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HEALTH CONSULTATION
OUTBOARD MARINE CORPORATION/WAUKEGAN HARBOR
WAUKEGAN, LAKE COUNTY, ILLINOIS

PURPOSE

In the spring of 2003, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) learned about changes at the Outboard Marine Corporation (OMC) site located in Waukegan Harbor, Waukegan, Illinois, and also learned of proposed land use changes. This document contains our initial evaluation of OMC Plant 2 and our re-evaluation of the PCB containment cells in light of changes that have occurred since our 1998 site review and update of the OMC site in Waukegan Harbor (IDPH 1998). Other operable units are discussed in separate health consultations.


BACKGROUND AND STATEMENT OF ISSUES

The OMC/Waukegan Harbor site (Figures 1 and 2) contains three Operable Units (sections of the site) designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):

  • Waukegan Harbor
  • the Waukegan Manufactured Gas and Coke Plant, and
  • the PCB disposal cells.

EPA anticipates adding a fourth Operable Unit, the OMC Plant 2. This health consultation discusses OMC Plant 2 and the PCB containment cells. Separate health consultations discuss the other parts of the site, one for Waukegan Harbor (ATSDR 2004a) and another for the Waukegan Manufactured Gas and Coke Plant (ATSDR 2004b).

Under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), IDPH prepared an initial public health assessment (PHA) for the OMC/Waukegan Harbor site (IDPH 1989) and a final PHA for the site (IDPH 1994). IDPH concluded that the site was a public health hazard because humans had probably been exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish at levels that could result in adverse health effects. For the public, the consumption of contaminated fish was the main exposure pathway.

In 1998, ATSDR released a site review and update on the OMC/Waukegan Harbor site (IDPH 1998). Regarding the PCB containment cells, IDPH made the following recommendations.

As long as the wastes remain hazardous, ensure effective permanent containment in the containment cells by

  • Maintaining inward hydraulic gradients.

  • Maintaining the caps to ensure their integrity.

  • Using institutional controls (zoning or deed restrictions) to ensure that no one constructs buildings on the containment cells.

OMC Plant 2

Previous assessments of this site have not included OMC Plant 2 because it was an active industrial facility and not considered part of the site. The OMC Plant 2 is about 23 acres in size (Figure 3). EPA divided the building into the following five large areas: the new die cast area, the grit blasting area, the metal working area, the parts storage area, and the old die cast area. The southwestern corner of OMC Plant 2 also has an attached chemical storage building.

Manufacturing activities in OMC Plant 2 included smelting, die casting, machining, polishing, and finishing of aluminum. Spray painting, parts assembly, parts washing, chromate conversion coating, and wastewater pre-treatment were also done (EPA 2002c). OMC Plant 2 used hydraulic fluids with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during 1951-1972. These fluids were collected and reused after aluminum chips were removed in the "chip wringer" room of the metal working area.

OMC also used large amounts of trichloroethylene (TCE) in a very large vapor degreaser (Theisen 2003). There are a set of pipe chases under the flooring of the eastern end of the plant and another set under the western end of the plant. There are also several drainage systems under various areas of the plant, some of which are reportedly plugged. The west end pipe chases of the old die cast area transported hydraulic oil containing PCBs to die cast machines until 1977 when OMC dismantled those machines (EPA 2002c).

In July 1998, EPA awarded the city of Waukegan a Brownfield Development Grant to bring abandoned and contaminated properties back to use, including properties near Waukegan Harbor (EPA 2001a).

OMC filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy (reorganization) in December 2000 and Chapter 7 bankruptcy (liquidation) in August 2001. The Bombardier Motor Corporation bought out OMC, including OMC Plant 1, but bought only the assets in OMC Plant 2. USEPA's concerns about the abandonment of OMC Plant 2 included the following.

  • An oily substance, which could contain PCBs, was found in pipe chases.

  • PCB contamination was detected in soil near the building.

  • There is a possibility that the building could be a source of PCBs for Waukegan Harbor.

  • High levels of trichorethylene (TCE) were found in soil and groundwater under the building.

  • The abandoned building could become an attractive nuisance for trespassers and scavengers (EPA 2002a).

EPA and Illinois EPA filed an objection to the proposed abandonment of OMC Plant 2 because of environmental hazards at the site. In August 2002, EPA, Illinois EPA, and the bankruptcy trustee reached a settlement in which the bankruptcy trustee agreed to properly remediate the following six items with EPA oversight (EPA 2002a, EPA 2002b).

  • Remove and dispose of drums and containers in OMC Plant 2 and drain all tanks in the plant.

  • Drain and flush all transformers in OMC Plant 2.

  • Drain and dispose of contents in die cast machines and other equipment in OMC Plant 2.

  • Remove and dispose of all batteries and capacitors in OMC Plant 2.

  • Collect and dispose of all liquids in the sump/cistern (inside the chip wringer room) and in the storm sewer outside the chip wringer room.

  • Decontaminate all die cast machines and the machines in the metal working area and properly dispose of all collected liquids.

The bankruptcy trustee completed all of this work and the bankruptcy court declared OMC Plant 2 abandoned on December 10, 2002. EPA and Illinois EPA continue to seek funds from the bankruptcy trustee for an anticipated long-term cleanup of the OMC Plant 2 property. EPA and Illinois EPA plan to add OMC Plant 2 to the Waukegan Harbor National Priorities List (NPL) site. EPA will then conduct a remedial investigation and feasibility study to determine the extent of contamination and develop an appropriate clean-up plan. EPA may also perform interim, expedited clean-up actions to prevent the release of contaminants into Lake Michigan or Waukegan Harbor (Theisen 2003, EPA 2003b, and EPA 2002a).

On January 9, 2003, for the $130 purchase price of the land, the city of Waukegan bought an option to buy 13 parcels of OMC property, including OMC Plant 2. This option gave the city the exclusive right to purchase any or all of the 13 parcels, prepaid, at any time until the expiration date of the option (December 31, 2021). Any purchases will be of the property "as is," including any contamination. Deed restrictions and access agreements with EPA and Illinois EPA will be maintained (Masini 2003). The city is negotiating a consent decree with EPA and Illinois EPA that will enable it to purchase OMC Plant 2 (Jeep 2003).

On January 23, 2003, EPA (Theisen 2003) proposed the following five actions to remediate the threats to public health and/or the environment at OMC Plant 2.

  • Remove, transport, and dispose of the various hydraulic oils, some of which are contaminated with PCBs, from the tunnels under the "new die cast" area.

  • Decontaminate the floors of areas that are contaminated with PCBs at concentration levels above the NIOSH guideline.

  • Drain all pipelines that contained hazardous materials.

  • Investigate the "chip wringer" area for additional PCB contaminated oil.

  • Pump and treat all water generated from the tunnels.

On August 25, 2003, the city approved a master plan for redeveloping the downtown and the lakefront that was prepared by Skidmore Owings and Merrill LLP (City of Waukegan 2003c). The implications of that plan are discussed in the Demographics Section of this consultation.

On October 8, 2003, the city proposed the development of a Waukegan Lakefront Restoration Center on the OMC Plant 2 property. This facility would handle all cleanup of contamination in Waukegan Harbor sediment and lakefront soil, including soil from the OMC Plant 2 property. Cleaned soil will be returned to the lakefront. Soil that cannot be cleaned will be placed in a landfill built at the present OMC Plant 2 parking lot, between two existing PCB-containment cells. The landfill will only accept materials from the harbor and lakefront remediation. After completion, the landfill is to become a public park. The city prefers to develop a restoration center on the OMC Plant 2 property, rather than place contaminated harbor sediment at the existing Yeoman Creek Landfill. Local treatment and disposal would be cheaper, and local disposal would not require the transportation of contaminated materials through the city's residential neighborhoods (City of Waukegan 2003a).

All clean-up plans and the development of a Waukegan Lakefront Restoration Center require approval by EPA (for Superfund sites) or Illinois EPA. Clean-up plans for a Waukegan Lakefront Restoration Center are also subject to EPA or Illinois EPA oversight.

PCB-Containment Cells

Figure 2 shows the location of the three containment cells (with one being in former Slip 3). A vertical subsurface barrier wall surrounds each containment cell and each has an impermeable cap. OMC installed several groundwater extraction wells in each cell. Water is periodically pumped from the cells to create an inward gradient. If a leak occurs, groundwater will flow into the cell instead of out of it. This will retain contaminants in the cell and prevent their escape. The water pumped from the containment cells is treated to remove PCBs and then released into Waukegan Harbor (EPA 2003b).

From 1998-2000, OMC properly maintained the existing PCB containment cells. The monitoring of groundwater levels showed that OMC maintained an inward hydraulic gradient. Groundwater sampling showed that PCBs were not leaking from the cells (EPA 2002a).

From August 2001 until abandonment of the property on December 10, 2002, the bankruptcy trustee was responsible for operation and maintenance of the PCB-containment cells. Since the abandonment, EPA has overseen operation and maintenance of the cells.

On January 23, 2003, EPA (Theisen 2003) proposed providing electricity to the three PCB-containment cells found on the site, retrofitting the systems with improved and more efficient equipment, and providing for support (up to one year) to supervise their operations. Illinois EPA had planned to take over operation and maintenance of these cells in December 2003 (Adler 2003, EPA 2003b).

To date, institutional controls prohibiting future construction on the PCB containment cells have not been enacted. The city is negotiating a consent decree with EPA and Illinois EPA to allow their proposed purchase of OMC Plant 2. In its current form, the consent decree would provide for these institutional controls (Jeep 2003).

Demographics

Land use around the harbor currently is commercial and industrial. The harbor serves commercial shipping, including raw materials and cement delivery, and barge and tug mooring. It also provides access to marinas and maintenance facilities for recreational boating. A public beach is east of the site. Charter boats for anglers also operate out of the harbor.

The nearest residences are about 0.3 miles from the site; by road, however, they are about 1 mile from the site. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 10,492 people live within 1 mile of the site. Hispanic people comprise 47% of the total population, and African-Americans comprise 19%. EPA reported low-income levels for 44% of the residents within 1 mile of Waukegan Harbor (Theisen 2003).

The city has rezoned the WCP property for use as residential housing and plans to use some WCP property for affordable housing. Some housing also may be for people with pleasure boats in Waukegan Harbor (Blazer 2003a, Blazer 2003b).

On August 25, 2003, the Waukegan City Council accepted a master redevelopment plan by Skidmore Owings and Merrill LLP (City of Waukegan 2003a). Details of the plan have yet to be developed (Blazer 2003a). To date, the plan calls for the OMC Plant 2 to be replaced with smaller buildings.

The Waukegan Lakefront Development Corporation proposed future development of OMC Plant 2 as an automobile museum, with room for 3,000 to 5,000 automobiles (City of Waukegan, 2003). Other possible development plans near Waukegan Harbor include

  • establishing a permanent, continuous, parkland edge to the lakefront, including the harbor
  • relocating industry along the harbor to an area near Interstate 94
  • developing a marina village with housing for boat owners
  • adding 2,500 residential housing units
  • developing 100,000 square feet of retail services
  • building a new hotel with meeting rooms
  • building a modern train station, and
  • linking downtown with the lakefront property in a pedestrian friendly manner.

The city projected that residential development near the harbor would begin within 5 years. Of the estimated $1 billion cost of the proposed redevelopment plan, 70%-80% would come from individual developers. The rest would come from public funding through an existing tax (City of Waukegan 2003b, City of Waukegan 2003c). Beyond cleanups of contaminated properties, implementing this plan requires financial commitments from private developers.


COMMUNITY CONCERNS

During the second 5-year site review, EPA requested comments from the Waukegan Community Advisory Group, and placed notices in English and Spanish in local newspapers. The following comments were received regarding OMC Plant 2 and the PCB-containment cells (EPA 2002):

  • With the bankruptcy declaration by OMC a prelude to the abandonment of unsold lakefront properties, several people were concerned about who would operate and maintain the PCB containment cells in the future.

  • With PCB levels in fish still elevated, the Waukegan Community Advisory Group was concerned there may still be a source of PCB contamination moving from OMC Plant 2 into the harbor.

  • Although the cleanup of the Waukegan Manufactured Gas Plant site is in the design phase, the city of Waukegan had very recently proposed changing the zoning of the site from marine recreational/industrial to residential. Several people, including Coke Plant potentially responsible parties expressed reservations about this proposal. Aside from the implied impacts on the remedy selected in the 1999 Record of Decision, comments indicated that some persons believe the proposed rezoning change is a premature act by the city. The Waukegan Manufactured Gas Plant has not been cleaned up yet and the adjacent OMC Plant 2 may become another part of the Waukegan Harbor site, requiring years of study and then cleanup.

  • Several people expressed an interest in the reuse of OMC Plant 2 facilities for light industry or storage. They hoped that EPA can help clean up the property to assist in its redevelopment. One person feared that the city would rezone the OMC Plant 2 property as residential, despite extensive data showing significant contamination of the property.

EPA took over the maintenance of the PCB containment cells following the liquidation of OMC. Illinois EPA took over maintenance of the containment cells in December 2003.

EPA is concerned that OMC Plant 2 may be a continuing source of PCBs for Waukegan Harbor and plans to investigate that possibility. EPA plans to address the cleanup of OMC Plant 2 after it completes its environmental investigation of the building. EPA also may perform interim expedited clean-up actions to prevent the release of contaminants into Lake Michigan or Waukegan Harbor. Separate health consultations discuss Waukegan Harbor and the Waukegan Manufactured Gas and Coke Plant (ATSDR 2004a, 2004b).

Residential property at the Waukegan Manufactured Gas and Coke Plant would be across the street from OMC Plant 2. That would make trespassing at OMC Plant 2–and hence exposure to contaminants–more likely. The city of Waukegan also proposes additional residential development in the area. The Exposure Pathways section of this document further discusses the implications of these proposed residential developments.

IDPH assumes that EPA will not allow residential or other use of OMC Plant 2 without a proper cleanup. Residential or other use of this property after a proper cleanup would not result in health hazards from chemical exposure. Presently, the city plans to replace OMC Plant 2 with smaller buildings, although the city has not finalized its plans.


DISCUSSION

Chemicals of Interest

IDPH compared the maximum level of each contaminant detected during environmental sampling with appropriate screening comparison values. This was to select contaminants for further evaluation for both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health effects. Chemicals that exceeded comparison values were selected for further evaluation. A detailed discussion of each of the comparison values is found in Attachment 1.

IDPH used the comparison values to screen for contaminants that warranted further evaluation. These comparison values do not represent thresholds of toxicity. Although some of these chemicals may exist at levels greater than comparison values, the contaminants can affect only someone exposed to sufficient doses. The amount of the contaminant, the duration and route of exposure, and the health status of exposed individuals are important factors in determining the potential for adverse health effects.

Contaminated Building Surfaces and Pipes of OMC Plant 2

In July 2001, EPA conducted limited sampling in Plant 2. In the liquid in pipe chases, they found up to 300 parts per billion (ppb) of PCBs, but no volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

On March 5-6, 2002, Tetra Tech EM, Incorporated, took wipe samples from equipment, floors, and office furniture, and they analyzed the samples for PCBs (Table 3). For nonporous surfaces in high-occupancy areas and concrete floors, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended occupational limit for PCBs is 10 micrograms per 100 square centimeters (10 µg/100 cm2). For nonporous surfaces in low occupancy areas, the NIOSH recommended limit is 100 µg/100 cm2. Of the 48 PCB samples from the floor, 3 (6%) exceeded 1,000 µg/100 cm2; 5 (21%) exceeded 100 µg/100 cm2; and 26 (54%) exceeded 10 µg/100 cm2. No samples from the office areas exceeded 10 µg/100 cm2.

On March 6, 2002, Tetra Tech conducted limited asbestos sampling of pipe, boiler, and other insulation, as well as floor tiles in the office and medical areas. Asbestos was found in five samples (Table 4).

Air

On March 5, 2002, Tetra Tech collected nine air samples for PCBs and six air samples for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in OMC Plant 2 (Tables 1 and 2). Airborne asbestos concentrations in the building are unknown.

Groundwater

The city obtains its water from Lake Michigan, and no one drinks groundwater from the site. Consequently, this document will not discuss exposure to contaminated groundwater.

Sediment

On March 6, 2002, Tetra Tech collected three sediment samples from the North Ditch, about 2 feet from the shore (Figure 4). They analyzed the samples for VOCs and PCBs. No VOCs exceeded comparison values. Table 5 gives the levels of PCBs, which exceeded the 0.25 parts per million (ppm) to 1.0 ppm clean-up level now used by EPA for sediments.

Soil

On March 6, 2002, Tetra Tech collected two composite soil samples and one duplicate sample outside Plant 2, from 0 to 1 foot in depth (Figure 5). They analyzed the samples for inorganic elements, VOCs, and PCBs. No inorganic elements exceeded both state (IEPA 1994)and regional (Shacklette and Boerngen 1984) background levels. No VOCs were detected. The PCB levels detected are shown in Table 6.

Exposure Pathways

People can be affected by hazardous chemicals only if they come into contact with them through an exposure pathway at a sufficient concentration to cause a toxic effect. This requires (1) a source of exposure, (2) an environmental transport medium, (3) a route of exposure, (4) point of exposure, and (5) an exposed population.

A pathway is complete if all its components are present and exposure of people occurred in the past, is occurring, or will occur in the future. If parts of a pathway are absent, if data are insufficient to decide whether the pathway is complete, or if exposure may have occurred at some time in the past, may be occurring in the present, or may occur in the future, then it is considered to be a potential pathway. If part of a pathway is not present and will never exist, the pathway is considered to be incomplete and is not given further consideration.

OMC Plant 2

IDPH assumes that EPA will not permit the reuse of the OMC Plant 2 property without an adequate cleanup. An adequate cleanup would end the potential for excessive exposure to contaminants and render all exposure pathways incomplete. This document discusses current exposure conditions at OMC Plant 2. The property is surrounded by a chain-link fence, in good condition, which is topped with barbed wire. Because residences are about 1 mile from the site by road, trespassing probably is infrequent.

Air

Chemicals found in the air of OMC Plant 2 probably were from past chemical spills in the plant. Because sampling occurred at less than normal room temperature, without the ventilation system operating, and with the building closed, airborne contaminant concentrations that would result from normal building operations are unclear.

Asbestos was found in some insulation and floor tiles in the building; however, asbestos is a health hazard only if the material is "friable," and breaking up to produce airborne asbestos. The condition of asbestos-containing materials and airborne asbestos concentrations in the building are unknown. Because workers inhaled airborne contaminants in OMC Plant 2 in the past, this pathway was complete, however, IDPH cannot reconstruct these past exposures.

Contaminated Building Surfaces in OMC Plant 2

Skin contact with PCB-contaminated equipment, other surfaces, and hydraulic fluids containing PCBs probably occurred in the past when the factory was in operation. However, IDPH cannot reconstruct past exposures to PCBs and other chemicals in OMC Plant 2.

Because workers at OMC Plant 2 wore shoes or boots, skin contact with PCBs on floors probably was negligible. However, PCBs on floors and other surfaces are the likely source of the elevated airborne PCB concentrations found in the building.

Former workers at the OMC Plant 2 also may have tracked PCBs into their homes on shoes and clothing. Such tracking has been observed with other workers, including those who worked with asbestos, lead, and mercury (ATSDR 2001, ATSDR 1999, Zischky and Witherell 1987). IDPH found no studies that examined PCB-contamination in workers' homes. Also, the concentration of PCBs needed to cause odors is unknown. Past and present PCB concentrations in the homes of former OMC Plant 2 workers are unknown. Therefore, IDPH cannot evaluate those possible exposures.

Fish

OMC Plant 2 may be a continuing source of PCB contamination of Waukegan Harbor and Lake Michigan. This may contribute to fish contamination in Waukegan Harbor and Lake Michigan. A separate health consultation on OMC/Waukegan Harbor discusses PCBs in fish from Waukegan Harbor and Lake Michigan (ATSDR 2004a).

Surface Soil

Surface soil in the area is sandy and highly permeable. People may be exposed to PCBs in surface soil at OMC Plant 2 by inhalation (dust), incidental ingestion, or skin contact. Exposure is more likely in areas of bare soil. Vegetation or pavement minimizes exposure to contaminated soil. OMC Plant 2 is currently unused. Because trespassing is likely infrequent, present exposure to contaminants in surface soil probably is negligible.

PCB-Containment Cells

The PCB-containment cells are capped and lined with clay. Consequently, they should not contribute appreciably to airborne PCBs in the vicinity. Even before the initial PCB cleanup of the harbor, airborne PCB concentrations were below levels that would be expected to cause adverse health effects (IDPH 1994). Groundwater monitoring has shown that the containment cells have successfully contained their PCB contaminants. Therefore, human exposure to PCBs from the containment cells is not occurring.

PCBs are very persistent in the environment. Continued operation and maintenance of the PCB-containment cells will be needed to ensure their long-term effectiveness.

The implementation of institutional controls would prevent possible future construction on the PCB containment cells.

Sediment of the North Ditch

Sediment in the North Ditch contains PCBs. Visits to the North Ditch are probably infrequent, resulting in negligible exposure. The North Ditch is a potential source of PCBs for Lake Michigan and fish in the lake. A separate health consultation on OMC/Waukegan Harbor has discussed PCB contamination in fish of Waukegan Harbor and Lake Michigan (ATSDR 2004a).


CHILD HEALTH CONSIDERATIONS

IDPH recognizes that children are especially sensitive to some contaminants. Given the same contaminant concentrations, children are more likely to receive larger doses than adults. This is because children play in soil, wash hands less frequently than adults, and commonly exhibit hand-to-mouth behavior. Children also have a smaller body size, meaning that they receive a greater dose from the same amount of absorbed contaminant.

Currently, OMC Plant 2 is unused, and trespassing by young children is unlikely. Trespassing by a teenager would be more likely, but any such trespassing probably is infrequent, resulting in negligible exposure. Possible exposure of trespassers should remain negligible, even if proposed residences near OMC Plant 2 are built. However, OMC Plant 2 may have physical hazards, which may cause injury to a trespasser.

IDPH assumes that EPA will not permit the reuse of OMC Plant 2 without an adequate cleanup that would eliminate the possibility of children being exposed to site-related contaminants.


CONCLUSIONS

Currently, OMC Plant 2 poses no apparent public health hazard. Because OMC Plant 2 is currently unused, is over 1 mile by road from the nearest residential area, and trespassing probably is infrequent, present exposure probably is negligible. Even if proposed residences are built near OMC Plant 2 before an adequate cleanup, exposure of trespassers should remain infrequent, resulting in negligible exposure.

The PCB containment cells currently pose no apparent public health hazard, because exposure is not occurring. Given the longevity of PCBs, continued operation and maintenance is needed to ensure that they continue to contain the PCBs. The implementation of institutional controls would prevent possible future construction on the PCB containment cells. Any such construction may compromise the integrity of the cells, which may result in the dispersal of contaminants and subsequent human exposure through surface soil or contaminated fish.


RECOMMENDATIONS

  • EPA will continue to investigate contamination of OMC Plant 2 and pursue cleanup of the property.

  • EPA or Illinois EPA will continue operating and maintaining the PCB-containment cells.

  • EPA will continue to pursue implementing institutional controls to prevent possible future construction on the PCB-containment cells.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Thomas A. Baughman, Ph.D.
Environmental Toxicologist
Illinois Department of Public Health


REFERENCES

Adler K. 2003. E-mail to T. Baughman, Illinois Department of Public Health. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 13.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1999. Toxicological profile for lead. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed October 2003. Available at URL: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp13.html.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2001. Toxicological profile for asbestos. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Accessed October 2003. Available at URL: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp61.html.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2004a. Outboard Marine Corporation/Waukegan Harbor, Lake County, Illinois, Health Consultation. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. April 20, 2004.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2004b. Outboard Marine Corporation/Waukegan Harbor: Waukegan Manufactured Gas and Coke Plant, Waukegan, Lake County, Illinois, Health Consultation. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. May 18, 2004.

Blazer MS. 2003a. Phone log sheet of August 7. The Jeff Diver Group, L.L.C.

Blazer MS. 2003b. E-mail of August 7. The Jeff Diver Group, L.L.C.

City of Waukegan. 2003a. Waukegan City Council takes first step toward comprehensive lakefront cleanup; rejects proposal to dump at Yeoman Creek Landfill Superfund Site. October 8.

City of Waukegan. 2003b. Minutes of special meeting, August 25. Accessed October 2003.Available at URL: www.waukeganweb.net/minutes08-25-03.htm.

City of Waukegan. 2003c. WaukeganVision.com. Accessed October 2003. Available at URL: http://www.waukeganvision.com/DraftPrinciples/DefaultJune23.asp.

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. A summary of selected background conditions for inorganics in soil. IEPA/ENV/94-161.

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. Waukegan Harbor restoration moving ahead with dredging. Accessed October 2003. Available at URL: http://www.epa.state.il.us/environmental-progress/v27/n1/harbor.html.

Jeep J. 2003. E-mail of October 24. The Jeff Diver Group, L.L.C.

Masini RJ. 2003. Option to purchase real property. Diver, Grach, Quade, and Masini. Recorded by Lake County Recorder January 9.

Shacklette HT, Boerngen JG. 1984. Elemental concentrations in soils and other surficial materials of the conterminous United States. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1270.

Theisen K. 2003. Action Memorandum: Request for a [sic] emergency removal action at the Outboard Marine (OMC) Site, Waukegan, Lake County, IL, Site ID# 0528. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. January 23.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002a. Five-year Review Report: Second Five-year Review Report for Outboard Marine Corporation Superfund Site, Waukegan, Lake County, IL. September. Accessed April 2003. Available at URL: http://www.epa.gov/R5Super/fiveyear/reviews_pdf/illinois/outboard_marine.pdf.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002b. Joint federal/state settlement with bankrupt. Outboard Marine Corp. requires interim cleanup. July 25. Accessed October 2003. Available at URL: http://www.dakotacg.com/releases/pa/jul02/50726b.htm.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002c. Outboard Marine Corporation, Waukegan, Lake County, Illinois: discovery site visit report. Prepared by Tetra Tech EM, Inc. May 10.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2003a. Great Lakes: Waukegan Harbor area of concern. April 9. Accessed May 14, 2003. Available at URL: http://www.epa.gov/grtlakes/aoc/waukegan.html.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2003b. NPL fact sheets for Illinois: Outboard Marine Corp., EPA ID# ILD000802827. October. Accessed November 25, 2003. Available at URL: http://www.epa.gov/R5Super/npl/illinois/ILD000802827.htm.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2003c. NPL fact sheets for Illinois: Outboard Marine Corp., EPA ID# ILD000802827. January. Accessed May 14, 2003. Available at URL: http://www.epa.gov/R5Super/npl/illinois/ILD000802827.htm.

Waukegan Harbor Citizens Advisory Group. 2003. Minutes of the January 16, 2003, Citizens Advisory Group meeting. Submitted by Penny Bouchard, Secretary of the Waukegan Harbor Citizens' Advisory Group. Accessed October 2003. Available at URL: http://wkkhome.northstarnet.org/iepa/012003MinutesFINAL.PDF.

Zirschky J, Witherell L. 1987. Cleanup of mercury contamination of thermometer workers' homes. J Amer Ind Hyg Assoc:48:81-4.


CERTIFICATION

The Illinois Department of Public Health prepared this health consultation on OMC Plant 2 and the PCB Containment Cells at the Outboard Marine Corporation site under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It was done in accordance with methods and procedures approved at the time the health consultation was begun.

W. Allen Robison
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch (SAAB)
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)
ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this health consultation and concurs with its findings.

Sven E. Rodenbeck
for Roberta Erlwein
Team Leader, State Programs
SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


TABLES

Table 1.

Concentrations of PCBs in air samples from OMC Plant 2 (EPA 2002c).
Sampling Location PCB Concentration
(µg/m3)
Comparison Value
(µg/m3)
Type of Comparison Value
Chemical Storage Building 0.54 0.01 CREG
Old Die Cast Area Office 1.7 0.01
1
CREG
REL
Northern Boiler Room 0.21 0.01 CREG
Chip Wringer Room 0.40 0.01 CREG
Metal Working Area, eastern third 0.90 0.01
1
CREG
REL
Metal Working Area, western third 1.2 0.01
1
CREG
REL
Grit Blasting Area, near soluble oil tank 0.61 0.01
1
CREG
REL
New Die Cast Area, near aluminum smelter N.D. 0.01
1
CREG
REL
New Die Cast Area, near the aboveground storage tank N.D. 0.01
1
CREG
REL

µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter.
CREG = cancer risk evaluation guide for 1/1,000,000 risk, continuous lifetime exposure.
REL = recommended exposure limit, U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.


Table 2.

Concentrations of VOCs in air samples from OMC Plant 2 (EPA 2002c).
Sampling Location Chemical Concentration (µg/m3) Comparison Value Type of Comparison Value
Chemical Storage Building carbon tetrachloride 1.54 0.07 CREG
methylene chloride 3.28 3 CREG
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 3.44 -- --
Chip Wringer Room carbon tetrachloride 1.54 0.07 CREG
cis-1,2-dichloroethene 7.18 -- --
trichloroethene 5.24 * --
Paint Spray Booth cis-1,2-dichloroethene 1.28 -- --
methylene chloride 74.13 3 CREG
trichloroethene 3.26 * --
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 4.69 -- --
Metal Working Area, center of area with machinery cis-1,2-dichloroethene 1.52 -- --
trichloroethene 4.98 -- --
1,2,4-trimethylbenzene 1.45 -- --
Grit Blasting Area, near soluble oil tank cis-1,2-dichloroethene 2.15 -- --
trichloroethene 18.25 * --

µg/m3 = micrograms per cubic meter.
* = possible or probable carcinogen with no cancer slope factor with which to derive a CREG.
CREG = cancer risk evaluation guide for 1/1,000,000 risk, continuous lifetime exposure.


Table 3.

PCBs in wipe samples from the floor of OMC Plant 2 (EPA 2002c).
Location Number of Samples PCB Concentration (µg/100 cm2)
Chemical Storage Building 6 1.82-1,130
Old Die Cast Area 12 1.81-9,140
Parts Storage Area 6 22.1-1,190
Metal Working Area 11 9.43-29.0
Grit Blasting Area 1 0.753
New Die Cast Area 12 N.D.-10.6

µg/100 cm2 = micrograms per 100 square centimeters


Table 4.

Asbestos in building components of OMC Plant 2 (EPA 2002c).
Location Material Asbestos Type and Content (%)
New Die Cast Area Molten metal unit pipe wrapping Chrysotile 30%
Southern Boiler Room Blue pipe wrapping Chrysotile 5%
Office Area (medical department, southern side) 9 inch by 9 inch gray floor tile Chrysotile 3%
Northern Boiler Room Gray boiler tank wrapping with insulation Chrysotile 15%, Amosite 20%
Northern Boiler Room Black pipe insulation wrapping Chrysotile 5%


Table 5.

PCBs in North Ditch sediment.*
Location PCB Concentration (ppm)
SD-01 1.89
SD-02 8.53
SD-03 1.36

*Figure 5 shows sediment and soil sampling locations
ppm = parts per million


Table 6.

PCBs in surface soil near OMC Plant 2.
Location PCB Level (ppm) Comparison Value (ppm)
SS-01, Outside chip wringer room, near hopper 18.4 0.4 (CREG*)
SS-02 and SS-02D, Former PCB aboveground storage tank area 2.99-26.6 0.4 (CREG*)

*CREG = cancer risk evaluation guide for 1/1,000,000 risk, continuous lifetime exposure
ppm = parts per million


FIGURES

Site Location
Figure 1. Site Location

Site Features
Figure 2. Site Features

Plant Features
Figure 3. Plant Features

Soil, Sediment and Groundwater Sampling Locations
Figure 4. Soil, Sediment and Groundwater Sampling Locations


Table of Contents

  
 
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