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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

JOLIET ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT (MANUFACTURING AREA)
AND
JOLIET ARMY AMMUNITION PLANT (LAP AREA)
JOLIET, WILL COUNTY, ILLINOIS


TABLES

Table 1.

No Further Action Sites at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant
Site Current or Future Land Use

Load-Assemble-Package (LAP) Area

Doyle Lake (Site L12)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 68 (Site L13)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 5 (Site L15)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie andState Industrial Park
Group 9 (Site L19)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 20 (Site L20)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 23 (Site L21)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 25 (Site L22)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 27 (Site L23)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 29 (Site L24)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 62 (Site L25)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 63 (Site L26)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 64 (Site L27)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 65 (Site L28)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 66 (Site L29)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 66 (Site L30)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Extraction Pits (Site L31)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Group 60 (Site L32)State Industrial Park
The Process Verification Capability (PVC) Area (Site L33)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Former Burning Area (Site L34)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Fill Area (Site L35)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie

Manufacturing (MFG) Area

TNT Blocking Area (M6A)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Toluene Tank Farms (Eastern) (Site M10)State Industrial Park
Former Pond Area (Site M14)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Former Sewage Treatment Plant (Site M15)Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Motor Pool Area (Site M16)State Industrial Park
Laundry Facility (Site M17)State Industrial Park
Herbicide Storage Area (Site M18)State Industrial Park


Table 2.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards at Joliet Army Ammunition Depot
Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Current or Future Land Use Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results1 Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Load-Assemble-Package (LAP) Area
Group 61 (Site L1) In 1941, Group 61 was constructed to crystallize ammonium nitrates. It was then modified and functioned as a shell renovation and 1,3,5-TNB recovery plant until 1945. The facility was reactivated in 1946 to reclaim TNT. Washout operations for larger munitions were performed outside Building 61-35. Solids that settled in the sump were sent to Site L2 and overflow water from the sump was released into a ridge-and-furrow system. Photos show that lagoons were constructed by 1952 on either side of a drainage ditch. Prairie Creek flows along the southern border of the Site. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, iron, PCB-1260, thallium, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (1,3,5-TNB), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB), manganese, methylene chloride, nitrate/nitrite, cyclotrimethylene-trinitramine (RDX), 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, chromium, iron, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, RDX, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, lead, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil; excavation and disposal of organics-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Exposure to contaminated soil has been unlikely/ infrequent due to restricted access to contaminated areas. Contaminated soil will be remediated to prevent any future exposures.

Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant plumes containing explosives, metals, toluene, and benzene have been identified primarily in the glacial drift as well as in the shallow bedrock aquifers underlying JOAAP. These contaminated aquifers were never used as a source of drinking water by JOAAP. None of the identified plumes in the Groundwater OU have migrated beyond the borders of the former facility due to the low permeability of the contaminated aquifers. Therefore, no one has been or is exposed to contaminated water. The groundwater plumes beneath JOAAP will be monitored in the future.

Explosive Burning Grounds (Site L2) Explosives and explosive wastes from Groups 1, 2, 3, 3A, and 61 were burned on burning pads at Site L2 between 1965 and 1977. Spent carbon was also incinerated at Site L2. Small ammunition was detonated in popping furnaces on the Site. Metal waste from the furnaces was then sent to Site L5. Site L2 contains three solvent and oil disposal pits that were apparently used to burn waste oil. The Site is adjacent to Kemery Lake and Prairie Creek. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, nitrobenzene, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, 1,2-dichloroethane, manganese, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, dieldrin, iron, lead, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, RDX, 2,4,6-TNT, and vanadium were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDT, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, iron, lead, PCBs, and thallium. Sulfur was detected at 1,770 ppm.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil; excavation and disposal for explosive- and metal-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Demolition Area (Site L3) Site L3 is directly south of Site L2. The Site was used to openly burn combustible refuse and munition crates. Some uncontaminated solid waste and possibly low level explosive contaminated solid waste was also burned at the Site. Site L3 also contains a fire training area and demolition pits. Berms at the Site located near Prairie Creek were used to dispose of metallic debris. At one point the northern part of the Site was leased to Alliant Techsystems, Inc. MNTP Soil: Alpha-chlordane, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, RDX, silver, tetryl, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, RDX, and 1,3,5-TNB were all detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic and manganese were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Dieldrin was detected above its CV.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil; excavation and disposal of explosive- and metal-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned for the berms: capping and monitoring.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Landfill Area (Site L4) Site L4 contains two extraction pits that were excavated down to the bedrock. The western pit was used from the early 1940s to the late 1960s. It is partially filled with sanitary sewage and construction waste. The final cover of compacted clean fill dirt was put on the pit in the 1970s. Apparently the eastern pit was never used as a landfill and is currently flooded by Prairie Creek. The southern border of Site L4 is Prairie Creek. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, iron, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, chloromethane, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, chromium, dieldrin, iron, lead, RDX, and thallium were detected above CVs. Phosphate was detected at 66,750 ppm.
Soil: Final remediation of the landfill planned: excavation and disposal.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Salvage Yard (Site L5) Site L5 was used to salvage and openly store materials. Metal waste from Site L2 was received by the Salvage Yard. Oil drums once stored near the sorting building apparently leaked. Until 1974 oil pits at Site L5 were used to store waste oil. A 500-foot-long ditch was dug in 1974 and used to store barrels containing unknown substances. Other potential areas of concern include a junk pile and a storage building. MNTP Soil: Antimony, arsenic, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, cadmium, chromium, copper, dieldrin, iron, lead, manganese, PCBs, thallium, and zinc were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, and manganese were detected above CVs.
Surface Water and Sediment: Not sampled.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil; excavation and disposal of organics-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Group 70 (Site L6) Site L6 includes a laundry facility, an electrical shop, a train servicing building, a carpenter's shop, a gas AST, two fuel oil tanks, equipment storage buildings, and a motor pool. Aerial photographs show that the area was used to store unknown materials in 1944. Recent Site investigations have revealed that waste solvents and oil (with and without PCBs) were dumped near the electrical shop. PCBs might have been used in Site L6 to fireproof clothing. Paint thinner was dumped into the soil near the carpenter's shop. Washwater from explosives-contaminated clothing was discharged into a sump. Will County Landfill and State Industrial Park Soil: Arsenic, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, iron, PCB-1260, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, and manganese were detected above CVs.
Surface Water (1 sample taken): Chloromethane, nitrate/nitrite, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranathene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and chrysene were detected above CVs.
Soil: A removal action was conducted in 1997 to excavate and dispose of organics-and PCB-contaminated soil. No further action is required.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Exposure to contaminated soil was unlikely/infrequent. Contaminated soil has been removed.
Group 1 (Site L7) Site L7 consisted of 70 buildings. Operations at the Site included producing 105mm cartridges and loading them with TNT or TNT plus RDX (Composition B). Some operations performed at the Site included melt-load, TNT screening, propellant charge, cooling, and assembly and shipping. The soil surrounding six transformers at the Site is contaminated with PCBs. Some other chemicals that were on the Site include mercury fulminate, lead azide, and propellant powder. Site L7 is located approximately 800 feet from Doyle Lake. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, iron, PCB-1260, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, and manganese were detected above CVs.
Surface Water (1 sample collected): Arsenic, nitrate/nitrite, RDX, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, thallium, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Group 2 (Site L8) Site L8 performed operations similar to those conducted at Site L7. The production line produced 8-inch high-explosive projectiles. The soil surrounding six transformers at the Site is contaminated with PCBs. There is a debris area on the Site that is probably composed of the remains of an explosion that took place in 1942. MNTP Soil: Arsenic and PCB-1260 were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, manganese, and nitrate/nitrite were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Nitrate/nitrite, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, iron, silver, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Group 3 (Site L9) Site L9 performed operations similar to those at Site L7. Site L9 produced the 105-mm HE cartridge and loaded demolition bombs. The facility has been used by Talley Defense Systems. The soil surrounding six transformers at the Site is potentially contaminated with PCBs (contamination is assumed). MNTP Soil: Arsenic, iron, mercury, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, and manganese were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Group 3A (Site L10) Operations at Site L10 were similar to those at Site L7. In addition, Site L10 also produced dispenser and bomb, ACFT, and cluster bomb units. The soil surrounding six transformers at the Site is contaminated with PCBs. A pit containing oil sludge was found at the Site. The Site was leased to Alliant Techsystems, Inc., for the production of 25-mm and 30-mm cartridges. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, cyclotetramethylene-tetranitramine (HMX), iron, lead, manganese, PCB-1260, RDX, thallium, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Aldrin, antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,3-DNB, manganese, methylene chloride, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, HMX, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, RDX, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, iron, RDX, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Test Site (Site L11) Site L11 is just south of Site L7. It was created to test the firing velocities and impact effectiveness of munitions. UXO may exist in the area. State Industrial Park Soil: Iron, silver, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Surface Water and Sediment: Not sampled.
Soil: Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Groups 4, 6, and 7 (Sites L14, L16, and L17) Sites L14, L16, and L17 are located adjacent to one another in the southwestern part of the LAP Area. Site L14 was constructed to produce fuses. One building on the Site was used for repackaging of smokeless powder after 1945. A testing laboratory at the Site was used by the Ordnance Surveillance Unit. At some point in time the Site produced 40-mm high explosive cartridges. Alliant Techsystems has used the Site L14 to assemble ammunition. Site L16 was originally constructed to produce boosters for munitions. Later on the Site produced the M14 nonmetallic mine. Several sumps exist at Site L16. Site L17 was initially constructed to produce boosters for munitions. Subsequent to the termination of loading operations in 1945 lead azide was repacked at the Site. Later on Site L17 produced the 40-mm M397E2 HE cartridge. Alliant Techsystems, Inc., has used the Site to produce LW 30-mm caliber ammunition. MNTP
(part of Site L14 only)
State Industrial Park
Soil: Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, HMX, iron, mercury, PCB-1242, RDX, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, lead, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, and RDX were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, PCB-1248, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Soil: Remediation is planned for Sites L14 (interim) and L16 (final): bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions. Final remediation is planned Site L17: excavation and disposal of PCB-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.
Groundwater- Final remediation for Site L14 will be limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring. No further action is necessary for Sites L16 and L17.
Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Group 8 (Site L18) Operations on Site L18 were similar to those that took place at Site L14. Primers, detonators, and relays were all produced at the Site. Group 8 also stored and manufactured mercury fulminate and delay elements. Prairie Creek forms the southern border of Site L18. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron, RDX, thallium, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Cadmium and manganese were detected above CVs.
Surface Water and Sediment: No chemicals were detected above CVs.
Soil: Depleted uranium cleanup was conducted under the supervision of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. No further action.

Groundwater: No further action.

Limited information is available concerning the depleted uranium contamination caused by the contractor at the site. However, it is known that access to the contaminated area was prevented by a fence and security patrols. The contamination has been removed.
Group 27 (Site L23A) Historical photographs have identified a disposal pit at Site 23A, but the disposal materials are unknown. MNTP Soil: Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediment: Not sampled.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Manufacturing (MFG) Area
Southern Ash Pile (Site M1) The incineration of TNT manufacturing wastes from 1965 to 1974 produced the ash residues found in the landfill at Site M1. The total volume of the ash pile, which includes clinkers, is approximately 170,000 cubic yards. The pile was originally covered with 20-millimeter PVC barriers, 12 inches of fill, and 6 inches of top soil. Then in 1985, 12 additional inches of clay and 6 inches of top soil were added. Prairie Creek is located approximately 800 feet northwest of the Site. MNTP Soil: Arsenic and iron were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, manganese, methylene chloride, phenol, phosphorus, silver, and thallium were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 24,000,000 ppb.
Surface Water: Aluminum, arsenic, barium, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, nitrate/nitrite, and vanadium were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 27,000,000 ppb.
Sediment: Arsenic was detected above its CV.
Soil: Final remediation of the landfill planned: excavation and disposal.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Explosive Burning Grounds
(Site M2)
Site M2 is the only burning ground in the MFG Area where open-air combustion of explosive waste was conducted. From the early 1940s until 1965, explosive materials were burned at the Site. In 1977, 428 tons of red water ash were buried at the Site and encapsulated in an impermeable membrane. Grant Creek and Prairie Creek are within 1,500 feet of the Site. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), iron, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Aniline, antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, manganese, methylene chloride, and phosphorus were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 1,600,000 ppb.
Surface Water (1 sample collected): Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and cadmium were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Not sampled.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Flashing Grounds (Site M3) Explosive residues on equipment and demolition materials were removed by flash burning at Site M3 from 1942 to 1988. In 1987, two tank spills were identified at the Site. Two burn areas on the Site are located within a fenced 6-acre area; most soil contamination is located in and around this area. Grant Creek flows through part of the Site. MNTP Soil: Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, phosphorus, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, benzene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,3-DNB, manganese, mercury, phosphorus, 1,3,5-TNB, 2,4,6-TNT, and toluene were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, phosphorus, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic and thallium were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil; excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Lead Azide Area (Site M4) Lead azide explosives were produced at Site M4 from World War II through the Korean War and between June 1966 and February 1968. A settling basin was used to store liquid production wastes before neutralization and discharge into Grant Creek. A ditch in the northern portion of Site M4 would occasionally overflow with runoff from Site M7. DNT-filled drums were stored in the southwestern part of the Site. MNTP Soil: Arsenic, iron, and lead were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, chromium, 1,3-DNB, manganese, and phosphorus, were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron, lead, and manganese were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, cadmium, iron, and lead were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Tetryl Production Area (Site M5) Tetryl was produced sporadically at Site M5 between the early 1940s and July 1973. The Site contains 12 production lines. Area M5 was drained by the Tetryl Ditch which leads to Grant Creek. State Industrial Park and MNTP Soil: Arsenic, 1,3-DNB, iron, lead, phosphorus, tetryl, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Cadmium, lead, manganese, phosphorus, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,3-DNB, manganese, phosphorus, RDX, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, PCB-1254, and phosphorus were detected above CVs.
Soil: Final remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil; bioremediation and disposal for explosive- and metal-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

TNT Ditch Complex (Site M6) Site M6 was the main TNT manufacturing area at JOAAP from 1942 to 1977. Some batch production-line areas were replaced by continuous-operation areas in 1974. Starting in 1943, wastewater from the TNT manufacturing process drained into the TNT Ditch which traverses the Site from north to south. The water in the ditch was transported to Grant Creek. Then, in 1965, a flume was constructed to transport red water to an incinerator at Site M7 to process the water. State Industrial Park Soil: Arsenic, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), iron, lead, nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene (2-NT), phosphorus, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,3-DNB, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, manganese, methylene chloride, nitrate/nitrite, nitrobenzene, 2-NT, RDX, tetrachloroethene, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, manganese, methylene chloride, nitrate/nitrite, nitrobenzene, 2-NT, phosphorus, RDX, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, iron, lead, phosphorus, thallium, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Soil: Final remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil; bioremediation and disposal for explosive- and metal-contaminated soil; and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Red Water Area (Site M7) In 1965, an incinerator complex was constructed on Site M7 to treat red water from the TNT manufacturing process. Storage tanks were used to hold red water before it was treated. Excess water was held in a lined lagoon. From 1983 through 1985, the Red Water Lagoon was remediated. Contaminated surface water and sediment were removed and a clay cap was installed. The Red Water Area is 0.5 miles north of Grant Creek. State Industrial Park Soil: Arsenic, 1,3-DNB, iron, lead manganese, phosphorus, thallium, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were all detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,3-DNB, 2,4-DNT, manganese, methylene chloride, nitrate/nitrite, nitrobenzene, phosphorus, RDX, tetrachloroethylene, 2,4,6-TNT, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 1,100,000 ppb.
Surface Water: Antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, nitrate/nitrite, RDX, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 6,690,000 ppb,
Sediment: Arsenic, chromium, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, iron, lead, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Soil: Final remediation planned: bioremediation and disposal of explosive-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Acid Manufacture-ing Area (Site M8) Site M8 contained manufacturing, recycling, refinement, and storage facilities used to produce nitric and sulfuric acid for TNT and tetryl. Two lagoons were used to store and treat wastewater until 1977. All wastewaters eventually drained into Jackson and Grant Creeks. State Industrial Park Soil: Arsenic, lead, and phosphorus were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, 1,3-DNB, manganese, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, benzene, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, chloromethane, iron, lead, manganese, methylene chloride, and phosphorus were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 1,900,000.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, lead, and phosphorus were detected above CVs.
Soil: Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of sulfur-contaminated soil and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

Northern Ash Pile (Site M9) Between May 1966 and July 1967, residue from the incineration of TNT byproducts was landfilled at Site M9. A new clay cap replaced the original clay cap in 1985. Leaching and erosion has occurred since the new cap was constructed. Jackson Creek is 600 feet northwest of the Site. State Industrial Park Soil: Arsenic, 1,3-DNB, iron, thallium, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, cadmium, 1,3-DNB, manganese, phosphorus, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Arsenic, cadmium, 1,3-DNB, manganese, and phosphorus were detected above CVs.
Sediment: Arsenic and iron were detected above CVs.
Soil: Final remediation of the landfill planned: excavation and disposal.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Toluene Tank Farms (Western and Central) (Site M10) Site M10 includes three toluene tank farms: western, central, and eastern. The three farms are approximately 10 acres each and are located within a couple miles of each other. The eastern tank farm requires no further action. State Industrial Park and MNTP Western and Central Tank Farms:
Soil: No chemicals were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Methylene chloride, o-xylene, toluene, and xylenes(total) were detected above CVs.
Surface Water and Sediment: Not sampled.
Soil: No further action.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.
Landfill Area (Site M11) Site M11 contains a number of gravel pits that were filled with debris and wastes from maintenance operations. The landfill was used for contained asbestos, insulation, and construction debris, probably since the 1950s. Cattle regularly drank from a stagnant pond containing debris. Prairie Creek flows along the eastern border of the southern section of Site M11. MNTP Soil: Not sampled.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, manganese, and nitrate/nitrite were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 2,100,000 ppb.
Surface Water: Arsenic, lead manganese, nitrate/nitrite, phosphorus, and vanadium were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 1,300,000 ppb.
Sediment: Arsenic, iron, and thallium were detected above CVs.
Soil: Final remediation planned for the landfill: capping, monitoring, and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Sellite Manufacture-ing Area (Site M12) Sellite production at Site M12 ended in 1976 when TNT manufacturing operations ceased. The Site contains two sellite production areas, a lagoon surface aeration system, and the Sellite Drainage Ditch. MNTP Soil: Arsenic and iron were detected above CVs.
Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, manganese, and nitrate/nitrite were detected above CVs.
Surface Water: Aluminum, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, phosphorus, 2,4,6-TNT, vanadium were detected above CVs. Sulfate was detected at 2,200,000 ppb.
Sediment: Arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene, iron, lead, and phosphorus were detected above CVs.
Soil: Interim remediation planned: excavation and disposal of metal-contaminated soil and deed restrictions. Final remediation planned: excavation and disposal of sulfur-contaminated soil.

Groundwater: No further action.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.
Gravel Pit Area (Site M13) Site M13 contains two former gravel pits, an excavation area, and a excavation pit. The southern gravel pit received waste from the Former Sewage Treatment Plant and the north power plant, laundry wastes, and debris. The northern gravel pit was used to bury debris like broken concrete, office wastes, sanitary and domestic wastes, and empty bulk TNT boxes. The northern gravel pit is now covered with clean soil. The excavation pit was used to dispose of fly ash. State Industrial Park Groundwater: Antimony, arsenic, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,3-DNB, manganese, nitrate/nitrite, 1,3,5-TNB, and 2,4,6-TNT were detected above CVs.
Soil, Surface Water, and Sediment: Not sampled.
Soil: Final remediation planned for the landfill: capping, monitoring, and deed restrictions.

Groundwater: Planned final remediation is limited action: institutional controls, natural attenuation, and monitoring.

Soil: Refer to Site L1.

Groundwater: Refer to Site L1.

1See Appendix A for an explanation of comparison values.
Sources: Army, 1999e; Dames & Moore, 1990, 1993a,b, 1994b,c: ECG, 1998.


Table 3.

Potential Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name Source of Contamination EnvironmentalMedium Point of Exposure Route ofExposure PotentiallyExposedPopulation Comments
DrinkingWater
  • Explosives, metals, toluene, and benzene plumes
Groundwater Water supply well atJOAAP and off-siteresidential wellsIngestion,dermalcontact,andinhalation Residents/ workers at JOAAP and residents near JOAAP
  • Water supply wells at JOAAP did not draw water from contaminated aquifers.
  • Plumes of contamination have not impacted off-site residential wells because they do not extend beyond JOAAP property.
  • Plume migration will be monitored in the future and deed restrictions will be enforced in areas where plumes have been identified.
Soil
  • Explosives, metals, PCBs, organics, and sulfur
  • Landfills
Soilsoil remediation units(SRUs) 1 through 7Incidentalingestionand/ordermalcontactOn-baseresidents andhunters
  • Residential and hunting areas were not located near any SRUs.
  • Hunters were restricted from SRUs.
  • All areas included in the SRUs will be remediated by 2007.
Surface Water
  • Explosives, metals, and anions
Surface water Creeks and lakes atJOAAPIncidentalingestionand/ordermalcontactOn-baseresidents
  • To date people have not swam in the creeks and lakes.
  • Swimming in the future is unlikely due to the shallowness of the surface water bodies at JOAAP.
AgriculturalCrops
  • Soil contamination
Corn andsoybeansCrop fieldsIngestionCorn andsoybeanconsumers
  • Crops have not been grown on contaminated soils.
  • All areas included in the SRUs will be remediated by 2007.
Deer, Cattle,and Pheasant
  • Soil and surface water contamination
  • Potential plant contamination
Venison, beef,and pheasantmeatCattle grazing areas,deer stands, and cornfields (pheasant)IngestionHunters andbeef consumers
  • Animals tested at JOAAP do not contain chemicals at levels that are expected to pose adverse health effects.
  • Deer and pheasant are no longer hunted.
Fish
  • Surface water contamination
FishStreams and lakes atJOAAPIngestionFish consumers
  • Fish tested at JOAAP do not contain chemicals at levels that are expected to pose adverse health effects.


Table 4.

Summary of Soil Contaminants at JOAAP Sites by SRU and Future Land Use
SRU Type of Contamination Future Land Use
Midewin TallGrass Prairie Sites Industrial Parks Sites
1 Explosives (DNT, NT, TNB, TNT, HMX, RDX, Tetryl) L1, L7, L8, L9, L10, L14, M2, M3 L16, M5, M6, M7
2 Metals (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, lead) L11
L2, L3, L5, L23A, M3, M4, M12
3 Explosive and metals (DNT, TNT, RDX, arsenic, beryllium, lead) L2, M3 M5, M6
4 PCBs (Aroclors 1254 and1260) L1, L5, L7, L8, L9, L10 L17
5 PAHs L1, L5
6 Hazardous and non-hazardous waste (from landfills) L3, L4, M1, M11 M9, M13
7 Sulfur M12 M8

Note: Numbers (e.g.,L1) represent sites under investigation at JOAAP. Bolded site numbers indicate that final remediation goals are pending for these sites.


Table 5.

Maximum Contaminant Concentrations in Soil at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie
Contaminant Maximum Concentration (ppm) SRU/ Location Comparison Value (ppm)1
Explosives
1,3,5-TNB 3,900 SRU1/L9 60; 2,000; 20,000 RMEG
2,4,6-TNT 180,000 SRU1/L9 20 CREG
2,4-DNT 522 SRU1/M2 4; 100; 1,000 Chronic EMEG
2,6-DNT 139 SRU1/M2 8; 200; 3,000 Intermediate EMEG
HMX 17,000 SRU1/L10 100; 3,000; 40,000 Intermediate EMEG
RDX 77,000 SRU1/L10 60; 2,000; 20,000 Chronic EMEG
Tetryl ND no value
PCBs 73,400 SRU4/L5 0.4 CREG
PAHs
Benzo(a)pyrene 1.5 SRU5/L5 0.1 CREG
Metals
Arsenic 96 SRU3/L2 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 3.8 SRU2/M3 2; 50; 700 Chronic EMEG
Cadmium 5,800 SRU2/L2 0.4; 10; 100 Chronic EMEG
Lead 260,000 SRU2/M4 400 EPA SSL

Key: CREG = ATSDR's cancer risk evaluation guide for 1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk; EMEG = ATSDR's environmental media evaluation guide; ATSDR's RMEG = reference dose media evaluation guide; EPA SSL = EPA soil screening level.

1 EMEGs and RMEGs presented for pica, child, and adult exposures, respectively.


Table 6.

Maximum Contaminant Concentrations in Soil at the Industrial Park Areas
Contaminant Maximum Concentration (ppm) SRU/ Location Comparison Value (ppm)1
Explosives
1,3,5-TNB 1,100 SRU1/M7 60; 2,000; 20,000 RMEG
2,4,6-TNT 482,000 SRU1/M6 20 CREG
2,4-DNT 86,709 SRU1/M6 4; 100; 1,000 Chronic EMEG
2,6-DNT 2,540 SRU1/M6 8; 200; 3,000 Intermediate EMEG
NT 18,500 SRU1/M6
HMX 19,000 SRU1/L6 100; 3,000; 40,000 Intermediate EMEG
RDX 65,000 SRU1/L6 60; 2,000; 20,000 Chronic EMEG
Tetryl 224,000 SRU1/M5 no value
PCBs 1,640 SRU4/L17 0.4 CREG
PAHs
Benzo(a)pyrene ND 0.1 CREG
Metals
Arsenic 22 SRU3/M6 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 2.22 SRU3/M6 2; 50; 700 Chronic EMEG
Cadmium ND 0.4; 10; 100 Chronic EMEG
Lead 2,300 SRU3/M5 400 EPA SSL

Key: CREG = ATSDR's cancer risk evaluation guide for 1 x 10-6 excess cancer risk; EMEG = ATSDR's environmental media evaluation guide; ATSDR's RMEG = reference dose media evaluation guide; EPA SSL = EPA soil screening level.

1 EMEGs and RMEGs presented for pica, child, and adult exposures, respectively.


FIGURES

Regional Location of Joliet Army Ammunition Plant
Figure 1. Regional Location of Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

Manufacturing Area at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant
Figure 2. Manufacturing Area at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

Load-Assemble Area at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant
Figure 3. Load-Assemble Area at Joliet Army Ammunition Plant

Population Demographics in a One-Mile Radius Buffer Zone Around JOAAP
Figure 4. Population Demographics in a One-Mile Radius Buffer Zone Around JOAAP


APPENDIX A. COMPARISON VALUES

The conclusion that a contaminant exceeds the comparison value does not mean that it will causeadverse health effects. Comparison values represent media-specific contaminant concentrationsthat are used to select contaminants for further evaluation to determine the possibility of adverse public health effects.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide (CREG)

Estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more than oneexcess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over a 70-year life span. ATSDR's CREGs are calculated from EPA's cancer potency factors.

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs)

EMEGs are based on ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs) and factor in body weight andingestion rates. An EMEG is an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemical (inmg/kg/day) that is likely to be without noncarcinogenic health effects over a specifiedduration of exposure to include acute, intermediate, and chronic exposures.

EPA Region III Risk-Based Concentration

EPA combines reference doses and carcinogenic potency slopes with "standard" exposurescenarios to calculate risk-based concentrations, which are chemical concentrationscorresponding to fixed levels of risk (i.e., a hazard quotient of 1, or lifetime cancer risk of 10-6, whichever occurs at a lower concentration) in water, air, fish tissue, and soil.

Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)

The MCL is the drinking water stand established by EPA and enforced by state regulatory agencies. It is the maximum permissible level of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs are considered protective of human health over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.

Reference Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs)

ATSDR derives RMEGs from EPA's oral reference doses. The RMEG represents theconcentration in water or soil at which daily human exposure is unlikely to result inadverse noncarcinogenic effects.


APPENDIX B. GLOSSARY

Absorption:
How a chemical enters a person's blood after the chemical has been swallowed, has come into contact with the skin, or has been breathed in.


Adverse Health Effect:
A change in body function or the structures of cells that can lead to disease or health problems.


ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substance and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.


Background Level:
An average or expected amount of a chemical in a specific environment. Or, amounts of chemicals that occur naturally in a specific environment.


Biota:
Used in public health, things that humans would eat - including animals, fish and plants.


Cancer:
A group of diseases which occur when cells in the body become abnormal and grow, or multiply, out of control.


Carcinogen:
Any substance shown to cause tumors or cancer in experimental studies.


CERCLA:
See Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act.


Completed Exposure Pathway:
See Exposure Pathway.


Comparison Value:
Concentrations or the amount of substances in air, water, food, and soil that are unlikely, upon exposure, to cause adverse health effects. Comparison values are used by health assessors to select which substances and environmental media (air, water, food and soil) need additional evaluation while health concerns or effects are investigated.


Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA):
CERCLA was put into place in 1980. It is also known as Superfund. This act concerns releases of hazardous substances into the environment, and the cleanup of these substances and hazardous waste sites. ATSDR was created by this act and is responsible for looking into the health issues related to hazardous waste sites.


Concern:
A belief or worry that chemicals in the environment might cause harm to people.


Concentration:
How much or the amount of a substance present in a certain amount of soil, water, air, or food.


Contaminant:
See Environmental Contaminant.


Dermal Contact:
A chemical getting onto your skin. (see Route of Exposure).


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person may be exposed, usually on a daily basis. Dose is often explained as "amount of substance(s) per body weight per day".


Duration:
The amount of time (days, months, years) that a person is exposed to a chemical.


Environmental Contaminant:
A substance (chemical) that gets into a system (person, animal, or the environment) in amounts higher than that found in Background Level, or what would be expected.


Environmental Media:
Usually refers to the air, water, and soil in which chemcials of interest are found. Sometimes refers to the plants and animals that are eaten by humans. Environmental Media is the second part of an Exposure Pathway.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.


Exposure:
Coming into contact with a chemical substance.(For the three ways people can come in contact with substances, see Route of Exposure.)


Exposure Assessment:
The process of finding the ways people come in contact with chemicals, how often and how long they come in contact with chemicals, and the amounts of chemicals with which they come in contact.


Exposure Pathway:
A description of the way that a chemical moves from its source (where it began) to where and how people can come into contact with (or get exposed to) the chemical.

ATSDR defines an exposure pathway as having 5 parts:

  1. Source of Contamination,
  2. Environmental Media and Transport Mechanism,
  3. Point of Exposure,
  4. Route of Exposure, and
  5. Receptor Population.


When all 5 parts of an exposure pathway are present, it is called a Completed Exposure Pathway. Each of these 5 terms is defined in this Glossary.

Frequency:
How often a person is exposed to a chemical over time; for example, every day, once a week, twice a month.


Hazardous Waste:
Substances that have been released or thrown away into the environment and, under certain conditions, could be harmful to people who come into contact with them.


Health Effect:
ATSDR deals only with Adverse Health Effects (see definition in this Glossary).


Indeterminate Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in Public Health Assessment documents for sites where important information is lacking (missing or has not yet been gathered) about site-related chemical exposures.


Ingestion:
Swallowing something, as in eating or drinking. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


Inhalation:
Breathing. It is a way a chemical can enter your body (See Route of Exposure).


NPL:
The National Priorities List. (Which is part of Superfund.) A list kept by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the most serious, uncontrolled or abandoned hazardous waste sites in the country. An NPL site needs to be cleaned up or is being looked at to see if people can be exposed to chemicals from the site.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where exposure to site-related chemicals may have occurred in the past or is still occurring but the exposures are not at levels expected to cause adverse health effects.


No Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in ATSDR's Public Health Assessment documents for sites where there is evidence of an absence of exposure to site-related chemicals.


PHA:
Public Health Assessment. A report or document that looks at chemicals at a hazardous waste site and tells if people could be harmed from coming into contact with those chemicals. The PHA also tells if possible further public health actions are needed.


Plume:
A line or column of air or water containing chemicals moving from the source to areas further away. A plume can be a column or clouds of smoke from a chimney or contaminated underground water sources or contaminated surface water (such as lakes, ponds and streams).


Point of Exposure:
The place where someone can come into contact with a contaminated environmental medium (air, water, food or soil). For example:
the area of a playground that has contaminated dirt, a contaminated spring used for drinking water, the location where fruits or vegetables are grown in contaminated soil, or the backyard area where someone might breathe contaminated air.


Population:
A group of people living in a certain area; or the number of people in a certain area.


Public Health Assessment(s):
See PHA.


Public Health Hazard:
The category is used in PHAs for sites that have certain physical features or evidence of chronic, site-related chemical exposure that could result in adverse health effects.


Public Health Hazard Criteria:
PHA categories given to a site which tell whether people could be harmed by conditions present at the site. Each are defined in the Glossary. The categories are:
  1. Urgent Public Health Hazard
  2. Public Health Hazard
  3. Indeterminate Public Health Hazard
  4. No Apparent Public Health Hazard
  5. No Public Health Hazard

Receptor Population:
People who live or work in the path of one or more chemicals, and who could come into contact with them (See Exposure Pathway).


Route of Exposure:
The way a chemical can get into a person's body. There are three exposure routes:
- breathing (also called inhalation),
- eating or drinking (also called ingestion), and
- or getting something on the skin (also called dermal contact).


SARA:
The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act in 1986 amended CERCLA and expanded the health-related responsibilities of ATSDR. CERCLA and SARA direct ATSDR to look into the health effects from chemical exposures at hazardous waste sites.


Source (of Contamination):
The place where a chemical comes from, such as a landfill, pond, creek, incinerator, tank, or drum. Contaminant source is the first part of an Exposure Pathway.


Superfund Site:
See NPL.


Toxic:
Harmful. Any substance or chemical can be toxic at a certain dose (amount). The dose is what determines the potential harm of a chemical and whether it would cause someone to get sick.


Volatile organic compound (VOC):
Substance containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (e.g., paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, dry cleaning fluids).

Table of Contents

  
 
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