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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

DUPAGE COUNTY LANDFILL (BLACKWELL FOREST PRESERVE)
WARRENVILLE, DUPAGE COUNTY, ILLINOIS


CONCLUSIONS

The DuPage County Landfill currently poses no apparent public health hazard since there is presently no exposure to contaminants at levels of health concern. The site could pose a health threat due to the potential for future exposure to groundwater; however, there is no evidence of an advancing contaminant plume. Historically, contaminants in the groundwater have generally been restricted to within 100 to 200 yards of the landfill. While the on-site geology and hydrogeology have been well-investigated, that off-site has not; consequently, the likelihood of contamination of downgradient private and municipal wells is unknown. Low-level groundwater contamination has been detected in some downgradient private wells, but the source of the contamination is uncertain. Although the landfill could be the source of the low-level contamination, the present evidence does not indicate that it is the source. In the future, if erosion or other disturbance of the landfill cap (e.g., construction) increases the infiltration of precipitation, this may lead to contamination of downgradient (west, southwest, and south) private and municipal wells.

Contaminants found in on-site groundwater which may reach downgradient private or municipal wells at levels of concern include benzene, chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, vinyl chloride, di-n-octylphthalate, ammonia, arsenic, and manganese. Possible health effects of these compounds were described in the Toxicological Evaluation section of this document.

A private well northwest (upgradient) of the site was found to have high levels of lead, which was not site-related, but may have been from plumbing. ATSDR advised the residents of the lead contamination and the possible hazards associated with drinking the contaminated well water.

The site is well-vegetated, which should minimize dust production. Limited air sampling has not found volatile organic compounds upwind or downwind of the landfill; however, odors near some gas vents suggest the local presence of contaminants and possible human exposure. Because of limited exposure duration and ambient air dilution, on-site exposure by the inhalation of volatile compounds is probably negligible.

On-site workers and park users may be exposed to on-site sediments, soil, and surface water by dermal contact or ingestion. The site is well-vegetated, which should minimize exposure to contaminants in soil. Exposure of on-site workers to surface water and sediments is infrequent, and few people would deliberately drink on-site surface water. While in the past, people swam in Sand Pond, sampling at that time did not find contamination. Daily exposure of park users to on-site surface water or sediments is unlikely. Consequently, exposure to on-site sediments, soil, and surface water is probably negligible.

People have evidently not been exposed to site-related contaminants at levels that can cause adverse health effects. Consequently, no health studies are warranted at this time. In the future, if new data indicate that exposure to potentially harmful levels of chemicals is occurring, the need for follow-up health studies will be re-evaluated.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Conduct periodic monitoring of downgradient private wells to ensure that no exposure is occurring to hazardous substances at levels of public health concern.
  2. Continue periodic monitoring of all monitoring wells (including the intervening monitoring wells {located more than 200 yards from the landfill}) to detect possible changes in contaminants, their concentrations, and off-site migration.
  3. Perform regular cap maintenance to repair damage from erosion. This will minimize leachate production and, hence, the risk of contamination of downgradient private or municipal wells.
  4. Provide institutional controls to prevent construction on the landfill, which could compromise the cap, increasing leachate production and the risk of pollutants reaching downgradient private or municipal wells. In addition, chemicals in landfill gas may penetrate into any future buildings constructed on the landfill.
  5. Prevent children and women of childbearing age from drinking the water from the private well with high lead concentrations. The lead levels in this well should be monitored or the source remediated.
  6. Investigate the geology and hydrogeology around the landfill site to examine the likelihood of contamination of downgradient private and municipal wells.
  7. Add several upgradient deep monitoring wells to adequately characterize the background levels of chemicals in groundwater.

HEALTH ACTIVITIES RECOMMENDATIONS PANEL STATEMENT

In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended, the DuPage County Landfill site has been evaluated for appropriate follow-up with respect to health activities. People have evidently not been exposed to site-related contaminants at levels which may cause adverse health effects. Consequently, no health studies are warranted at this time. Community health education should be conducted to assist area residents in understanding their potential for exposure, particularly users of the lead- contaminated private well. In the future, if new data indicate that exposure to potentially harmful levels of chemicals is occurring, the need for follow-up health studies will be re-evaluated.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

Action Planned

  1. As part of the ATSDR Cooperative Agreement, IDPH will conduct community health education to assist residents in understanding their potential for exposure.
  2. IDPH will contact the present homeowners of the well having the high lead levels to determine the present status of the well and what actions may be needed to protect public health.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Preparer:

Thomas A. Baughman
Environmental Toxicologist
Illinois Department of Public Health


Reviewers:

Bruce C. Barrow
K.D. Runkle
Environmental Toxicologists
Illinois Department of Public Health


ATSDR Regional Representative:

Louise Fabinski
Regional Operations
Office of the Assistant Administrator


ATSDR Technical Project Officers:

Gail Godfrey
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Steve Inserra
Division of Health Studies
Grant Baldwin
Division of Health Education and Promotion


REFERENCES

ATSDR. 1995a. Toxicological profile for benzene. Draft.

ATSDR. 1995b. Toxicological profile for tetrachloroethylene. Draft.

ATSDR. 1995c. Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene. Draft.

ATSDR. 1994a. Toxicological profile for 1,2-dichloroethene. Draft.

ATSDR. 1994b. Toxicological profile for di-n-octylphthalate. Draft.

ATSDR. 1994c. Toxicological profile for endrin and endrin aldehyde. Draft.

ATSDR. 1993. Toxicological profile for 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Draft.

ATSDR. 1992. Toxicological profile for 1,2-dichloroethane. Draft.

ATSDR. 1991a. Toxicological profile for aldrin/dieldrin. Draft.

ATSDR. 1991b. Toxicological profile for arsenic. Draft.

ATSDR. 1991c. Toxicological profile for cadmium. Draft.

ATSDR. 1991d. Toxicological profile for lead. Draft.

ATSDR. 1991e. Toxicological profile for vinyl chloride. Draft

ATSDR. 1990a. Toxicological profile for antimony. Draft.

ATSDR. 1990b. Toxicological profile for manganese. Draft.

ATSDR. 1989a. Toxicological profile for ammonia. Draft.

ATSDR. 1989b. Toxicological profile for chloroethane. Draft.

ATSDR. 1989c. Toxicological profile for 1,1-dichloroethane. Draft.

Booth, C. and Vagt. 1986. The characterization of a landfill-derived contaminant plume in glacial and bedrock aquifers. University of Illinois, Water Resources Center. Research Report 202.

Christensen, T. H.; P. Kjeldsen; H. J. Albrechtsen; G. Heron; P. H. Nielsen; P. L. Bjerg; P. Holm. 1994. Attenuation of landfill leachate pollutants in aquifers. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24:119-202.

Clavel, R. L. 1991. Wheaton Sanitary District comments on the Draft Preliminary Health Assessment for the DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve. February 5.

DuPage County Forest Preserve District. 1990. Glen Ellyn.

HSDB (Hazardous Substances Data Base). 1992. National Library of Medicine.

Heaton, D. 1995. USEPA comments on the Draft Public Health Assessment for the DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve. November 16.

IEPA. 1994. A summary of selected background conditions for inorganics in soil. IEPA/ENV/94-161.

IEPA Files. 1989. Springfield.

Kelty, J. 1983. Approximate soil normals in Illinois. IEPA.

Lanham, R. 1990. IEPA comments on the Draft Preliminary Health Assessment for the DuPage County Landfill/Blackwell Forest Preserve. September 30.

Needleman et al. 1990. The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: an 11-year follow-up report. N. England J. Med. 322:83-8.

Shacklette, H. T. and J. G. Boerngen. 1984. Element concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1270.

Silbergeld, E. K. 1991. Lead in bone: implications for toxicology during pregnancy and lactation. Environmental Health Perspectives 91:63-70.

Sittig, M. 1985. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. 2nd. ed. Noyes Publications. Park Ridge, NJ.

Testing Service Corporation. 1983. Report of study, Blackwell Forest Preserve, DuPage County, Illinois.

Warzyn, Inc. 1994. Final remedial investigation report: Blackwell Landfill NPL site, DuPage County, Illinois. December.

Warzyn Engineering, Inc. 1992. Remedial investigation report: Blackwell Landfill NPL site, DuPage County, Illinois. October.

Warzyn Engineering, Inc. 1990. Work plan: Blackwell Landfill NPL site. April.

Warzyn Engineering, Inc. 1988. Response to the proposed NPL DuPage County Landfill, Blackwell Forest Preserve. Report Project No. 60435.


CERTIFICATION

The DuPage County Landfill (Blackwell Forest Preserve) Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Illinois Department of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Gail Godfrey
Technical Project Officer
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
Chief, State Programs Section, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


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