 µg/L), aluminum (31,600 µg/L), antimony (20.6 µg/L), arsenic (340 µg/L), cadmium (180 µg/L), chromium (180 µg/L), iron (58,700 µg/L), lead (2,100 µg/L), manganese (574 µg/L), vanadium (135 µg/L), and zinc (4,700 µg/L) at levels above CVs. Sediment samples collected in 1991 and 1992 contained pentachlorophenol (110 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (0.23 mg/kg), dieldrin (0.086 mg/kg), 4,4'-DDD (4.2 mg/kg), 4,4'-DDT (2.495 mg/kg), and Aroclor-1254 (7.6 mg/kg), arsenic (52.5 mg/kg), cadmium (71.7 mg/kg), chromium (225 mg/kg), copper (22,700 mg/kg), iron (125,000 mg/kg), lead (1,750 mg/kg), nickel (1,255 mg/kg), and vanadium (542 mg/kg) at levels exceeding CVs. Three sediment samples collected in 1998, after the removal action, contained benzo(a)pyrene (0.26 mg/kg), Aroclor-1260 (1.3 mg/kg), antimony (22.2 mg/kg), arsenic (98.9 mg/kg), cadmium (46.9 mg/kg), iron (53,200 mg/kg), and lead (1,180 mg/kg) at levels above CVs.
From May 1994 through January 1995, a removal action designed to address the primary source areas of contamination, including soil, debris, and buried drums, was conducted at Area B. For additional activities and status information, see Area A. Air, surface water, sediment, deep groundwater, and soil pose no apparent public health hazard. Under expected exposure scenarios, the detected levels of contaminants would not be expected to cause adverse health effects. There are no known drinking water wells located downgradient.
Site 2:
Naval Magazine (NM) Slag Pile
This approximately 2- acre site was used in the 1950s and 1960s for the disposal of slag from aluminum smelting operations. Ash was apparently used to level the area. The site was later regraded and vegetated, and part of it was made into a gravel parking lot. An adjacent drainage channel drains to other culverts and then to Mason Creek. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ) records indicate that a well was drilled in 1949 at a roller rink more than 2,000 feet southeast of the site. Soil: Five surface soil samples from 1996 and 1997 contained arsenic (18.7 mg/kg) and benzo(a)pyrene (0.13 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Aluminum (346,000µg/L), antimony (11.8 µg/L), arsenic (225 µg/L), barium (974 µg/L), cadmium (2.9 µg/L), chromium (675 µg/L), iron (248,000 µg/L), lead (357 µg/L), manganese (861 µg/L), thallium (9.9 µg/L), and vanadium (1,070 µg/L) were detected in 32 groundwater samples from 1996 and 1997 at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Surface Water/Sediment: In 1996 and 1997, 21 surface water samples collected from locations within 400 feet of the site contained aluminum (47,400 µg/L), antimony (22.5 µg/L), arsenic (22.1 µg/L), cadmium (38.6 µg/L), chromium (134 µg/L), copper (2,120 µg/L), iron (49,500 µg/L), lead (1,190 µg/L), manganese (698 µg/L), nickel (106 µg/L), thallium (9 µg/L), vanadium (95 µg/L), and acetone (35,602 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs. In 26 sediment samples collected concurrently, antimony (63.7 mg/kg), arsenic (25.3 mg/kg), cadmium (48.1 mg/kg), chromium (292 mg/kg), copper (5,510 mg/kg), iron (65,500 mg/kg), and lead (3,900 mg/kg) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
An RI and FS for the site were completed in 1998. In summer 1999, contaminated sediment was removed from the adjacent drainage channel, parts of the area were paved, and 1 foot of clean fill was placed on top of other parts. Monitoring is ongoing, and a final Record of Decision (ROD) requiring institutional controls was signed in 2001. Soil, surface water, and sediment pose no apparent public health hazard because the levels of contaminants detected in these media are too low to cause adverse health effects to individuals with short, incidental, and infrequent exposures. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because it is not expected to impact any wells. Groundwater flows to the east northeast. It is not known for what purposes and for how long the well at the roller rink southeast of the site was used, but this well is not expected to be in the path of any groundwater contamination migrating from the site.
Site 3:
Q Area Drum Storage Yard
Ten of thousands of drums were stored in this 5-acre area while it was in use, from the 1950s until the late 1980s. The drums, which sometimes spilled, held such chemicals as petroleum products, chlorinated organic solvents, paint thinners, and pesticides. The drums were removed, and part of the site was paved and used as a parking lot. The site is located within 1,200 feet of the Elizabeth River (to the west) and Willoughby Bay (to the northeast). It is currently fenced. Soil: Four 1982 composite samples and 8 1986 surface soil samples contained n-nitrosodi-n-propylamine (10 mg/kg), arsenic (38 mg/kg), and thallium (22 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Elevated levels of total pesticides were also detected. After a soil removal action, during the RI, soil samples were collected at a depth of 0" - 18". No VOCs (measured in 24 samples) or semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) (measured in 10 samples) were found at levels above CVs.
Groundwater: The Yorktown and Columbia Aquifers are hydraulically connected at the site. RI samples collected between 1990 and 1993 and baseline samples from 1998 contained levels of acetone (1,300 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (140 µg/L), cis-1,2-DCE (230 µg/L), trans-1,2-DCE (710 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (410 µg/L), 1,1,1-TCA (1,100 µg/L), TCE (1,371 µg/L), PCE (8,200 µg/L), vinyl chloride (34 µg/L), methylene chloride (780 µg/L), chloroform (60 µg/L), carbon tetrachloride (120 µg/L), bromodichloromethane (120 µg/L), antimony (97 µg/L), arsenic (337 µg/L), beryllium (33 µg/L), cadmium (96 µg/L), chromium (1,120 µg/L), lead (516 µg/L), nickel (472 µg/L), and selenium (90 µg/L) above CVs. Results from 12 samples analyzed between 1983 and 1986 (before the contaminated soil removal) were similar; however, antimony (2,300 µg/L), arsenic (500 µg/L), chromium (140,000 µg/L), thallium (150 µg/L), trans-1,2-DCE (9,000 µg/L), TCE (6,000 µg/L), and B2EHP (130 µg/L) were detected at higher concentrations in the 1980s than the 1990s. During five rounds of sampling conducted since the groundwater treatment system began operating, levels of 1,1-DCE (25 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (100 µg/L), cis-1,2-DCE (320 µg/L), PCE (35 µg/L), TCE (470 µg/L), and vinyl chloride (110 µg/L) exceeded CVs.
Sediment: Two sediment samples collected from the storm drain conduits at the site in 1993 were analyzed for VOCs, metals, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Arsenic (5.84 mg/kg), iron (26,400 mg/kg), gamma-chlordane (17,600 mg/kg), and alpha-chlordane (15,900 mg/kg) were present at concentrations exceeding CVs.
In 1987, the Navy excavated 750 cubic yards of soil from the site and paved the affected area. An RI/FS addressing the site was completed in 1996. In August 1998, an air sparging/soil vapor extraction system (AS/SVE) was installed at the perimeter of the groundwater contamination plume and in the most contaminated area within the plume (the "hot spot") to address subsurface VOCs. Long-term monitoring of groundwater and soil gas is underway. Part of the site will be considered for closeout in 2002. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Contaminated soil has been removed and access to the area is now controlled. Prior exposures were probably uncommon and of short duration. Under such circumstances, detected contaminant levels in surface soil were too low to cause adverse health effects. Because there are no drinking water intakes near the site, groundwater poses no public health hazard. Sediment also poses no apparent public health hazard because any public exposure to storm drain sediment would be accidental, brief, and unusual, and levels of contaminants detected would not cause adverse health effects under such circumstances.
Site 4:
P-71 Transformer Storage
New and out-of-service transformers were stored in this area from the 1940s until 1978. Soil: Samples from 42 soil borings were collected in 1983 and 1984 and analyzed for PCBs. Most samples contained Arcolor-1260, and the highest detected concentration in surface soil was 890 mg/kg, which exceeds the CV. In 1991, 37 soil samples (28 of them from surface soil) analyzed for PCBs all contained Aroclor-1260. The maximum detected concentration, 500 mg/kg, exceeds the CV.
Groundwater: Three monitoring wells were sampled for PCBs in March and June 1991. Samples from two of the wells contained Aroclor-1260 at concentrations (reaching 11.0 µg/L) that exceeded CVs. Two June 1991 samples collected from off-site monitoring wells did not contain detectable levels of PCBs. Samples collected after remediation, in 1995, from the three on-site wells contained concentrations of PCBs below the detection limits of 1.0 and 2.0 µg/L.
An RI/FS for this site was completed in 1991. The remediation of PCB- contaminated soil and groundwater was completed in 1992. Follow-up groundwater monitoring was conducted in 1995. No further action is planned at this site. Any public exposures to soil at this site would be limited and infrequent, and the PCB levels detected are too low to cause adverse health effects in such circumstances. Thus, soil poses no public health hazard. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because the only wells near the site are directly to the west (not the expected direction of groundwater flow), and they are not used for drinking water.
Site 5:
Pesticide Disposal Site
At this site, there was a culvert about 2 feet in diameter placed vertically into a hole filled with gravel, known as a "french drain." It was used for the disposal of pesticide application rinse water and over-age concentrated pesticides from a nearby pest control shop that operated from the late 1960s through 1973. The area is currently fenced and used for storage. Two nearby storm drains carry surface runoff to Willoughby Bay. Soil: In 1988, soil samples were analyzed for SVOCs, pesticides, and PCBs. Chlordane (6.3 mg/kg) and dieldrin (8.3 mg/kg) exceeded CVs. In 1995, five samples were collected and analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, and metals. Arsenic (12.5 mg/kg) was detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. In 1997, six samples were analyzed for pesticides, and detected levels of dieldrin (0.43 mg/kg) exceeded CVs.
Groundwater: In 1995 samples from three wells, thallium (9 µg/L) exceeded CVs. The wells were inadvertently installed upgradient of the site, and pesticides were not detected in the samples. In 1997, the three existing wells and two new wells were sampled for pesticides. Samples from one well contained levels of 4,4'-DDD (16 µg/L) exceeding the CV.
A Site Investigation (SI) was completed in early 1998. In late 1999, pesticide-contaminated soil was removed. A Closeout Report for the site has been drafted. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard. The site is fenced and contaminated soil has been removed. Any past exposures were probably uncommon and of short duration. Under these circumstances, detected contaminant levels in surface soil would not cause adverse health effects. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there is no exposure (i.e., there are no wells near the site).
Site 6:
CD Landfill
Beginning in 1979, the western section of the site was permitted to accept demolition debris and inert debris other than ash, chemicals, or asbestos. For 2 years, it accepted grit used for sandblasting cadmium-plated aircraft parts. The western section closed in 1987. The eastern section of the site, although unpermitted, received such waste as demolition debris, chemicals, asbestos, sandblasting grit, and power plant ash from 1974 to 1979. The southeast corner of this section was regraded in 1979 to allow runway expansion, and excess material was spread over the remainder of the landfill. The entire site covers approximately 22 acres. In 1993, a road was constructed over the site, and some regrading occurred. A fence was installed on either side of the road to prevent public access to the landfill. Soil: 1991 surface soil samples contained dieldrin (0.051 mg/kg), arsenic (34.9 mg/kg), and lead (1,040 mg/kg) at levels exceeding CVs. Two composite samples analyzed for radium-226 (reaching 0.58 picoCuries/gram [pCi/g]) and 5 composite and surface soil samples analyzed for thorium-230 (reaching 0.98 pCi/g) contained levels of these radionuclides that exceeded screening values. However, they are thought to be naturally-occurring, and there has been no documented disposal of radioactive materials at the site.
Groundwater: In 1993, 25 samples from the shallow aquifer contained the following contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs: chlorobenzene (2,000 µg/L), B2EHP (9 µg/L), beta-BHC (0.034 µg/L), heptachlor epoxide (0.032 µg/L), dieldrin (0.04 µg/L), Aroclor-1260 (0.12 µg/L), aluminum (208,000 µg/L), antimony (33.6 µg/L), arsenic (65.6 µg/L), cadmium (21.8 µg/L), chromium VI (309 µg/L), iron (177,000 µg/L), lead (864 µg/L), manganese (6,560 µg/L), nickel (138 µg/L), thallium (1.1 µg/L), vanadium (504 µg/L), and zinc (3,780 µg/L). Levels of cadmium, iron, and lead measured in 12 1991 samples were lower. Two samples from a well drawing from the deep aquifer were analyzed in 1993; arsenic (2.8 µg/L) and lead (16.9 µg/L) were detected at levels exceeding CVs. After the landfill was capped in 1999, parameters for which samples were analyzed were limited to a few metals and two VOCs (in the sample from one deep well). These VOCs, 1,4-dichlorobenzene and chlorobenzene, were not detected during 2000 or 2001 sampling. Four rounds of samples from the shallow aquifer collected in 2000 and one round collected in 2001 were analyzed for lead and iron. Lead levels (reaching 110 µg/L) exceeded CVs, but decreased over time. In 2001, only one sample contained lead at a level (65 µg/L) exceeding its CV. Iron levels (reaching 117,000 µg/L during the first round and 35,800 µg/L during subsequent rounds) also exceeded CVs. 1993 analysis of 9 shallow groundwater samples for selected radioisotopes revealed levels of radium-226 (2.61 picoCuries/liter [pCi/L]), radium-228 (3.48 pCi/L), and radon-222 (672 pCi/L) exceeding screening values, but thought to be naturally-occurring.
Surface Water/Sediment: In 1993, 7 surface water samples from drainage ditches contained dieldrin (0.035 µg/L), aluminum (176,000 µg/L), antimony (22.5 µg/L), arsenic (40.1 µg/L), barium (1,420 µg/L), chromium (299 µg/L), iron (1,470,000 µg/L), lead (712 µg/L), manganese (6,760 µg/L), nickel (253 µg/L), thallium (5 µg/L), and vanadium (1,180 µg/L) at levels above CVs. Surface water samples collected in 2000 and 2001 during post-closure monitoring did not contain chlorobenzene or 1,4-dichlorobenzene. Twelve 1993 shallow sediment samples from drainage ditches contained levels of benzo(a)anthracene (52 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (54 mg/kg), benzo(k)flouranthene (22 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (38 mg/kg), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (14 mg/kg), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (3.9 mg/kg), dieldrin (0.12 mg/kg), arsenic (49.2 mg/kg), iron (207,000 mg/kg), and lead (1,260 mg/kg) exceeding CVs. Arsenic (9.2 mg/kg) exceeded its CV in 7 deep sediment samples. Sediment and surface water samples collected from 1983 to 1991 contained lower levels of iron and lead, but higher levels of cadmium (115 mg/kg in and 20 µg/L, respectively, both exceeding CVs).
An RI and FS were completed in 1996, at which time the landfill was divided into two Operable Units (OUs) so that sediment (OU 1) could be addressed separately from soil and groundwater (OU 2). Contaminated sediments were partially removed in 1997. A ROD for OU 2 signed in 1998 requires landfill closure, institutional controls, and post-closure monitoring. In accordance with applicable landfill closure requirements, a cap covering the entire site (including remaining contaminated sediments) was installed in 1999. Long-term monitoring of groundwater and surface water is underway. Soil, sediment, and surface water pose no apparent public health hazard because there is little, if any, exposure, and the detected levels of contaminants are too low to cause adverse health effects under expected exposure scenarios. A fence has been erected to prevent access from the road. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because no potable water wells are potentially affected by site-related contamination. Shallow groundwater flows generally to the northeast, and there are no downgradient wells. Deep groundwater is thought to flow to the north or northwest, and the only identified wells are southwest of the site and used only for industrial purposes.
Site 7:
Inert Chemical Landfill
With the approval of the Virginia Department of Health's (VDOH) Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Division, this landfill was constructed in June 1979 for a one-time disposal of 84 pallets of inert chemicals (mainly unused ion exchange resin). The landfill has a 1-foot clay base, was covered with 2 feet of soil and 1 foot of clay, and has 6-foot clay side berms. A records review also indicated that the site may have received 1,000 5-gallon cans of roofing tar. Soil: Two 1995 samples analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals contained benzo(a)pyrene (0.52 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (1.4 mg/kg), arsenic (8.6 mg/kg), and iron (24,900 mg/kg) at levels exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: No contaminants were found at concentrations exceeding CVs in a 1995 sample analyzed for the same parameters as the soil samples.
The Navy excavated and removed the contents of the disposal area in 1982. On the basis of a 2001 Closeout Report, no further action will be taken at the site. Public exposures to soil at this site would not be expected, and sporadic exposure to soil contamination at this site would not be expected to result in adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because no contaminants were detected.
Site 8:
Asbestos Landfill
With VDOH approval, an estimated 6,500 bags of asbestos (double bagged) were disposed of at this site during a single period in June 1979. Like Site 7, the landfill has a clay liner, clay side berms, and was covered. Currently, the site is being used as a gravel parking area primarily for military personnel, secured with limited access. Soil: One sample collected in 1995 and analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals contained arsenic (11.8 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (0.41 mg/kg), and benzo(b)flouranthene (1.3 mg/kg) at levels exceeding CVs. Asbestos was also detected.
Groundwater: In 1995, one sample tested for asbestos did not contain detectable levels.
A 2001 Closeout Report recommends that no further remedial activities be taken at the site. The Navy is planning to pave the existing parking lot on top of the site. Any public exposure to this site would be infrequent, incidental, and of short duration. The contaminants detected in soil would not be expected to cause adverse health effects in these circumstances. Thus, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Although groundwater at this site has not been sampled for contaminants other than asbestos, there are no wells downgradient of the site, so groundwater does not pose a public health hazard.
Site 9:
Q Area Landfill
This site was developed during a past fill operation and used from 1974 until 1978. Reportedly, only construction debris was left at the landfill. Burning was also conducted at the site. The site is in the northwest corner of the base, adjacent to the water. Soil: Three 1995 samples from the landfill analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals contained benzo(a)anthracene (4.6 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (3.0 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (5.6 mg/kg), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (0.18 mg/kg), antimony (52.8 mg/kg), arsenic (17.2 mg/kg), cadmium (11.2 mg/kg), copper (4,790 mg/kg), iron (137,000 mg/kg), and lead (1,500 mg/kg) at concentrations above CVs.
Groundwater: Benzene (4.9 µg/L), iron (14,700 µg/L), and lead (145 µg/L) were present at concentrations exceeding CVs in 2 1995 samples analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals.
Surface Water/Sediment: In 1996, 3 surface water and 2 sediment samples from a lagoon just south of the site were analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals. Only cadmium (7.6 µg/L), iron (14,700 µg/L), and lead (145 µg/L) were present at concentrations exceeding CVs in the surface water samples. In the sediment samples, arsenic (8.6 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1.2 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (2.1 mg/kg) exceeded CVs.
An RI for the site is underway. Because significant exposure is not expected to contaminants found in soil, surface water, and sediment, these media pose no apparent public health hazard. Because there are no wells near the site, groundwater poses no public health hazard.
Site 10:
Apollo Fuel Disposal Sites
From 1967 to 1969, monomethylhydrazine (a fuel component) from several Apollo spacecraft capsules was poured from 55-gallon drums onto the ground in two areas and allowed to percolate into the soil. The areas were fenced during disposal activities. Soil: Only arsenic (2.5 mg/kg) was present at concentrations above CVs in 2 1995 surface soil samples analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals. The site was investigated in 2001, but the results of the investigation are not yet available. Detected concentrations of arsenic may be naturally-occurring and are too low to result in adverse health effects under expected exposure scenarios. Thus, soil does not pose a public health hazard. Groundwater has not been sampled, but is not expected to pose a public health hazard because the only nearby off-site well is more than 0.5 miles southeast of the fuel disposal sites and would not be expected to be affected by any site-related groundwater contamination.
Site 11:
Instrument Repair Shop Drain
From the late 1940s until 1956, paint from ships' dials (containing low levels of radium) was flushed through drains in the instrument repair shop located in Building V-60, contaminating the plumbing. Air: In 1988, a radiological survey of the pluming and storm sewer systems was performed. The level of radon detected in a manhole (10.8 pCi/L) exceeded regulatory values, but was consistent with levels commonly found in underground samples. Sampling also revealed elevated total beta-gamma levels (2,717 disintegrations per minute/100 square centimeters) and gamma exposure rates (22 microroentgens/hour). In summer 1982, low-level radiological contamination in the plumbing was remediated, and an effort to decontaminate the sanitary sewer and associated areas was undertaken in late 1983. However, Building V-60 caught fire in 1986 (see Site 19) and remediation of the full extent of contamination in the plumbing and storm sewer systems was completed in 1991 as part of the remediation of Site 19. Air poses no public health hazard because there is no public exposure to air contaminants at this site. The plumbing and storm sewer systems were fully decontaminated and are no longer potential sources of contamination. Any exposures to water after it was carried through the storm sewer system to a discharge point would be limited and not expected to result in adverse health effects; thus, they pose no apparent public health hazard.
Site 12:
Mercury Disposal Site
It was reported that, in the late 1960s, approximately 150 10-pound glass bottles of elemental mercury were dumped off the sea wall near Building V-88 into Willoughby Bay, allegedly from a laboratory within the building. However, in 1976, sediment sampling did not reveal mercury contamination and divers could not find any glass containers in the sediment. Sediment: In 1995 and 1996, arsenic (6.9 mg/kg) and benzo(a)pyrene (0.3 mg/kg) were present at levels exceeding CVs in four samples analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals. On the basis of the conclusions of a 2001 Closeout Report, no further action is planned at the site. Sediment sampling suggests that little, if any, contamination is present at this site. Because any exposures would be limited, the site poses no apparent public health hazard.
Site 13:
Past Industrial Wastewater Outfalls
From the 1940s to 1976, the Naval Air Rework Facility Norfolk generated significant quantities of industrial wastewater from metal plating solutions and rinsewaters, paint stripping solutions, and degreasing compounds. The wastewater, contaminated primarily with chromium, cadmium, zinc, cyanide, and phenols, was discharged to the storm sewer system, which discharged to Willoughby Bay. Sediment: Between 1976 and 1978, VDEQ collected three sediment samples near the eastern edge of the site. They were analyzed for 6 metals, and arsenic (6.7 mg/kg), cadmium (12.69 mg/kg), and chromium (207 mg/kg) were present at concentrations exceeding CVs. In 1986, two locations were sampled for metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1987 samples from three locations were analyzed for PAHs, PCBs, and selected pesticides. In the VDEQ 1986 and 1987 samples, arsenic (26 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (6.99 ppm), and benzo(a)anthracene (6.81 mg/kg), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (4.24 mk/kg), PCBs (2.69 mg/kg) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. In the mid-1970s, most of the base industrial waste streams were rerouted to the Naval Station Norfolk Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant, then discharged to the Hampton Roads Sanitation District sewage treatment plant. The remaining discharges from the storm sewer system have been permitted under the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Since the former wastewater outfalls have been continually monitored under Naval Station Norfolk's NPDES permit for more than 15 years, no further action is planned for this site. The outfalls are not expected to have released contaminants at levels of potential health concern since they were permitted. Direct exposures to the water discharged from the outfalls or the sediment immediately adjacent to them are expected to have been incidental, infrequent, and of short duration, to the extent they occurred at all. The contaminants detected in sediments would not cause adverse health effects under such circumstances. No surface water data were provided to ATSDR for review. Exposures to contaminated surface water would have been limited, and ATSDR expects that very little, if any, exposure would have occurred immediately adjacent to the outfall. Thus, adverse health effects would not be expected. Therefore, surface water and sediment pose no apparent public health hazard.
Site 14:
Underground Oil Spill-- Piers 4, 5, and 7
In 1979, an estimated 100 gallons of diesel oil per day from the fuel distribution system seeped into the ground behind the sea wall near piers 4, 5, and 7. Some of the seepage, attributed to leaks, reached the Elizabeth River. Other releases of petroleum products from fuel distribution facilities in this area have also occurred over the years. Groundwater: In 1991, free product up to 4 feet deep was detected in groundwater samples adjacent to a ruptured pipeline. The approximately 30 samples also contained concentrations of benzene (52 µg/L), naphthalene (500 µg/L), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (230 µg/L), and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (61 µg/L) exceeding CVs. In 1980, a French drain system was installed behind the sea wall to recover the oil. Approximately 50,000 gallons of oil were recovered. Further cleanup of groundwater contamination is being overseen by the base underground storage tank (UST) program. Reports issued in 1993 and 1994 discuss potential approaches to designing a free product recovery system for the area. In early 2002, it was reported that such a system was active at the site. Analytical data from the Elizabeth River have not been provided to ATSDR for review. However, contaminants were only discharged to the river from this area for a limited time and the source of contamination has been remediated. Swimming is not recommended and not expected to occur much, if at all, in this area. Any exposures to soil, surface water, or sediment affected by this site would be expected to be incidental, infrequent, and of short duration. Thus, the site poses no apparent public health hazard.
Site 15:
Underground Oil Spill-- Piers 20, 21, and 22
An intermittent diesel oil seepage from behind the sea wall near piers 20, 21, and 22 was detected in 1979. Contaminants were thought to reach the Elizabeth River, and the soils behind the sea wall were found to be contaminated with oil. Other releases of petroleum products from fuel distribution facilities in this area have also occurred over the years. Groundwater: In approximately 20 1991 samples, concentrations of benzene (4.4 µg/L), naphthalene (588 µg/L), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (284 µg/L), and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (30 µg/L) exceeded CVs. During sampling, free product up to 1.7 feet thick was observed. Around 1980, contaminated soils were removed. Groundwater remediation is being overseen by the base UST program. Reports issued in 1993 and 1994 discuss potential approaches to designing a free product recovery system for the area. It was reported in early 2002 that such a system was active at the site. Analytical data from the Elizabeth River have not been provided to ATSDR for review. However, contaminants were only discharged to the river from this area for a limited time and the source of contamination was remediated. Swimming is not recommended and not expected to occur much, if at all, in this area. Any exposures to soil, surface water, or sediment affected by this site would be expected to be incidental, infrequent, and of short duration. Thus, the site poses no apparent public health hazard.
Site 16:
Chemical Fire, Building X-136
On July 18, 1979, a chemical fire occurred in Building X-136 due to the storage of incompatible chemicals, predominantly calcium hypochlorite and acids. During the fire-fighting operation, approximately 2 tons of calcium hypochlorite were flushed with water down the storm drain leading to the Elizabeth River. The Virginia State Water Control Board was notified of this event, and, reportedly, no adverse impacts to water quality were noted. Groundwater: In 1995, 3 samples contained benzene (3.4 µg/L), TCE (41 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (4,400 µg/L), aluminum (22,500 µg/L), arsenic (18.8 µg/L), chromium (52.2 µg/L), iron (46,300 µg/L), lead (24.4 µg/L), manganese (603 µg/L), and vanadium (81.3 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs. An investigation was conducted in 2001, but results are not yet available. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because there are no nearby wells and therefore no exposure to any site-related contamination. Any exposures to other media at or near the site would have been sufficiently limited that adverse health effects would not be expected, and therefore exposures to media other than groundwater pose no apparent public health hazard.
Site 17:
Chemical Fire, Building SDA-215
On August 12, 1981, there was a chemical fire in cell 6 of Building SDA-215 due to the storage of incompatible chemicals, predominantly calcium hypochlorite and acids. The fire and fire-fighting operation reportedly caused significant site contamination. Soil: Two 1996 samples contained only arsenic (0.77 mg/kg) at levels exceeding its CV.
Groundwater: One 1995 sample did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs.
After the fire, remaining hazardous chemicals were removed, and adjacent contaminated soils were excavated and disposed of off site. On the basis of a 2001 Closeout Report, no further action will be taken at the site. Soil contaminated by the fire was removed and the levels of arsenic present afterward are as low as naturally-occurring levels of arsenic present in soil in the area. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard because any exposure to soil contamination before it was remediated would have been sufficiently limited that adverse health effects would not be expected. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no nearby wells.
Site 18:
Former NM Hazardous Waste Storage Area
This site, north of Site 2, was used from 1975 until 1979 to store drums of hazardous waste. The waste consisted primarily of waste oil, metal plating solutions and sludges, acids, organic solvents, and paint stripping solutions. There were significant leaks and spills of waste oil and hazardous wastes in 1979. Soil: Two 1995 samples contained benzo(a)pyrene (0.38 mg/kg) and arsenic (20.2 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Contaminated soils were excavated and placed in piles on the site, then landfilled with VDOH approval. In addition, a monitoring program was implemented. An investigation of this site was conducted in 2001, but results are not yet available. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard because public exposure to contamination would have been limited, if it occurred at all, and this type of exposure would not be expected to result in adverse health effects. No groundwater samples are available. However, groundwater contamination would not be expected to impact any wells, so this pathway poses no public health hazard.
Site 19:
Buildings
V-60/V-90
On April 29, 1986, an electrical switch gear in Building V-60 (a warehouse, plastics shop, and office structure) caught fire. The fire spread to an adjacent storage structure, Building V-90. Transformers containing PCBs ruptured from the heat, and PCB contamination (as well as dioxins and furans, by-products of the combustion of PCBs) was spread by the smoke. Both buildings contained asbestos insulation. There was also formerly a beryllium grinding area and an instrument dial painting facility in Building V-60 (see Site 11, the instrument repair shop drains). Air: Samples collected on-site before and during remediation contained levels of radon (10.8 pCi/L) and PCBs (1.01 µg/m3) exceeding screening values.
Soil: 1988 soil samples collected before site remediation contained levels of arsenic (20 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (150 mg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (150 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (200 mg/kg), benzo(k)flouranthene (170 mg/kg), chrysene (170 mg/kg), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (75 mg/kg), and TCE (110 mg/kg) exceeding CVs.
Shortly after the fire, efforts were made to decontaminate the buildings and their contents. After additional contamination assessment, site remediation continued until 1991. This work included the removal of contaminants, building demolition, rubble removal, and ground treatment. No further action is planned at the site. There has been no public access to the site since the fire. Thus, on-site contamination poses no public health hazard. There are no wells near the site, so groundwater poses no public health hazard. No adverse health effects resulting from smoke from the fire have been reported. However, ambient air data were not collected during the fire.
Site 20:
Building LP-20 Site
A portion of Building LP-20 (which now houses the Public Works Command's Transportation Department) was used beginning in the early 1940s for aircraft engine repair, including cleaning and metal plating. There was a fuel storage area south of the building. Numerous spills of wastewater, petroleum products, and other chemicals have occurred, including as a result of damage to piping that transfers waste from on-site activities to the base wastewater treatment plant. There were also releases of JP-5 aviation fuel and cyanide from underground pipelines in the area. Nearly the entire site is paved. The Bousch Creek culvert reportedly serves as a conduit for the migration of shallow groundwater from this area to Willoughby Bay. Soil: 1991 samples collected as part of an interim RI contained toluene (55,000 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Eleven soil samples collected for the RI in 1995 contained benzo(a)pyrene (0.61 mg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (2.2 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (1.3 mg/kg), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (0.1 mg/kg), arsenic (49.7 mg/kg), and iron (42,900 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Samples did not reveal one major, discrete source of contamination.
Groundwater: Sampling was conducted from 1986 to 1991 in various parts of the site to evaluate known releases and the extent of associated contamination. In the 1980s, more than 18 monitoring wells contained free product. In 1988 and 1990 samples, contaminants detected at concentrations exceeding CVs included benzene (370 µg/L), toluene (4,400 µg/L), and TCE (54,000 µg/L). During the RI, in 1995 and 1996, more than 20 samples from shallow groundwater in the Columbia Aquifer were collected. The samples contained the following contaminants at levels exceeding CVs: chloromethane (24 µg/L), chloroethane (690 µg/L), vinyl chloride (15,000 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (3,600 µg/L), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,300 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (28,000 µg/L), 1,2-DCA (120 µg/L), 1,1,1-TCA (560 µg/L), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) (53 µg/L), TCE (44,000 µg/L), chloroform (220 µg/L), benzene (860 µg/L), toluene (1,200 µg/L), B2EHP (100 µg/L), antimony (79.2 µg/L), arsenic (57.6 µg/L), cadmium (8.4 µg/L), chromium (41.7 µg/L), iron (95,800 µg/L), lead (70.3 µg/L), manganese (4,270 µg/L), and vanadium (113 µg/L). Eight deep groundwater samples from the Yorktown Aquifer collected during the RI contained vinyl chloride (50 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (4 µg/L), 1,2-DCE (960 µg/L), TCE (110 µg/L), benzene (19 µg/L), arsenic (69.3 µg/L), chromium (40.5 µg/L), iron (66,100 µg/L), lead (102 µg/L), manganese (639 µg/L), and vanadium (59 µg/L) at levels above CVs. During baseline sampling before the groundwater treatment system started operating in 1998, benzene (12 µg/L), chloroethane (84 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (1,800 µg/L), cis-1,2-DCE (12,000 µg/L), trans-1,2-DCE (250 µg/L), PCE (6 µg/L), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (20 µg/L), TCE (20,000 µg/L), and vinyl chloride (6,400 µg/L) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in the shallow aquifer, while 1,1-DCE (70 µg/L), cis-1,2-DCE (1,100 µg/L), TCE (3,500 µg/L), and vinyl chloride (260 µg/L) exceeded CVs in the deep aquifer. While concentrations of some VOCs temporarily rose after the system started operating, 1999-2001 samples revealed lower levels of the VOCs than the 1998 samples (except chloroethane [310 µg/L], chloroform [6.7 µg/L], and carbon tetrachloride [2 µg/L] in the shallow aquifer and 1,1-DCE [1,200 µg/L], vinyl chloride [660 µg/L], and methylene chloride [8 µg/L] in the deep aquifer ).
Three groundwater recovery/treatment systems designed to recover free product operated from the mid- to late 1980s until approximately 1995. An RI and FS for the site was completed in 1996. An AS/SVE system designed to address groundwater contaminated with VOCs began operating in April 1998. Long-term groundwater monitoring is underway. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard because any public exposures would be sufficiently limited (incidental, infrequent, and brief) that no health effects would be expected. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no wells near the site.
Site 21:
Building W-316
This building was formerly used by the Navy Public Works Center for PCB storage. Soil: Two soil samples analyzed for pesticides and PCBs in 1995 did not contain any at levels above CVs, but previous samples reportedly contained concentrations of PCBs reaching 560 mg/kg. Soil samples collected during the 1998 soil excavation contained up to 22 mg/kg Aroclor-1260, but all soil containing more than 10 mg/kg of PCBs was removed from the site in 1998.
Groundwater: One 1995 samples did not contain detectable levels of pesticides or PCBs.
In March 1998, PCB-contaminated soil was excavated from an approximately 10,000 square foot area and disposed of off site. Confirmatory sampling was performed and no further activities are planned. Soil poses no public health hazard because there is no expected public exposure. Access to the base is restricted and the site is fenced. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because no contamination has been detected.
Site 22:
Camp Allen Salvage Yard
This 27-acre site, located between Areas A and B of the Camp Allen Landfill, was used from the 1940s until 1995 for disposal and salvaging of scrap materials. Activities conducted on site included burning, metal smelting, and storage and management of equipment, transformers, chemicals, and petroleum products. A transformer damaged by a forklift spilled PCBs in 1989 and a preliminary cleanup was conducted at that time. All the old structures and the storage areas at the site have been removed. Soil: Sixteen 1996 surface soil samples contained the following contaminants at concentrations exceeding their CVs: benzo(a)anthracene (3.4 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (3.1 mg/kg), benzo(b)fluoranthene (4.5 mg/kg), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (0.51 mg/kg), indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (2.2 mg/kg), 4,4'-DDD (6.9 mg/kg), 4,4'-DDT (17 mg/kg), dieldrin (1 mg/kg), heptachlor epoxide (0.3 mg/kg), Aroclor-1248 (13 mg/kg), Aroclor-1254 (22 mg/kg), Aroclor-1260 (14,000 mg/kg), antimony (65.7 mg/kg), arsenic (16.4 mg/kg), cadmium (142 mg/kg), chromium (338 mg/kg), copper (5,390 mg/kg), cobalt (4,170 mg/kg), iron (157,000 mg/kg), and lead (1,910 mg/kg).
Groundwater: Four 1996 samples from the shallow aquifer contained B2EHP (21 µg/L), antimony (14.6 µg/L), arsenic (283 µg/L), and iron (30,400 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs. Fifteen 1996 Geoprobe samples of shallow groundwater analyzed for selected VOCs contained levels of benzene (39 µg/L), 1,1-DCE (15 µg/L), and cis-1,2-DCE (1,500 µg/L) exceeding CVs.
Surface Water/Sediment: In 1996, four surface water samples taken from two drainage features contained levels of B2EHP (56 µg/L), TCE (11 µg/L), arsenic (6.9 µg/L), and cadmium (6.2 µg/L) exceeding CVs. In three sediment samples collected concurrently, the following contaminants were detected at concentrations exceeding their CVs: benzo(a)anthracene (2.9 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (2.7 mg/kg), benzo(b)fluoranthene (4 mg/kg), indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene (3 mg/kg), Aroclor-1260 (6.1 mg/kg), arsenic (21.3 mg/kg), and cadmium (11.1 mg/kg).
In 1994, a Preliminary Assessment/Site Inspection report for this site was issued. In 1998, a removal action addressing PCB-contaminated soil was conducted. An RI and risk assessment for the site were completed in 1999. The removal of hot spots of metal and PCB soil contamination will be conducted from 2001 to 2002. A sediment removal action is also planned. The Camp Allen Landfill groundwater treatment systems are expected to address groundwater contamination at this site. A Proposed Remedial Action Plan calling for one foot of soil cover to be placed over the entire site has been drafted, as has an FS. The Navy plans to convert the site to ball fields and other recreational facilities, and a Virginia Department of Transportation highway connector project is expected to affect the site. Soil, surface water, and sediment pose no apparent public health hazard because public exposures, if any, to soil and drainage features at the site would be unusual, and limited exposures to the detected levels of contaminations would not be expected to cause adverse health effects. There are no wells downgradient of the site. However, contaminants have reportedly been transported along the bedding of water pipelines that run through the site. These contaminants may leach into the pipes and affect the taps that they serve. Because these taps have not been sampled, groundwater poses an indeterminate public health hazard.

Site-Screening Areas (SSAs)

SSA 1:
Q-72 Sandblast Area
Originally identified as Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 4, this half-acre site has been used for sandblasting barges since 1972. A NPDES permit governs runoff from the site, which is adjacent to the Elizabeth River. Soil: In 4 1995 samples, no pesticides or PCBs were detected, but arsenic (11.7 mg/kg) and iron (25,800 mg/kg) were present at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: No pesticides or PCBs were detected in a 1996 sample.
Further investigation of the site was planned for the summer of 2001. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard. The levels of arsenic and iron detected do not cause adverse health effects to individuals with short-term and infrequent exposures, the only types expected. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no nearby wells that supply drinking water.
SSA 2:
V-28 Waste Pit
There was formerly a subsurface concrete pad used for storage of metal-plating shop waste at this site, also known as SWMU 6. Plating operations ceased in 1987. The site, approximately 200 feet north of Willoughby Bay, is now covered with approximately 6 inches of concrete. Groundwater: A 1995 sample analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals contained only cadmium (14.3 µg/L), chromium (1,760 µg/L), and iron (15,600 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs. In the 1980s, the building was demolished and contaminated soil was removed and replaced with clean fill. An SI was completed in 1998, and a Supplemental Investigation Report is being developed. Monitoring is also underway to assess the extent of natural attenuation of contaminants that has occurred. Neither soil nor groundwater pose a public health hazard because there is no public exposure to the site and there are no nearby wells. For a public health evaluation of exposure to surface water and sediment in Willoughby Bay, see Site 13, located between this site and the bay.
SSA 3:
Fire-fighting School
Navy personnel have been trained to extinguish various types of fires in this area, also known as SWMU 8. Petroleum staining of the soil at the site is visible in aerial photographs dating back to 1949. Drainage basins collect runoff from the area and access to the site is restricted. In 1991 and 1992, portions of the site were reconstructed and a slurry wall was constructed between the area formerly used and the area still used. SSA 3 includes the area no longer used, which is covered with asphalt and concrete. The area still used will be investigated separately. Soil: Only arsenic (11.9 mg/kg) was present at concentrations exceeding CVs in 5 1995 samples.
Groundwater: Benzene (220 µg/L) and 1,2-dichloroethane (5.3 µg/L) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in 2 1995 samples.
Six USTs have been removed from the SSA. The Navy plans to close the area under its UST program, perform appropriate sampling, and cap the site with asphalt. Additional groundwater sampling was conducted in August 1999 and a Closeout Report for the site has been drafted. Because there is no public exposure to them, soil and groundwater pose no public health hazard. Access to the site is restricted, preventing exposure to soil, and there is no exposure to groundwater because there are no nearby wells.
SSA 4:
NM-37 Area
This site is near Building NM-37, which is used for vehicle maintenance. It was originally identified as SWMUs 12 and 16. It includes three areas used for hazardous waste storage, two of which held fuel, hydraulic fluids, solvents, and paints. Soil: Eight surface soil samples collected in 1995 and 1996, analyzed for VOCs, SVOCs, and metals, contained only arsenic (273 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: One 1995 groundwater sample analyzed for the same parameters at the soil samples contained only chloroform (33 µg/L) at a level exceeding its CV.
After 1998 sampling, the results of which are not yet available, access controls were recommended. A streamlined risk assessment of this site was initiated in 2001. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard because infrequent, incidental, and brief contact with contaminants, the only anticipated type of public exposure, would not be expected to cause adverse health effects. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no nearby, downgradient wells.
Areas of Concern (AOCs)
AOC 1:
Building
Z-309
This site includes two areas near Building Z-309, SWMUs 2 and 3. Salvage fuel boilers in Building Z-309 burned municipal waste until 1986. There are USTs and aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) in the area. The site includes a former storage area for ash from boiler operations and storage area for oils and lubricants, both demolished in 1997. Part of the site has been made into a paved parking lot and the other part was covered with topsoil and reseeded. Soil: In 9 1995 and 1996 samples, antimony (41.5 mg/kg), arsenic (42.5 mg/kg), cadmium (108 mg/kg), lead (1,320 mg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1.5 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (4.2 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (4.0 mg/kg), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (0.41 mg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (2.3 mg/kg) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: One sample collected in 1995 did not contain any contaminants at levels above CVs.
Waste was removed and the area was covered with pavement and/or topsoil and vegetation after samples were collected. In May 2000, a Closeout Report stating that no further action would be required at the site was approved. Any public exposures to soil at the site would be expected to be incidental and infrequent. In such circumstances, exposures to the detected levels of contaminants in surface soil would not be expected to cause adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no drinking water wells near the site.
AOC 2:
Marine Air Cargo (MAC) Area
Historical aerial photographs indicate that this area was used as a solid waste and fill disposal area by 1949. The site, through which a drainage ditch runs, is comprised of the areas also known as SWMUs 9 and 10. Only personnel performing aircraft maintenance are permitted in the SWMU 9 portion of the site. SWMU 10 is entirely vegetated. Soil: Benzo(a)pyrene (0.48 mg/kg), arsenic (7.8 mg/kg), and iron (24,300 mg/kg) were present at concentrations exceeding CVs in 14 1995 and 1996 samples.
Groundwater: Four 1995 samples contained arsenic (49 µg/L), beryllium (11 µg/L), iron (107,000 µg/L), manganese (9,100 µg/L), nickel (276 µg/L), and vanadium (54 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater investigations were conducted at the site in 1999 and 2000, and a Supplemental Site Investigation Report is being drafted. Soil poses no apparent public health hazard because the detected levels of benzo(a)pyrene, arsenic, and iron would not cause adverse health effects under limited exposure scenarios, the only ones expected for members of the public. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no nearby, downgradient drinking water wells.
AOC 3:
CEP Area
This site, near the Elizabeth River, was originally identified as SWMUs 28, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 42. It includes storage areas (within SWMUs 28 and 42) for large objects, such as tractor trailers and equipment awaiting shipment. Also included are areas used for disposal of solid waste and, in some cases, fill (within SWMUs 32, 33, and 34, 35, and 42). Parts of the site are used for parking, while others are vegetated or paved. Soil: Arsenic (15.1 mg/kg) and benzo(a)pyrene (0.31 mg/kg) have been detected in four surface soil samples collected in 1995 and 1996.
Groundwater: Arsenic (37 µg/L), iron (32,100 µg/L), manganese (2,300 µg/L), thallium (3.7 µg/L), and B2EHP (40 µg/L) have been detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in groundwater samples. Surface Water/Sediment: In 3 1996 surface water and sediment samples from the ditch at SWMU 34, concentrations of B2EHP (17 µg/L), antimony (15 µg/L), arsenic (2.2 µg/L), and lead (45 µg/L) exceeded CVs in surface water, and levels of benzo(a)pyrene (0.12 mg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1.6 mg/kg), arsenic (17.3 mg/kg), cadmium (15.3 mg/kg), chromium (421 mg/kg), iron (32,600 mg/kg), lead (637 mg/kg) exceeded CVs in sediment.
In May 2000, a Closeout Report and Streamlined Risk Assessment Report stating that no further action would be required at the site were approved. Because there is little, if any, public exposure to surface soil or the ditch at this site and detected levels of contaminants in soil, surface water, and sediment would not be expected to cause adverse health effects under limited exposure scenarios, these media pose no apparent public health hazard. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because the only nearby wells are not downgradient and are not used for drinking water.
AOC 4:
Q-50 PWC Accumulation Area
At this site, hazardous waste generated at the base was stored for up to 90 days and processed. The area was also used for temporary stockpiling of railroad ties and metal debris. The area is also known as SWMU 14. Soil: Analysis of 6 1995 and 1996 samples revealed benzo(a)pyrene (2.5 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (3.5 mg/kg), dibenz(a,h)anthracene (0.86 mg/kg), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (2.3 mg/kg), Aroclor-1254 (3.1 mg/kg), antimony (55.4 mg/kg), arsenic (28.4 mg/kg), cadmium (33.4 mg/kg), copper (12,300 mg/kg), iron (77,000 mg/kg), and lead (1,550 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Analysis of 3 samples in 1996 revealed levels of pentachlorophenol (3 µg/L), B2EHP (24 µg/L), benzo(a)anthracene (1 µg/L), benzo(b)flouranthene (1 µg/L), carbazole (15 µg/L), Aroclor-1242 (30 µg/L), Aroclor-1254 (6.4 µg/L), antimony (39.7 µg/L), arsenic (2.6 µg/L), barium (3,310 µg/L), cadmium (6.7 µg/L), chromium (35.2 µg/L), iron (20,200 µg/L), lead (496 µg/L), and vanadium (120 µg/L) exceeding CVs.
Additional investigations of the site were conducted from 1998 to 2001. Sediment sampling is planned, and an RI is being drafted. Because the public is not allowed on this site, any public exposures would be rare and would not be expected to result in adverse health effects. Thus, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Groundwater poses no public health hazard because there are no wells in the vicinity of the site.
AOC 5:
CD Area Behind Compost Yard
Aerial photographs from 1987 and 1991 suggest that this area might have been used to dispose of construction materials. An 8-foot high soil berm was subsequently constructed over top of the disposal area. The site is also known as SWMU 38. Soil: One 1996 sample contained arsenic (76.8 mg/kg), iron (35,400 mg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1.7 mg/kg), benzo(b)flouranthene (1.8 mg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (1.2 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Manganese (534 µg/L), thallium (4.4 µg/L), and B2EHP (21 µg/L) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in 4 1996 samples.
An investigation of this site was conducted in 2001, but results are not yet available. The metals and PAHs present in soil were detected at concentrations that would not result in adverse health effects if exposures were short, infrequent, and incidental. Since these are the only types of public exposures that would occur, soil poses no apparent public health hazard. Because there are no wells near this site, groundwater poses no public health hazard.
AOC 6:
Open Dump and Disposal Area at Boundary of Camp Allen Landfill
Background information about this site, originally identified as SWMU 39, is not available. Analytical data from sampling conducted in 2000 and 2001 are not yet available. An investigation of this site was conducted in 2000 and 2001, but results are not yet available. Data enabling a public health evaluation are not yet available.
AOC 7:
MCA-603 Pits
Aerial photographs of this site, also known as SWMU 40, indicate that it formerly contained two pits, one of which held liquid. The area is currently used for recreation and contains several baseball diamonds and a soccer field. Soil: Four 1996 samples contained only arsenic (2.2 mg/kg) at concentrations exceeding its CV.
Groundwater: Six 1996 samples contained only antimony (258 µg/L) and thallium (3.8 µg/L) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
In May 2000, a Closeout Report stating that no further action would be required at the site was approved. The pits formerly at this site are no longer present. The detected levels of arsenic may be naturally-occurring and do not result in adverse health effects under expected exposure scenarios. Thus, soil does not pose a public health hazard. Groundwater does not pose a public health hazard because there are no nearby, downgradient wells.
AOC 8:
Disposal Area, CA-99 Golf Course
This former disposal area next to the CA-99 golf course is currently used for recreation and contains a pond. The site is also known as SWMU 41. Soil: Arsenic (3.2 mg/kg) and benzo(a)pyrene (0.24 mg/kg) were found in three 1998 samples at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Groundwater: Cadmium (3 µg/L), manganese (1,970 µg/L), and thallium (1.7 µg/L) were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in three 1998 samples from the shallow aquifer.
In May 2000, a Closeout Report stating that no further action would be required at the site was approved. The contaminants detected in soil at this site were sufficiently low that they would not cause adverse health effects under expected exposure scenarios, which would be infrequent, incidental, and of short duration. There are no nearby, downgradient wells and therefore no exposure to groundwater near the site. Thus, groundwater poses no public health hazard.

Sources: Baker 1993, 1994c, 1995a, b, 1996a, b, c; CH2MHILL 1997b, 1998a, b, 1999a, b, 2000a, b, c, d, e, 2001a, b, c; CLEAN 1999; Groundwater Technology Government Services 1994; EnvironmentalScience & Engineering 1994; FFA 1999; Johnson 2002; Malcolm Pirnie 1998; Naval Station Norfolk 2000; Sparks and Rakowski n.d.; STORET 2001; VDEQ-WDG 1987; VDEQ-RS 2000, 2001; Versar 1990,1991, 1993.

Abbreviations:
AOC area of concern RI remedial investigation
AS/SVE air sparging/soil vapor extraction ROD record of decision
B2EHP bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate RRR relative risk ranking
CV comparison value SI site investigation
1,2-DCA 1,2-dichloroethane SSA site-screening area
1,1-DCE 1,1-dichloroethene SVOC semi-volatile organic compound
1,2-DCE 1,2-dichloroethene SWMU solid waste management unit
FS feasibility study 1,1,1-TCA 1,1,1-trichloroethane
IRP Installation Restoration Program 1,1,2-TCA 1,1,2-trichloroethane
mg/kg milligrams per kilogram 1,1,2,2-TCA 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System TCE trichloroethylene
OU operable unit µg/L micrograms per liter
PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon µg/m3 micrograms per cubic meter
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl UST underground storage tank
PCE tetrachloroethylene VDOH Virginia Department of Health
pCi/g picoCuries per gram VDEQ Virginia Department of Environmental Quality
pCi/L picoCuries per liter VOC volatile organic compound


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