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Public Health Assessment
NAVAL WEAPONS STATION YORKTOWN, CHEATHAM ANNEX
WILLIAMSBURG, YORK COUNTY, VA
CERCLIS NO. VA3170024605


Appendix B.

Tables (continued)
Table 3: Potential Contaminant Sources in Jones Pond
Possible sources of contamination:
  • Approximately 1,000 feet from Jones Pond is Area of Concern (AOC) 1, which contains wood and metal debris, along with some drums. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports some waste left there dates to the Penniman era. Soil samples at the AOC have contained metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, a few samples from the pond and its tributaries have contained low levels of explosive compounds.
Contaminant Maximum Detected Concentration Comparison Value (CV) Type of CV Year of Maximum
Surface water, analyzed in 1999 (by EPA) and 2000
Heptachlor 0.012B ppb * 0.008 ppb CREG 1999
Thallium 4.5 ppb 0.5 ppb LTHA 2000
Sediment, analyzed in 1999 (by EPA) and 2000
Arsenic 5.6 ppm 0.5 ppm CREG 2000


Abbreviations:
Note: * The concentration of heptachlor detected in laboratory or field blanks is not provided in the EPA report.

B (data qualifier) Not detected substantially above the level reported in laboratory or field blanks
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
 
Sources:
CH2M Hill and Baker 2000a, 2001b; Weston 1999b


Table 4.

Potential Contaminant Sources in Cheatham Pond
Possible sources of contamination:
  • Site 9, which was used for transformer storage before 1980, is approximately 1,000 feet from Cheatham Pond. 1986 sampling did not show polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at levels exceeding health-based comparison values (CVs), but more sampling is planned.
  • During the Penniman era, there was a magazine and a shipping area west of Cheatham Pond. East of Cheatham Pond was a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) production area and the former Penniman "D" Plant, where 75-millimeter and 4.7-inch shells were loaded. Among the buildings present were some in which nitrostarch (an explosive material) was dried and stored, dynamite was mixed, and shells were packed. Some of the structures are as close as 40 feet from Cheatham Pond. In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collected and analyzed pond samples at selected locations. The few metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) detected in EPA samples at concentrations exceeding CVs were found at levels similar to those measured in Navy samples. Pesticides were also present in some samples at concentrations below 0.4 ppm. No explosive compounds were detected in the EPA samples at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Contaminant Maximum Detected Concentration Comparison Value (CV) Type of CV Year of Maximum
Surface water, analyzed in 1999 (by EPA) and 2000
Arsenic 6 ppb 0.02 ppb CREG 2000
Lead 15.7 ppb 15 ppb (action level) EPA AL 1999
Thallium 4.9 ppb 0.5 ppb LTHA 2000
RDX 0.44B ppb * 0.3 ppb CREG 2000
Sediment, analyzed in 1999 (by EPA) and 2000
Arsenic 75.2 ppm 0.5 ppm CREG 2000
Iron 35,800 ppm 23,000 ppm RBC-N 2000
Thallium 6.5 ppm (the other 7 samples did not contain detectable levels of thallium) 4 ppm c-RMEG 2000
Note: * Two of five surface water blanks (collected for quality assurance and quality control purposes) analyzed as part of the 2000 Pond Study contained RDX. The detected concentrations were 0.17 ppb in a stainless steel spoon and 0.21 ppb in pump tubing.

Abbreviations:
B (data qualifier) Not detected substantially above the level reported in laboratory or field blanks
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
Sources:
CH2M Hill and Baker 2000a; Weston 1999a


Table 5.

Potential Contaminant Sources in Youth Pond
Possible sources of contamination:
  • Immediately upgradient of Youth Pond is an unnamed pond, referred to by the Navy as the upstream pond. The two ponds are separated by a fence. Site 4, the Medical Supplies Disposal Area, is along the upstream pond and within the industrial part of Cheatham Annex. Medical supplies dumped there were reportedly unused. A removal action occurred in 1998. Beforehand, after heavy rains, syringes were sometimes washed into Youth Pond. Soil and sediment samples collected in 1999 from Site 4 and the upstream pond contained primarily metals, Aroclor 1260 (a polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Some of this contamination may have come from nearby storage and parking areas.
  • Area of Concern (AOC) 3, where there is a pile of metal banding that is approximately 10 feet high, along with some drums, may have affected the pond. AOC 3 is located along the upstream pond, slightly west of Site 1. Soil and sediment samples collected near AOC 3 contained a few metals and PAHs, but results suggested that iron had not leached out of the banding.
  • Historical engineering drawings indicate that shell loading activities were conducted within approximately 200 feet of Youth Pond, and that may account for the trace levels of explosives present
Contaminant Maximum Detected Concentration Comparison Value (CV) Type of CV Year of Maximum
Surface water, analyzed in 2000
Thallium 4.2 ppb 0.5 ppb LTHA 2000
Sediment, analyzed in 2000
Arsenic 56.2 ppm 0.5 ppm CREG 2000
Iron 34,800 ppm 23,000 ppm RBC-N 2000
Aroclor 1260 6.4L ppm 0.32 ppm RBC-C 2000
Dieldrin 0.086K ppm 0.04 ppm/td> CREG 2000
Abbreviations:
K (data qualifier) Reported value is biased high
L (data qualifier) Reported value is biased low
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
 
Sources:
CH2M Hill and Baker 2000a


Table 6.

Potential Contaminant Sources in Penniman Lake
Possible sources of contamination:
  • A tributary to Penniman Lake runs through Site 11, used as a disposal area from 1940 to 1978. Items left there included barrels of gasoline, above-ground tanks holding oil and asphalt, and drums, some of which reportedly leaked. Also present were scrap metal, abandoned cars, construction materials, and tar. Removal actions were conducted in 1987 and 1997. Runoff drains into Penniman Lake via two small drainage ditches. Samples were collected in 1986, 1988, 1992, and 1997. Soil samples contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), selected metals, and explosive compounds, but only metals and PAHs exceeded health-based comparison values (CVs). Groundwater samples contained metals and a few volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at levels above CVs. In 1992, surface water and sediment samples from a tributary to the lake contained arsenic and PAHs
  • Recent sampling revealed PCBs in a drainage ditch leading to the lake from public works buildings
  • Area of Concern (AOC) 2 is located near Garrison Road. In this area, runoff and groundwater may flow to Kings Creek or Hipps Pond (within the Fuel Farm), rather than Penniman Lake. At AOC 2, bottles of dextrose, military clothing, respirator cartridge canisters, and empty drums were buried. The respirator cartridge canisters were metal.
  • The Penniman "G" Plant was located south of Sanda Road and within Garrison Road. Shells of three different sizes were loaded there. Nearby were storage buildings, including a bunker for storing 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and tetryl, as well as an underground mixing tank, the use of which is unknown. Also present at the "G" Plant area were ammonia evaporating and finishing buildings (the foundations of which still remain), a TNT graining house (approximately 25 feet from Penniman Lake), and a TNT catch box (believed to have been used to try to separate TNT particles from waste water, which was then discharged to Penniman Lake). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sampled these three areas. In the first area, arsenic levels in soil and/or sediment (up to 6 ppm) exceeded CVs. At the graining house sump, levels of arsenic, iron, lead, and TNT (15.5, 101,000, 7,750, and 28 ppm, respectively) exceeded CVs. The sample from the TNT catch box contained arsenic, lead, and TNT at levels (11, 813, and 620 ppm) above CVs.
Contaminant Maximum Detected Concentration Comparison Value (CV) Type of CV Year of Maximum
Surface water, analyzed in 1986, 1987, 1992, 1999 (by EPA), and 2000
Methylene chloride 861 ppb (the second highest was 21 ppb) 5 ppb CREG 1986
Trichloroethylene 16 ppb 5 ppb MCL 1992
Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 103 ppb (the second highest was 34 ppb) 3 ppb CREG 1987
Heptachlor 0.01B ppb * 0.008 ppb CREG 1999
Arsenic 22.7 ppb 0.02 ppb CREG 1992
Thallium 4.1 ppb 0.5 ppb LTHA 2000
Sediment (shallow), analyzed in 1986, 1987, 1992, 1999 (by EPA), and 2000
Benzo(a)anthracene 1 ppm 0.87 ppm RBC-C 1992
Benzo(a)pyrene 1.9 ppm 0.1 ppm RBC-C 1992
Aroclor 1260 4.7K ppm 0.32 ppm RBC-C 2000
Arsenic 40.8 ppm 0.5 ppm CREG 2000
Iron 69,400 ppm 23,000 ppm RBC-N 2000
Abbreviations:
Note: * The concentration of heptachlor detected in laboratory or field blanks is not provided in the EPA report.

B (data qualifier) Not detected substantially above the level reported in laboratory or field blanks
K (data qualifier) Reported value is biased high
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
 
Sources:
Baker 1997; CH2M Hill and Baker 2000a; Dames & Moore 1986, 1988; Weston 1999b


Table 7. Sites Potentially Impacted by Penniman Activities (based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] document review conducted in 1999)
Site Name and Status Site Description Sampling Results
Sub-areas of the Penniman Area of Concern (AOC)
TNT Graining House Sump The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) graining house sump consists of a concrete-lined pit open at the top and is located 25 feet from Penniman Lake. According to the Navy, TNT was melted or steamed out of packed shells or casings at the TNT graining house. It would have been necessary to separate the TNT from other compounds, to reduce impurities, and that might have been facilitated by the sump and/or the TNT catch box, described below. TNT was detected at concentrations of 26 and 28 parts per million (ppm) in two soil samples collected by EPA in 1999. These concentrations exceed the ATSDR's comparison values (CVs). A breakdown product of TNT was also detected at a concentration below its CV. The following contaminants, shown with their maximum detected concentrations, were also detected at concentrations exceeding CVs in the two soil samples: arsenic (15.5 ppm), iron (101,000 ppm), lead (7,750 ppm) dieldrin (1.35 ppm), benzo(a)pyrene (55 ppm), chrysene (840 ppm), indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (22.5 ppm), benzo(a)anthracene (126 ppm), benzo(b)fluoranthene (38 ppm), benzo(k)fluoranthene (37 ppm), and dibenz(a,h)anthracene (19 ppm).

Further study by the Navy is planned, but on hold. *
TNT Catch Box Ruins The TNT catch box is an earthen, brick-lined depression next to the TNT graining house. It is thought to have been used to separate TNT particles from wastewater, which was then discharged to Penniman Lake. EPA collected one soil sample in 1999. Metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and some nitroaromatics were detected in the sample. TNT was detected in the sample at a concentration of 620 ppm. Two forms of dinitrotoluene were also detected. One-2,4-dinitrotoluene-was measured at concentration (112 ppm) exceeding its CV. The concentration of arsenic was 11 ppm and of lead was 813 ppm. The PAHs detected at levels exceeding CVs and the levels at which they were detected are: benzo(a)anthracene (22 ppm), benzo(b)fluoranthene (3.6 ppm), and benzo(k)fluoranthene (4.5 ppm). Two sediment samples from the location where the wastewater was thought to discharge contained low levels (below CVs) of TNT and its breakdown products, as well as arsenic (up to 2 ppm, exceeding its CV). A surface water sample from this location contained very few contaminants, but arsenic was detected at 4 parts per billion (ppb), which exceeds its drinking water CV.

Further study by the Navy is planned, but on hold. *
Ammonia Settling Pits Wastewater from an ammonia finishing building was formerly discharged to these earthen pits and then to Penniman Lake, which is approximately 20 feet away. EPA analyzed a soil sample, collected within a pit, and a nearby sediment sample, collected where runoff from the pits was thought to discharge. Arsenic was present at levels exceeding its CV. It was found at a concentration of 6 ppm in soil and 4.8 ppm in sediment.

Further study by the Navy is planned, but on hold. *
1918 Drum Storage Area A historical photograph from 1918 showed that in approximately this area, wooden barrels and/or 55-gallon drums were stored. EPA collected two subsurface soil samples from this location. One sample was collected between 12 and 18 inches below ground surface (bgs), and the other was collected at 18 to 24 inches bgs. The levels of arsenic measured were 4.7 and 5.5 ppm. The deeper sample also contained 23,300 ppm iron. No other contaminants, including nitroaromatics, were detected at concentrations exceeding CVs. The Navy, EPA, and Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ) are in the process of determining what future actions are warranted.
Waste Slag Material (also known as Slag Area) Metallic slag is located throughout the shell loading area, predominantly along the railroad tracks, as well as on National Park Service (NPS) property. A NPS employee speculated that the slag was broken out of boilers on locomotives during the time the Penniman plant operated. Currently, much of the slag is reportedly intact and so hard as to be rock-like. In 1999, EPA analyzed one soil sample. Metals present in the sample at levels exceeding CVs were arsenic (33.4 ppm), iron (256,000 ppm), and lead (2,600 ppm). Also present were antimony, chromium, and manganese. Several PAHs were also present. Those present at concentrations exceeding CVs were benzo(a)anthracene (7.2 ppm), benzo(b)fluoranthene (6.1 ppm), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (7.6 ppm). The Navy, EPA, and VDEQ are in the process of determining what future actions are warranted.
Other sites within CAX identified by EPA as potentially affected by Penniman activities
Storm Drain Mixer Openings At this location, there are openings to an underground steel pipe that is 1 foot in diameter running between the TNT graining house and the ammonia evaporating building. A low level of arsenic (3.5 ppm, which exceeds the CV) was detected in soil at this location.
Underground Mixing Tank This underground steel tank with mixing paddles is located approximately one-quarter of a mile southwest of the Penniman buildings that are located adjacent to Penniman Lake. Several metals and PAHs were measured at concentrations exceeding their CVs. They are arsenic (18 ppm), lead (1,720 ppm), benzo(a)pyrene (6.4 ppm), and benzo(a)anthracene (6.5 ppm), benzo(b)flouranthene (12 ppm), dibenz(a,h)anthracece (7.9 ppm), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (27 ppm).
Sites on National Park Service (NPS) property potentially affected by Penniman activities
FM Smoke Drum (also known as FM/FS Smoke Drum) A drum identified on NPS land, near locations where there had been ammunition magazines during the Penniman era, was suspected to contain or to have contained an agent known as FM that was apparently used by the military to create artificial smoke. Nearby vegetation was dead. A sample of soil beneath and around the drum contained levels of the following contaminants that were low, but above CVs: two pesticides (aldrin at 0.27 ppm and dieldrin at 0.39 ppm), two PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene at 2.6 ppm and benzo[b]fluoranthene at 3 ppm), and arsenic (3.5 ppm).
Large Blast Holes EPA identified approximately 100 holes up to six feet deep, with diameters ranging from 10 to 25 feet. The holes were not far from the FM/FS drum. It is speculated that these holes were created during quality control testing of packed shells during the time the Penniman plant operated. Two soil samples contained only arsenic (at 12 ppm) and iron (at 46,700 ppm) at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Nitro-Starch Dry House Sumps Eight brick-lined sump pits are present in eight of the 24 bunkers dating back to the Penniman era that are on NPS property. Samples from the sump, a nearby drainage way, and a nearby wetlands area did not contain any contaminants at concentrations exceeding CVs.
Abbreviations:
Note: Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate was also measured in soil samples from most of these locations. Reported concentrations ranged from 130 ppm to 260 ppm, which exceed the CV. All the samples in which the compound was measured were marked with a data qualifier (B) indicating that the compound was not detected at a level substantially above the level reported in laboratory or field blanks. In other words, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate may have been a lab or field contaminant.

* The Navy had proposed collecting soil, surface water, sediment, and groundwater samples in three areas that are part of the Penniman AOC. While sampling is planned, it is on hold and has not yet been scheduled.

AOC area of concern
bgs below ground surface
CV comparison value
EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
NPS National Park Service
ppb parts per billion
ppm parts per million
TNT 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
 
Sources:
Weston 1999a, b; J. Harlow, U.S. Navy, personal communication, 2003 November 5


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