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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

SAVANNA ARMY DEPOT ACTIVITY
SAVANNA, ILLINOIS


TABLES


Table 1.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazards Associated With Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Sites With Sampling Data 1Please refer to the note at the end of this table for a description of the seven EBS categories.
Site Site Description/ Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Public Health Evaluation
High Explosive Melt/Pour Facility and Leach Field
(2) Explosive Melt/ Pour Facility (Building 1007) Melt/pour operations reportedly occurred between 1932 and 1936. Inspection of Building 1007 during the 1994 remedial investigation (RI) found no evidence that the facility was used for melt/pour processes, suggesting that hardware used for these processes might have been removed after operations were terminated in 1936. Soil: Surface soils were sampled extensively during the 1994 RI. The only contaminant found to be elevated above background in the vicinity of sites 2, 23, 59, and 72 during the 1994 RI was NIT (nitrate/nitrite), which was determined to have come from cattle.
Groundwater: During the 1994 RI, three monitoring wells and the supply well at Building 1005 (Site 59) were sampled. No contaminants were found to be elevated.
The 1994 RI suggested that no further action was necessary for this group of sites. The group was classified as Category 7 by the Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS)1 because further sampling was deemed necessary to confirm the absence of contamination. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(23) Explosive Melt/ Pour Facility Sump This sump could not be located. It might have been removed after melt/pour processes were terminated in 1936. See Site 2. See Site 2. See Site 2.
(59) Shallow Well (Building 1005) This well in Building 1005 is screened in the intermediate overburden. It currently provides water for cattle. See Site 2. See Site 2. See Site 2.
(72) Explosive Melt/ Pour Facility Leach Field 1007 The leach field was rebuilt in 1943. It is unclear whether or not the pre-1943 leach field (if it existed) received wastewater associated with melt/pour activities. See Site 2. See Site 2. See Site 2.
CF/CL Areas
(24) CF Melt/ Pour Facility Leaching Field This leaching field, composed of six pits and located adjacent to Building 716, received wastewater from the Site 25 sumps. (See Site 25.) Soil: 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) was detected in surface and subsurface soils in the CF Area above ATSDR's comparison value (CV), at a maximum of 3,700 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Detections occurred in or near the leach pits, with the highest concentrations occurring in samples collected from the bottom (10 ft below ground surface [bgs]) of Pit No. 5.
Groundwater: Two plumes were identified, one originating from the leach pit area and one from the leach field. 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene (TNB) was detected over its CV, at a maximum of 400 micrograms per liter (g/L). 2,6-Dinitrotoluene (DNT) was detected below its CV. The leach field plume extends roughly 1,000 feet downgradient from the site, and is estimated to extend to a depth of roughly 75 feet bgs. The leach pit plume has a similar horizontal extent, but is shallower.
(1992 sampling)
The Removal Site Evaluation/ Engineering Evaluation and Cost Analysis (EECA) for the CF and CL areas is being reviewed by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA). Remediation is on hold pending funding. No apparent public health hazards are associated with past or present exposures to soil or groundwater contamination at this site. No shallow groundwater wells are near this site; therefore no exposures have occurred. It is unlikely that people have come into contact with soil contaminants in the leach pits; the sporadic exposure that may have occurred is unlikely to have posed a health hazard. There is currently minimal to no exposure potential for base personnel having access to the CF Area. ATSDR assumes that the site will be remediated before any changes in use.
(25) CF Melt/ Pour Facility Sump Site 25 consists of three concrete-lined sumps that received wastewater from the CF TNT Melt and Pour Facility. This facility was used primarily between 1941 and 1945, during which wastewater containing TNT and other explosives was discharged to the sumps. See Site 24. See Site 24. See Site 24.
(3) CL Melt/ Pour Facility Site 3 is the CL Melt and Pour Building (Building 634). It was used between 1941 and 1945. Various anions, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and metals were detected at low levels in soil and groundwater during the 1982 and 1989 investigations. Most of the VOCs detected were common laboratory contaminants. No site-related contamination was detected in soil or groundwater at the CL Area during the 1992 investigation. Because explosives were the contaminants associated with site activities and were not detected in any of the investigations, it was concluded that the CL Area did not have site-related contamination, and that no additional sampling was needed. See Site 24. No public health hazard exists. Past contamination found in soil and groundwater may have been the result of laboratory contamination. No site-related contaminants have been found in recent investigations at this site.
(26) CL Melt/ Pour Facility Sump This sump and the Site 27 sump received wastewater from Building 634, containing TNT, ammonium nitrate, and potentially other explosives. See Site 3. Sumps were cleaned and are now empty.
See also Site 24.
See Site 3.
(27) CL Melt/ Pour Facility Sump See Site 26. See Site 3. See Sites 24 and 26. See Site 3.
(28) CL Melt/ Pour Facility Leaching Field This leaching field received overflow wastewater from the Sites 26 and 27 sumps. See Site 3. See Site 24. See Site 3.
Mustard Burn Area (75mm Munitions) (Sites 7 and 8) and Beaty Hollow Creek Dump (Site 74)
(7) Mustard Burn Area (75 mm Munitions) Site 7 encompasses approximately 6 acres in the northern section of the depot. From 1947 to 1950, the site was used to burn explosive bursters extracted from 75-mm mustard-filled projectiles. Leaking 75-mm mustard shells from defusing operations were burned here in the late 1940s. There is also evidence of metallic debris disposal (including possible unexploded ordnance [UXO]) at the site. Soil: The following compounds were detected over their CVs: 2,4-DNT (maximum 49.3 mg/kg in surface soil), arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, nickel, and zinc (maxima all found in samples from a debris mound), benzo(a)pyrene (maximum 7 mg/kg), and hexachlorobenzene (maximum 0.8 mg/kg).
The following compounds were detected below their CVs: various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), nitrite, and various metals.
The following compounds which do not have CVs were detected: phosphorus and sulfate.
Groundwater: Manganese was detected above its CV, at a maximum of 639 g/L. Sulfate and selenium were detected below their CVs. However, the 1994 RI suggested that background levels and natural sources of these substances be further characterized before classifying them as site-related.
The 1994 RI suggested a response action for soil at Site 7, and further evaluation of background levels for groundwater to determine if metals are naturally occurring. Response actions have not been implemented. The group of sites was classified by the EBS as Category 6, because disposal, release, and migration of hazardous materials has occurred, but response actions have not been implemented. No apparent public health hazards are associated with past or present exposures to soil or groundwater contamination at this site. No shallow groundwater wells are near this site; therefore no exposures have occurred. It is unlikely that incidental contact with soil contamination in the past posed a health hazard. Sporadic contact with soil contamination by hunters and installation personnel is not likely to pose a health hazard. ATSDR assumes the site will be remediated before any changes in use. Possible UXO represents a potential physical hazard.
(8) Mustard Burn Area (75 mm Munitions) Site 8 is southeast of Site 7. Leaking 75-mm mustard shells from the TNT Washout Facility were burned at Site 8 from 1947 to 1950. The site contains two trenches of unknown origin. Soil: Fluoride was detected below its CV.
Groundwater: See Site 7.
See Site 7. No public health hazard is associated with exposure to soil at this site. The one contaminant detected was at a level that does not pose a public health hazard.
(74) Beaty Hollow Creek Dump Beaty Hollow Creek Dump is an area along West Road, northwest of BDP Road and to the south of the Old Lagoons. Surface inspection found evidence of debris disposal. Waste Product: Drums at Site 74 were found to contain a number of contaminants, including anions, SVOCs, and metals. See Site 7. It is unlikely that any sporadic exposure to contamination would pose a health hazard.
White Phosphorus Burn Area (Site 10) and K Road Trench Site (Site 101)
(10) White Phosphorus Burn Area Site 10 was used from 1952 through 1954 to burn white phosphorus-filled munitions. The site is characterized by six depressions that were probably used for burning. Disposal of unknown wastes might have occurred near the depressions according to aerial photos from 1954. Soil: Benzo(a)anthracene was detected below its CV; phenanthrene (no CV) was detected at low levels.
Groundwater: Nitrite was detected above its CV at a maximum of 5300 g/L.
(1994 RI)
The 1994 RI suggested no further action for Site 10. Sites 10 and 101 were classified as Category 7 by the EBS because further sampling was deemed necessary. No apparent public health hazards are associated with past or present exposures to soil or groundwater contamination at this site. Contamination in soils is at levels that do not pose a health hazard. No shallow groundwater supply wells are near this site; therefore, no exposures have occurred. Because shallow groundwater flow at the site is to the southwest, it is unlikely that groundwater contamination will migrate offsite. ATSDR assumes that no shallow supply wells will be installed in the area unless the groundwater is remediated.
(101) K Road Trench Site This site is an area of disturbed land noted in historic aerial photographs. It is located approximately 3,500 feet northwest of the six depressions at Site 10. It was included in the Site 10 RI investigation because it may have been used for waste disposal. A magnetometer survey of the area did not identify any buried debris.
Soil: See Site 10.
See Site 10. See Site 10.
Open Burning Ground: Old Burn Area in Bottomlands (Site 13), Burn Site for 155mm Mustard-Filled Projectiles (Site 14), and Small Arms Ammunition Tracer Testing Range
(13) Old Burn Area in Bottom-lands The Open Burning Ground area is located in the central western portion of the installation, in river bottomlands approximately 2,100 feet northeast of the Mississippi River channel. Site 13 is a burn area for explosives, consisting of three gravel burn pads, which was used between approximately 1930 and 1985. Soil: The following compounds were detected above CVs, at the stated maxima in mg/kg: 2,4,6-TNT (720, surface soil), arsenic (16.5, surface soil), cadmium (173, subsurface soil), and lead (25,000, surface soil). The following compounds were detected below CVs: various metals, PAHs, SVOCs, and VOCs; 2,4-DNT, and 1,3,5-TNT. The following compounds without CVs were detected at low levels: various PAHs, SVOCs, and metals.
Groundwater: The following compounds were detected above CVs, at the stated maxima (g/L): 1,3,5-TNB 6,200, 2,4,6-TNT 4,800, Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) 150, barium 41,000, beryllium 1.82, cadmium 369, copper 7,200, lead 13,000, manganese 12,000, and zinc 16,000. The following compounds were detected below CVs: nitrite, bromacil, 2,6-DNT, cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), toluene, and various metals. 3,5-dinitroaniline, which does not have a CV, was detected at a maximum of 100 g/L. The lowest depth at which explosives were found was 22 ft bgs. No explosives were found in the Open Burning Ground water supply well.
Surface Water: Trichloroethene (TCE) was detected below its CV. Cadmium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, selenium, and zinc were found to be elevated above background; of these, cadmium (max 14.7 g/L), lead (max 28.3 g/L), and manganese (max 1590.0 g/L) exceeded CVs. No explosives were detected in the 1992-1993 sampling, although previous investigations had found low levels of HMX and RDX.
Sediment: Two PAHs and TCE were detected below CVs. Beryllium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, vanadium, and zinc were found to be elevated above background; of these, only lead exceeded its comparison value (max 555 g/L). No explosives were detected, although previous investigations had found low levels of 2,4,6-TNT and 2,6-DNT.
(1992-1993 sampling)
In 1995-1996, a demonstration project was conducted to test a method to remove debris (potentially containing UXO) from soil. The method, using screening and sifting, appeared to remove 99 percent of the debris. When funding for further remediation is available, remedial efforts will include sifting and removal of UXO and other weapons-related debris, characterization and remediation of soil, and characterization and remediation of groundwater and surface water as necessary. Soil, surface water, and sediment contamination is unlikely to pose a past or present health hazard, due to the sporadic nature of exposures. There is no exposure to shallow groundwater. The groundwater supply well was sampled and found not to be contaminated. ATSDR assumes the site will be remediated as necessary before any changes in use. However, it is possible that migration of contamination could occur before remediation is complete. Ongoing surface water sampling is recommended. In addition, possible UXO may pose a physical hazard.
(14) Mustard Burn Area at the Open Burning Ground - 155 mm Munitions Site 14 is an area in the Open Burning Ground area that was used to burn 12 155mm mustard-filled projectiles between 1942 and 1945. See Site 13. See Site 13. See Site 13.
Small Arms Ammunition Tracer Testing Range This range, used for tracing the trajectory of bullets, was located in the western portion of the demolition area north of the recent remediation effort at Sites 13 and 14. See Site 13. See Site 13. See Site 13.
Sites 15 and 33
(15) Small Arms Ammunition Burn Area Site 15 was used to burn small arms ammunition and salvage lumber; dates of use are unknown. Lead recovery was also done during the burning. Soil: Elevated levels of metals, as well as ordnance-related debris, were found in shallow soils in several areas used for burning and disposal. Lead (maximum 917 mg/kg) and thallium (maximum 50.3 mg/kg) were detected above their CVs. Barium, cadmium, chromium, silver, and zinc were detected below CVs.
Groundwater: Silver was detected below its CV.
(1992-1993 sampling)
The EECA for Sites 15 and 33 is being reviewed by the IEPA. Remediation is on hold pending funding. Sporadic exposures to soil contamination are unlikely to pose a past or present health hazard. No shallow groundwater wells are near this site; therefore no exposures have occurred. ATSDR assumes the site will be remediated as necessary before any changes in use.
(33) Artillery Ballistic Test Site (Mounds) Site 33 was used for ballistics tests. The ammunition was fired into earth mounds. Soil: Various PAHs, metals, and explosives were detected below their CVs in shallow soil. The following compounds were detected above CVs, at the stated maxima (in mg/kg): Benzo(a)pyrene 13, antimony 2,170, lead 110,000, and thallium 157.
(1992-1993 sampling)
See Site 15. Sporadic exposures to soil contamination are unlikely to pose a past or present health hazard. ATSDR assumes that this site will be remediated as appropriate to planned future use.
Former Upper and Lower Lagoons from TNT Washout Facility
(21) Old Leaching Ponds Wastewater from Site 1 flowed from settling tanks into four or five leaching lagoons (total surface area approximately 20,000 ft2) in succession, via gravity. The wastewater then flowed through an open ditch to Nates Lake. Soil: 2,4,6-TNT was detected over its CV at a maximum of 288,000 mg/kg in surface soil. 1,3,5-TNB, 2-A-4,6-DNT, nitrobenzene (NB), and RDX were detected at the following maxima (in mg/kg) in surface soil: RDX--64 (over CV), 1,3,5-TNB--124 (over CV), NB 30 (under CV), 2-A-4,6-DNT--470 (no CV). (1991 RI)
Groundwater: A contaminant plume was found downgradient of Sites 21 and 22, moving toward the Mississippi River. The following contaminant maxima (in g/L) were detected in this plume: 1,3,5-TNB--870 (over CV), 2,4,6-TNT--830 (over CV), 2,6-DNT--79 (under CV), 2,4-DNT--79 (over CV), and RDX--5 (over CV). The deepest occurrence of explosives is 78 feet bgs. In addition, six metals (manganese, thallium, barium, calcium, potassium, and zinc) and two anions (nitrite and sulfate) were found to be elevated above background concentrations. However, the 1994 RI suggested that background levels and natural sources of these substances be further characterized before classifying them as site-related. The deep-bedrock supply well at the TNT Washout Facility was sampled during the 1982, 1989, and 1994 investigations; no explosives were detected.
Surface Water: Manganese was detected above background, at a maximum of 770 g/L (above CV).
Sediment: Eleven metals (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel, and vanadium) and one anion (phosphorus) were detected above background. However, as with groundwater, the RI suggested that background levels and natural sources of these substances be further characterized before classifying them as site-related.
(All groundwater, surface water, and sediment findings are from the 1994 RI unless otherwise cited.)
Soil: Contaminated soils from Sites 21 and 22 were excavated and treated by incineration onsite. Treated soils were replaced in the upper lagoon area, covered with topsoil, and seeded. Incineration was completed in October 1993, and topsoil seeding took place in the spring of 1994. The final closeout report was completed in September 1995.
Groundwater: The source of groundwater contamination (TNT-contaminated soils) has been removed. Pilot-scale groundwater treatment projects have been conducted in the Sites 21 and 22 area; groundwater will be remediated with a pump-and-treat method when funding is available.
No apparent past health hazard, and no present or future health hazard, is associated with exposure to soil contamination at this site. It is unlikely that people have come into contact with soil contaminants in the leaching lagoons. Soil has been remediated.
Groundwater poses no apparent health hazard assuming adequate monitoring of the plume and nearby drinking water wells and restrictions on the installation of new wells until remediation is complete.
Surface water and sediment pose an indeterminate public health hazard. Groundwater contamination could migrate to surface water before remediation is complete.
(22) New Leaching Ponds These ponds were used from 1961 to the late 1960s. Wastewater was pumped to these two lagoons (total surface area approximately 16,000 ft2) via an underground pipe. Soil: 2,4,6-TNT was detected over its CV at a maximum of 66,900 mg/kg in surface soil. 1,3,5-TNB and RDX were detected at the following maxima in surface soil: 1,3,5-TNB--96 mg/kg (over CV), RDX--35 mg/kg (over CV). (1991 RI)

Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediment: See Site 21.

See Site 21. See Site 21.
Function Test Area and Shallow Well
(29) Function Test Area Site 29 is located east of West Road. It was used for the performance of quality assurance tests to check for performance degradation of stored munitions. The site was reportedly used for at least 30 years; it ceased operations in 1993. During the 1994 RI, three soil samples were collected and one groundwater monitoring well was sampled. No site-related contaminants were detected. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for Sites 29 and 57. Sites 29 and 57 were classified as Category 7 by the EBS pending regulatory concurrence with the conclusions of the RI. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(57) Shallow Well (Building 2213) Site 57 is a 6 meter deep well located in Building 2213. The site is west of West Road. The well is used for drinking water at the Sportsman's Club. See Site 29. See Site 29. No past or current public health hazard is associated with drinking the water from this well. Groundwater contamination has not migrated to the well. It is possible, although unlikely, that contamination from nearby contaminated sites could migrate to the well in the future.
No grouping
(5) Liquid Propellant Burn Area Aerial photos suggest site activity as early as 1955. The site was a burn area for red fuming nitric acid and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) and reportedly operated between 1960 and 1965. An aboveground open metal tank that may have been used to contain liquid propellant during burning is located in the area. Soil: Fluorene and phenanthrene were detected at low levels.
Groundwater: No contaminants were detected at elevated levels.
Sediment: Sediment was sampled from a small, currently dry basin that received runoff from an outfall pipe coming from the aboveground storage tank. Sodium was found to be elevated above background, at a maximum of 710 mg/kg (no CV).
(1994 RI sampling)
The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. The site was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending regulatory concurrence with the conclusions of the RI. No public health hazard exists at this site. Contaminants detected were at levels that do not pose a public health hazard.
(6) UDMH Burn Area (Disposal Pit) Site 6 was a burn area for UDMH. Aerial photos indicate that activity at this site may have begun in 1954. Disposal of UDMH reportedly occurred from 1960 to 1965. Acid disposal may also have occurred. Soil: In the 1994 RI, no contaminants were found to be elevated.
Groundwater: In 1989 sampling, explosives were detected in a groundwater sample, but were determined to have come from Site 22. In the 1994 RI, no contaminants were found to be elevated.
The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. The site was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending regulatory concurrence with the conclusions of the RI. No apparent public health hazard exists at this site. No site-related soil contamination was found in the recent RI. Groundwater at this site may be affected by the plume from Site 22; see discussion under Site 22.
(9) Burn Site for 105-mm and 155-mm Mustard-Filled Projectiles Site 9 encompasses approximately 10 acres in the northern part of the depot. From 1947 through 1950 the site was used to burn 105-mm and 155-mm mustard filled rounds and contaminated packing materials. There has been speculation that mustard shells were buried at the site. Soil: Chrysene was detected below its CV.
Groundwater: Toluene was detected below its CV.
UXO: Metal detection surveys indicated the presence of buried metal. Excavation and characterization of the buried metal has not been performed.
(1994 RI)
The 1994 RI suggested that excavation be performed to characterize the buried metal before any use of the site that involves disturbing the subsurface soil. Response actions have not been implemented. Site 9 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS. No public health hazards are associated with past or present exposures to soil or groundwater contamination at this site. Contaminants detected were at levels that do not pose a public health hazard. Possible UXO poses a potential physical hazard.
(11) TNT and Ammonium Nitrate Burn Area TNT and ammonium nitrate wastes were reportedly burned at this site in 1942. The exact location of the site is uncertain; location was estimated from aerial photos. During the 1994 RI, groundwater, sediment, and surface water samples were collected at Site 11. No site-related contaminants were identified. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. The site was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending regulatory concurrence with the conclusions of the RI. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(12) Explosives- Contaminated Scrap Burn Area During 1940 and 1941, Site 12 was used for burning explosives-contaminated scrap and inert material. Aerial photos were used to determine the location of the site. Two U-shaped bermed bunkers occupy the site. During the 1994 RI, soil, groundwater, sediment, and surface water samples were collected at Site 12. No site-related contaminants were identified. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. The site was classified as Category 3 by the EBS, because sampling at the site did not identify hazardous substances at concentrations that require a remedial action. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(16) Small Arms Ammunition Deactivation Furnace This deactivation furnace thermally treated small arms ammunition and reactive wastes. In 1988, the furnace was disabled by an explosion. All but one of the buildings have been removed from the site. Soil: Elevated levels of lead and cadmium were found in surface soils.
(Sampling performed by Westinghouse in 1990-2 and 1994)
This site underwent a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure. The deactivation incinerator, its concrete pad, and two underground storage tanks (USTs) were removed. Contaminated soil was excavated and disposed of at the special waste landfill. The excavation was backfilled, covered with topsoil, and seeded. Work was completed in January 1996, and IEPA approved the closure in May 1996. However, the EBS classified the site as Category 7 because possible groundwater contamination has not been evaluated. It is unlikely that any past sporadic exposure to contaminated soils posed a health hazard. Soil has been remediated. Groundwater represents an indeterminate public health hazard, as it has not been sampled.
(17) Hand Grenade Burial Site Site 17 was determined to be a burial area for live hand grenades from WWII by the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) Installation Assessment (1979). However, interviews with Savanna Army Depot Activity (SVADA) personnel suggest that grenades (plus mortars from both WWI and WWII) were stored above ground and were detonated during the 1960s. The site is believed to have covered approximately 43 acres. During the 1994 RI, one monitoring well was installed downgradient from the site. Site-related contaminants were not detected in groundwater. Potential UXO at the site was not characterized. The 1994 RI suggested that if the site is scheduled for future use or land transfer, a full characterization of potential UXO by direct geophysical surveying should be done. Site 17 was classified by the EBS as Category 7. Site 17 is an indeterminate public health hazard due to lack of data concerning chemical contamination as well as possible UXO.
(18) Sodium Exhaust Valve Burial Site Thousands of sodium-filled engine exhaust valves were reportedly buried at Site 18 from 1946 through 1948. Waste material was also buried at the site between 1970 and 1975. UXO personnel excavated two test pits in 1993 and found only nonhazardous debris such as wood and ammunition boxes. No evidence of sodium valve burial was found. Groundwater at Site 18 was sampled in the 1994 RI. No site-related contaminants were identified. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. Site 18 was classified by the EBS as Category 3, because sampling did not identify hazardous substances at concentrations requiring a remedial action. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(19) Closed Sanitary Landfill Located in the north-central part of SVADA's southern depot area, Site 19 was a trench-and-fill type landfill, consisting of two cells, that began receiving waste in 1989. Waste received included uncontaminated packaging material and wood, household waste, and general office waste. The first cell was closed in 1991, and the second cell was closed in 1993. While the landfill was operational, SVADA submitted the results of quarterly groundwater monitoring to IEPA. However, parameters monitored were conventional rather than toxic. Site 19 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS pending regulatory evaluation. No public health hazard is associated with this site, because no hazardous materials were disposed of in the landfill.
(20) Abandoned Landfill Site 20 encompasses 3 acres on the southeastern edge of SVADA, near the Apple River and adjacent to Site 35. The site was an open landfill from 1920 to the early 1970s, but there are no records of the types of wastes disposed. Soil: During the 1982 investigation, a soil sample was collected at the base of a leaking drum found at the landfill. The sample contained significant concentrations of PAHs, as well as other SVOCs. The drum and contaminated soil were subsequently removed.
Groundwater: During the 1982 investigation, TCE was detected above its CV, at a maximum of 20 g/L. In 1989, TCE was detected below its CV. Other VOCs, anions, and metals were detected at low levels in both investigations.
Surface Water: Surface water downgradient of the landfill was determined not to contain site-related contamination.
Sediment: Low levels of 2,4,6-TNT and several pesticides were found in sediment; however, the source of these contaminants was not attributable to the site.
Site 20 was classified as Category 6 by the EBS because release and migration of contaminants has occurred, but response actions have not been implemented. Site 20 is an indeterminate public health hazard. It is unlikely that any past sporadic exposure to contamination posed a health hazard. However, further environmental sampling is needed to characterize groundwater contamination and migration potential.
(21BDP) Bomb Disassembly Plant Site 21BDP is southwest of the TNT Washout Facility. According to aerial photos, the BDP did not exist in 1946 but was present by 1952. Apparently activity at the site involved mechanical disassembly of bombs that lasted until the 1970s. Soil: NIT was detected below the CV for nitrite.
Groundwater: Chloride and fluoride were detected once above their CVs, at 9,100 g/L and 846 g/L respectively. Nitrite was detected below its CV. No explosives were detected in the 1994 RI or the 1982 investigation. During the 1989 investigation, RDX was detected over its CV (at 11.1 g/L) and HMX was detected below its CV in one well.
Surface Water: Surface water and sediment samples were taken from two small ponds and a Mississippi backwater slough near the site. No site-related surface water contaminants were identified.
Sediment: Beryllium (maximum 1.52 mg/kg) was detected over its CV. The following metals were detected below their CVs: copper, lead, and thallium.
(1994 RI, except where noted)
Note: All contaminants found at this site during the 1994 RI were considered to possibly be naturally occurring, and more extensive characterization of background concentrations was recommended.
The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. Site 21BDP was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, because additional evaluation is necessary to confirm that contaminant releases from all sources have been identified. No apparent public health hazard is associated with this site. There are no shallow groundwater wells near the site. Intermittent contact with low levels of contamination in sediment is unlikely to pose a public health hazard. Further, all substances with confirmed detections may be naturally occurring.
(30) Howitzer Impact Area Site 30 occupies most of the area of SVADA. UXO may exist at the site due to Howitzer testing in 1918. An Ordnance and Explosives Archives Search Report prepared by the Defense Environmental Restoration Program in 1997 divided Site 30 into Zones K (over 7,000 acres) and W (1,500 acres). The report concluded that each of these zones is likely to have no more than 10 live, fused 155mm or 75mm rounds within it. Ordnance in Zone K likely lies close to the surface (less than 2 feet), except in the slough area. Ordnance in Zone W may be found at greater depths (possibly up to 7.5 feet). The Archives Search Report concluded: "The final determination of whether this area should actually be remediated must be based on end use." An EECA is being prepared for a UXO sweep of the installation. SVADA currently has policies requiring ordnance detection surveys at proposed construction sites within the impact area. Possible UXO represents a potential physical hazard.
(31) Gun Site (WWI) Site 31 is also known as Post 5. Artillery guns were fired at the site for ordnance proof testing from 1918 to 1919. The structure is currently used to store untreated lumber. USATHAMA (1979) reported that no contamination is associated with this site. A visual survey was conducted during the EBS. Site 31 was classified as Category 1 by the EBS because it is a site where artillery guns were mounted and fired, but where no storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(32) Old Pistol Range Site 32 is a pistol range that was used for qualification firing. It was present by 1955 (according to aerial photo evidence) but the dates of usage are unknown. The 1994 RI found no site-related contamination in soil or groundwater. However, this finding contradicted visual observation by RI personnel of copper-jacketed and unjacketed lead bullets at the site. The 1994 RI suggested that additional sampling be conducted to assess the mass of bulk lead per bulk soil mass, and the lead concentration in the fine fraction of the soil. Site 32 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS because additional sampling for lead is required. Site 32 is an indeterminate public health hazard. Further sampling to assess soil lead contamination is necessary.
(35) Main Sewage Disposal Plant Site 35 is an active sewage disposal plant with a capacity of 1,135,500 liters per day. Effluent from the plant goes into the Apple River. Plant treatment activities include: primary and final sedimentation, trickling filtration, digestion, and chlorination. Monthly monitoring reports (conventional parameters) are submitted to IEPA. Site 35 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS. No public health hazard is associated with this site. No site-related contamination has been identified. The plant is operated in accordance with state regulations.
(36) Industrial Sewage Plant (Building 937) Site 36 is a former sewage treatment plant located west of the West Road. Industrial waste from the 600 and 700 series buildings, the Brass Reclamation Plant, and the chemical storage buildings was received by the plant. It contains a settling tank and two leaching ponds. The plant was built between 1955 and 1958 (according to aerial photos). Groundwater: Potassium, which does not have a CV, was detected at a maximum of 3,300 g/L.
Surface Water: No site-related contaminants were detected.
Sediment: Copper, lead, mercury, and silver were detected at low levels. Thallium was detected at a somewhat elevated level, but below its CV.
(1994 RI)
The 1994 RI suggested further monitoring of Site 36. The site was classified as Category 7 by the EBS. Site 36 is an indeterminate public health hazard. Although no hazards have been identified by sampling to date, sampling of the wastewater holding tank is necessary.
(40) Antitank Mine Storage Igloo Explosion Site (F Area) Site 40 possessed a storage igloo for M600 antitank mines until 1948 when 15.88 metric tons of mines detonated. Residual contamination should not be present due to the large size of the detonation. Two shallow soil samples from the crater left by the 1948 explosion were collected in the 1994 RI. No explosives were detected and the nitrate detected was considered to be naturally occurring. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. Site 40 was classified as Category 3 by the EBS because release of explosives has occurred at the site, but sampling did not identify hazardous substances at concentrations that require a removal or remedial action. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(41) M600 Fuse Storage Igloo Explosion Site In 1949, the storage igloo at Site 41 was destroyed when 20,000 M600 fuses detonated. M600 fuses are chemical fuses that contain a glass ampoule of sulfuric acid that ignites a primer when broken. The primer then ignites a booster pellet of RDX. During the 1994 RI, two shallow soil samples were taken from the edge of the remaining concrete floor of the igloo. No explosives were detected and the nitrite detected was determined to be naturally occurring. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. Site 41 was classified as Category 3 by the EBS. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(42) Storage Tanks (3)
(G Area) (Asbestos Tanks)
Of the three storage tanks at Site 42, two large tanks are filled with bulk asbestos, and the third smaller tank formerly contained monazite sand (a radioactive product). The monazite sand was removed in 1974 and the tank was decontaminated. The area was certified safe following radiation monitoring conducted in 1975. The site was classified as Category 1 by the EBS because the site has been used to store asbestos and monazite sand, but the EBS investigation did not reveal evidence of storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(44) Nitric Acid Storage Area
(H Area)
Site 44 stored nitric acid prior to 1974 and is currently inactive. The site contains a metal shed, a basin-type structure, and an area contaminated with battery casing fragments and tar or asphalt. Soil: Various anions were detected at low levels. Benzo(a)pyrene (max 2.4 mg/kg at 2 ft) and pentachlorophenol (max 9.6 mg/kg at 2 ft) were detected above CVs. Other PAHs were detected below CVs. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (no CV) were detected at a maximum of 7,340 mg/kg at a depth of 2 feet. Metals detected were within background levels. (1994 RI) The 1994 RI suggested limited remediation, consisting of removal of battery fragments and discarded asphalt, and possible groundwater monitoring. Site 44 was classified as Category 6 by the EBS. No apparent past or present health hazard exists. Intermittent exposure to low levels of soil contamination is unlikely to pose a hazard. ATSDR assumes that the site will be remediated before any changes in use.
(47) Chromium Ore Open Storage Area Site 47 has been used since 1946 for open storage of chromium ore. The area covers approximately 50,000 square feet. In the 1994 RI, five shallow soil samples were collected near the piles, and two shallow monitoring wells were installed downgradient from the piles and sampled. All metals concentrations were less than their background soil and groundwater concentrations. However, the soil directly beneath the piles has not been sampled. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. Site 47 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending further evaluation of whether chromium has been released to the environment. Site 47 is considered to be no apparent public health hazard. Although no hazards have been identified by sampling to date, further soil sampling is planned.
(48) Utah Shock Test Detonation Area Site 48 is located in the northern portion of SVADA near L&D No. 12. The site was used for Utah tests and detonations for shock studies for L&D No. 12. Efforts to locate Site 48 have been unsuccessful. Reconnaissance of this area was performed during the 1994 RI; no evidence was found of former testing and detonations. However, this investigation was not considered conclusive. Site 48 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending the acquisition of additional information regarding the shock testing. Site 48 is an indeterminate physical hazard due to the possible presence of UXO.
(49) M600 Fuse Detonation Area The detonation area was used between 1949 and 1955 to detonate M600 fuses that were not detonated at Site 41 in 1949. In the 1994 RI, soil samples were collected from the immediate vicinity of the detonation area, and surface water and sediment samples were collected from near where storm water from this area discharges into Straight Slough. No explosives were detected in any of the samples, and the nitrite detected was determined to be naturally occurring. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for this site. Site 49 was classified as Category 3 by the EBS, because explosives were disposed of at the site, but sampling did not identify hazardous substances at concentrations that require a removal or remedial action. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(50) Active Demolition Area (Bottomlands) This active open detonation ground (approximately four acres in area) contains several earth berms, a lower pad, and six detonation pits measuring four feet deep. Site 50 has been used since approximately 1930 to detonate various Class A, B, and C explosives, including TNT, RDX, and pentaerythritol tetranitrate. Soil: TNT and nitrite were detected below their CVs.
Surface water: Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (B2EHP) was detected below its CV.
Sediment: 2,6-DNT and B2EHP were detected below their CVs.
(1982 sampling)
Site 50 was classified as Category 6 by the EBS because response actions required at the site before RCRA closure have not yet been implemented. This site represents an indeterminate public health hazard. Extensive sampling has not been conducted and activities have been ongoing at the site.
(60) Special Weapons Maintenance and Storage Site 60 is a dry well that was active between 1960 and 1970. The dry well was constructed to receive wastewater (acids, explosives, and low level radiological fluids) from an emergency shower in Building 800. Installation personnel have stated that the shower was never used. Groundwater: No explosives, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or VOCs were detected. All metals found were determined to be naturally occurring. Radiological parameters were found to be below safe levels. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for the site. Site 60 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS pending regulatory concurrence with the conclusions of the RI. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(67) Fire Training Area Site 67 was used for 40 years for fire-fighting training. Waste oil and other flammable materials were put into a bermed pit and set afire. An aboveground waste oil tank located at the site was removed in 1988. Soil: Maximum observed concentrations of the primary contaminants (in mg/kg) were: 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE)--120 (under CV), TCE--1,100 (over CV), and TPH--94,300 (no CV). Low levels of PAHs were also detected.
Groundwater: Contamination includes a layer of "free product" (waste oil contaminated with solvents) floating atop the water table, downgradient of the former waste oil tank. Maximum observed concentrations of the primary contaminants (in g/L) were: TCE --210,000 (above CV), 1,2-DCE--20,000 (above CV), and TPH--480,000 (no CV). The groundwater plume extends about 250 feet downgradient of the edge of the burn pit.
(1992-1993 sampling)
The site has undergone soil removal and remediation via onsite incineration. Groundwater remediation is awaiting funding. It is unlikely that sporadic exposure to soil in the past posed a health hazard. Soil has been remediated. There are no shallow groundwater wells in the area. It is possible, although unlikely, that groundwater contamination could migrate to existing wells before remediation is completed. ATSDR assumes that new wells will not be installed in areas of contaminated groundwater.
(68) Waste Oil Underground Storage Tank Site 68 is the former location of a 15,000-gallon waste oil UST at the Power Plant (Building 106). The tank was removed in June 1990 and contaminated soil was excavated to a depth where the level of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) was below the state criterion of 25 parts per billion (ppb). Soil sampling was done following excavation to ensure that the goal of 25 ppb had been met. Site 68 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending regulatory approval of the completeness of response actions. No apparent public health hazard is associated with this site. Sporadic exposure to contamination in the past is unlikely to have posed a hazard. The site has been remediated.
(69) Contaminated Waste Processor (CWP) (Building 2215) The CWP is a single-chamber, batch-feed furnace designed to incinerate low-level explosives-contaminated combustible material (such as packing material used to transport explosives), or to flash explosives-contaminated metals. Soil sampling in the materials staging area revealed no contamination. The ground surface in the area of the CWP was classified as Category 7 by the EBS because further evaluation is necessary to determine if hazardous substances have been released into the environment. Site 69 is an indeterminate public health hazard. Further sampling may be necessary.
(71) Burn Pits (Function Test Area) The operations that took place at Site 71 are unknown. The site possesses six horseshoe-shaped berms enclosing what appear to be burn pits. The oldest photos of the site demonstrate the existence of the berms in 1946. During the 1994 RI, a soil sample was collected from each of the pits. No site-related contamination was identified. The 1994 RI suggested no further action for the site. Site 71 was classified as Category 7 by the EBS, pending regulatory concurrence with the conclusions of the RI. No public health hazard exists. No site-related contaminants have been found at this site.
(73) Stables Landfill (Dump) Site 73 is an abandoned disposal area behind the old stables, located near the southeastern portion of the installation boundary, along the Apple River. The site was identified during RI field activities; there are no records of its use for disposal. Surface water sampling has found traces of mercury. Site 73 has been classified as Category 6 by the EBS because disposal, release, and potential migration of hazardous substances is suspected to have occurred at the site and response actions have not been implemented. Site 73 is an indeterminate public health hazard. Further sampling may be necessary.
(75) Army Reserve Motorpool Site 75 is occasionally used by the Army Reserve for vehicle maintenance. The site contains: a motor pool garage (Building 276), a 1,500-gallon UST for fuel oil, a concrete wash pad and sump, a former transformer pad, a dry well that has not been located, a septic system, and a visibly stained parking lot. Aerial photos suggest the garage was constructed during the early 1960s. Soil Gas: VOCs were detected at low concentrations.
Soil: Lead, magnesium, and zinc were found at greater than background concentrations. Elevated concentrations of TPH were found in some samples.
Groundwater: Low levels of VOCs were found.
(1995 sampling)
Site 75 was classified as Category 6 by the EBS because released of VOCs have occurred, but response actions have not been implemented. Site 75 is an indeterminate public health hazard. Further sampling may be necessary.
(77) 1917-Era Powder Magazines Two 1917-era powder magazines were located on the northeastern portion of the installation on Crim Drive near the depot entrance gate along the Apple River. It is thought that the buildings were used to store explosives and propellants. A surface water sample taken in the vicinity of Site 77 (taken as a background sample for Site 20) detected explosive compounds. Site 77 was classified by the EBS as Category 7 because evaluation of the release of explosive compounds is necessary. Site 77 is an indeterminate public health hazard. Further sampling is necessary.

References: Dames and Moore 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1994c, 1995; SAIC 1996a, 1996b, 1997b; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Defense Ammunition Center, 1997; USATHAMA 1979; Westinghouse 1995.

Note: Environmental Baseline Survey Categories

As a result of SVADA's selection for closure by the BRAC Commission, an Environmental Baseline Survey (EBS) was conducted by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), with a technical report issued in 1996 (SAIC, 1996a). The purpose of the EBS was to identify areas on the installation where storage, disposal, or release of hazardous substances occurred, as well as any other related environmental, hazard, or safety issues that would limit or preclude the transfer of property for unrestricted use. Areas identified by the EBS were classified into seven categories. A description of the categories taken from the EBS follows. In some cases, the entire text of the category description has not been included.

Category 1: Areas where no storage (for 1 year or more), release, or disposal of hazardous substances has occurred and where no storage of greater than 600 gallons, release, or disposal of petroleum products has occurred (including no migration of these substances from adjacent areas.) Areas classified as Category 1 may contain UXO, asbestos, lead-based paint, radon, PCBs, and/or radiological hazards.

Category 2: Areas where only storage of hazardous substances and/or storage of petroleum products in quantities greater than 600 gallons has occurred for 1 year or more (but no release, disposal, or migration from adjacent areas has occurred).

Category 3: Areas where release, disposal, and/or migration of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred, but at concentrations that do not require a response action to protect human health and the environment.

Category 4: Areas where release, disposal, and/or migration of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred, and all remedial actions necessary to protect human health and the environment have been taken.

Category 5: Areas where release, disposal, and/or migration of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred, removal and/or remedial actions are under way, but all required actions have not yet been taken.

Category 6: Areas where release, disposal, and/or migration of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred, but required response actions have not yet been implemented.

Category 7: Areas that are unevaluated or require additional evaluation.



Table 2.

Evaluation of Potential Public Health Hazard Associated With IRP Sites With No Sampling Data, But That Need No Further Evaluation
Site Site Description/ Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/ Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Public Health Evaluation
(38) WWI Ammunition Storage Area This area, located west of igloo F1209, contained World War I ammunition of all types. Fixed ammunition was stored in crates and in boxes, and all propellants were contained in shells or projectiles. In 1970, an Explosives Ordnance Disposal Team removed all ammunition. According to SVADA personnel, there was no evidence of release at this location. Site 38 was classified as Category 1 by the EBS because it is an area where ammunition was stored, but where no storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred. No past, present, or future public health hazards exist. No contamination exists at this site.
(39) Mustard Open Storage Area This site openly stored 155mm mustard (H)-filled shells from the Black Hills Depot. In the 1960s, this ammunition was defused and shipped off-site for disposal. A records review and personnel interviews did not reveal reports of release at this site. Site 39 was classified as Category 1 by the EBS because it is an area where ammunition was stored, but where no storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products has occurred. No past, present, or future public health hazards exist. No contamination exists at this site.
(70) Explosive Waste Incinerator (EWI) (Building 2217) The EWI has never been operational because SVADA has not received the necessary RCRA permit. No contamination is associated with this site. Site 70 was classified as Category 1 by the EBS because the EWI has never been operated and there is no record of storage, release, or disposal of hazardous substances or petroleum products at this site. No past, present, or future public health hazards exist. No contamination exists at this site.

References: Dames and Moore 1990, SAIC 1996a.




Table 3.

Potential Exposure Pathways Evaluation Table
Pathway Name Exposure Pathway Elements Comments
Source of Contamination Environmental Medium Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Time of Exposure Exposed Population
Groundwater TNT Washout Facility, Old Burning Grounds, CF/CL Areas, Fire Training Area, Abandoned Landfill Groundwater Wells Ingestion
Dermal contact
Inhalation
Future(?) SVADA workers and visitors

Future site users

Offsite residents
Past/Current: All supply wells at SVADA either have been sampled and found to be uncontaminated, or are located much deeper than the current depth of groundwater contamination.
Future: It is possible, although unlikely, that groundwater contamination could migrate to existing wells before remediation is completed. ATSDR assumes that new wells will not be installed in areas of contaminated groundwater. Further sampling is necessary at some of the sites evaluated in this PHA.
Soil Various activities at SVADA Soil Onsite surface soil Ingestion
Dermal contact
Past
Current
Future(?)
SVADA workers and visitors

Future site users
Past/Current: It is unlikely that sporadic exposure to soil contamination poses a health hazard.
Future: ATSDR assumes that contaminated areas will be remediated appropriately for their designated future use. Further sampling is necessary at some of the sites evaluated in this PHA.
Sediment and Surface Water Migration of soil or groundwater contamination Sediment
Surface water

Onsite surface water and sediment

Mississippi River surface water and sediment

Ingestion
Dermal contact
Past
Current
Future(?)
Offsite and onsite recreational users: anglers, hunters, boaters Past/Current: It is unlikely that recreational exposure to low levels of contamination in surface water and sediment poses a health hazard.
Future: Although limited exposure to surface water and sediment is unlikely to pose a public health hazard, additional sampling is recommended to assess any contaminant migration and confirm that no hazardous levels of contamination are present.
Biota Soil, sediment, and surface water contamination at SVADA Fish
Cattle
Game (Deer, fowl, small game)
Consumption of livestock grazed at SVADA, fish caught at or adjacent to SVADA, or game hunted at SVADA Ingestion Past
Current
Future(?)
Anglers and hunters and their families

Consumers of cattle grazed on the installation

Past/Current/Future: Based on studies of similar sites, as well as site-specific factors, it is unlikely that livestock and game have accumulated contaminants to levels likely to cause health hazards. Reliable sampling data are unavailable for fish.
UXO Unexploded rounds fired during artillery testing UXO in soil Unidentified UXO in onsite soils Physical hazard Current
Future(?)
SVADA workers and visitors

Future users of the site

Current/Future: Because UXO is potentially present over a great deal of SVADA, UXO presents a potential physical hazard. SVADA is currently evaluating methods to characterize potential UXO prior to property transfer.
Radiation Storage of special weapons and depleted uranium rounds Radioactive materials; contaminated buildings or soil Storage areas Dermal contact
Ingestion
Inhalation
Future(?) SVADA workers and visitors

Future users of the site

Past/Current: No accidents associated with special weapons storage were reported. No radiological contamination has been identified.
Future: The BRAC Cleanup Plan specifies that additional radiological monitoring will be conducted as necessary prior to property transfers.



Table 4.

SVADA Wells (Water supply wells at SVADA were designated as IRP sites, regardless of whether or not they were thought to be impacted by contamination.)
IRP Number and Well Identifying Information Description Possible Impact of Contamination
(51) Bedrock Well (Building 107) This deep rock well (366m deep) is located at Building 107. It is one of four wells that serve the southeast portion of SVADA via the main looped distribution system. It is unlikely that contamination would migrate to the depths of these wells.
(52) Bedrock Well (Building 260) This deep rock well (340m deep) is located at Building 260. Previously, however, it was identified as being located in Building 701. It is one of four wells that serve the southeast portion of SVADA via the main looped distribution system.
(53) Bedrock Well (Building 645) This deep rock well (518m deep) is located at Building 645. It is one of four wells that serve the southeast portion of SVADA via the main looped distribution system; however, it has been out of service for approximately 17 years.
(54) Bedrock Well (Building 701) This deep rock well (366m deep) is located at Building 701. It is one of four wells that serve the southeast portion of SVADA via the main looped distribution system.
(55) Bedrock Well (Building 1022) This deep rock well (360m deep) is located at Building 1022. It serves facilities at the upper end of the installation. It is presently out of service.
(56) Bedrock Well (Building 2205) This deep rock well (329m deep) is located at Building 2205 (the TNT Washout Facility). It serves facilities at the upper end of the installation.
(57) Shallow Well
(Building 2213)
This shallow well (6m deep) is located at the Stonehouse (Building 2213). Water is electronically pumped at a 925 gallon per hour capacity. Located near Sites 5 and 71.
(58) Shallow Well (Building 2003) This shallow well (18m deep) is located at the Whitton Station Gate House (Building 2003). Water is hand pumped and used for watering cattle. The water level lies approximately 23 feet below the building floor. Not in the vicinity of any known sources of contamination.
(59) Shallow Well
(Building 1005)
This shallow well (22m deep) is located at Building 1005. The pump's capacity is 100 gallons per minute. This well is currently out of service. Located near Sites 2, 23, and 72.
Bedrock Well
(Building 2112)
This bedrock well (93m deep) is located at Building 2112, the Open Burning Ground Change House. It was installed in 1991, and therefore was not given a number during initial site investigations. Located near Sites 13 and 14.
Shallow "Sandpoint" Wells (4) These shallow wells are pumped by windmills and provide water for cattle. They are located near Building F904, near Building B207, between A-Area and F-Area, and immediately outside the ammunition area near the F-600 line. Not in the vicinity of any known sources of contamination.

References: Dames and Moore 1990, 1994c; SAIC 1996a, 1997b.


FIGURES


Figure 1. Location of SVADA


Figure 2. Installation Restoration Program Sites at SVADA


Figure 3. SVADA Demographic Map


Figure 4. Surface Water Bodies at SVADA



APPENDIX A: Glossary

Absorption
The process of taking in, as when a sponge takes up water. Chemicals can be absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream and then transported to other organs. Chemicals can also be absorbed into the bloodstream after breathing or swallowing.

Acute
Occurring over a short time, usually a few minutes or hours. An acute exposure can result in short-term or long-term health effects. An acute effect happens a short time (up to 1 year) after exposure.

Background Level
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.

CERCLA
The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as Superfund. This is the legislation that created ATSDR.

Chronic
Occurring over a long period of time (more than 1 year).

Comparison Values
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.

Concentration
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.

Contaminant
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.

Dermal
Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.

Environmental Contamination
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.

Exposure
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).

Ingestion
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.

Inhalation
Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs, taken into the blood, or both.

Media
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.

National Priorities List (NPL)
The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) listing of sites that have undergone preliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.

Plume
An area of chemicals in a particular medium, such as air or groundwater, moving away from its source in a long band or column. A plume can be a column of smoke from a chimney or chemicals moving with groundwater.

Public Health Action
Designed to prevent exposures and/or to mitigate or prevent adverse health effects in populations living near hazardous waste sites or releases. Public health actions can be identified from information developed in public health advisories, public health assessments, and health consultations. These actions include recommending the dissociation (separation) of individuals from exposures (for example, by providing an alternative water supply), conducting biologic indicators of exposure studies to assess exposure, and providing health education for health care providers and community members.

Public Health Assessment
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environment in order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or other recommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.

Route of Exposure
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion) and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.

Superfund
Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinner, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

APPENDIX B: ATSDR's Comparison Values

ATSDR comparison values are media-specific concentrations that are considered to be "safe"under default conditions of exposure. They are used as screening values in the preliminaryidentification of "contaminants of concern" at a site. The latter is, perhaps, an unfortunate termsince the word "concern" may be misinterpreted as an implication of "hazard". As ATSDR usesthe phrase, however, a "contaminant of concern" is merely a site-specific chemical substance thatthe health assessor has selected for further evaluation of potential health effects.

Generally, a chemical is selected as a contaminant of concern because its maximumconcentration in air, water, or soil at the site exceeds one of ATSDR's comparison values.However, it cannot be emphasized strongly enough that comparison values are not thresholds oftoxicity. While concentrations at or below the relevant comparison value may reasonably beconsidered safe, it does not automatically follow that any environmental concentration thatexceeds a comparison value would be expected to produce adverse health effects. Indeed, thewhole purpose behind highly conservative, health-based standards and guidelines is to enablehealth professionals to recognize and resolve potential public health problems before theybecome actual health hazards. The probability that adverse health outcomes will actually occur asa result of exposure to environmental contaminants depends on site specific conditions andindividual lifestyle and genetic factors that affect the route, magnitude, and duration of actualexposure, and not on environmental concentrations alone.

Described below are the various comparison values that ATSDR uses to select chemicals forfurther evaluation.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs) are estimated contaminant concentrations in water,soil, or air that would be expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million personsexposed over a 70-year lifetime according to EPA estimates. As ATSDR's most conservativecomparison value, the CREG merits special attention. Note that this does not mean thatexposures equivalent to the CREG are actually expected to cause one excess cancer in a millionpersons exposed over a lifetime. Nor does it mean that every person in an exposed population ofone million has a 1-in-a-million chance of developing cancer from the specified exposure.Although ATSDR CREGs continue to be useful devices for screening carcinogenic substances ata site, they cannot be used to predict cancer incidence rates at a site. Furthermore, the exposureassumptions on which EPA's cancer risk estimates and ATSDR's CREGs are based (i.e.,essentially lifetime exposure) seldom apply at contaminated sites.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) values are similar to ATSDR's CREGs and EMEGsin that they are risk-based concentrations derived for carcinogens and non-carcinogens fromRfDs and Cancer Slope Factors, respectively, assuming default values for body weight, exposureduration and frequency, etc. Unlike ATSDR values, however, they are available for fish, as wellas for water, soil, and air.

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs) are concentrations of a contaminant inwater, soil, or air that are unlikely to be associated with any appreciable risk of deleteriousnoncancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. EMEGs are derived from ATSDRminimal risk levels by factoring in default body weights and ingestion rates. Separate EMEGSare computed for acute (<14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (>365 days)exposures.

Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) represent contaminant concentrations in drinkingwater that EPA deems protective of public health (considering the availability and economics ofwater treatment technology) over a lifetime (70 years) at an exposure rate of 2 liters of water perday.

Minimal Risk Levels (MRL) are estimates of daily human exposure to a chemical (i.e., dosesexpressed in mg/kg/day) that are unlikely to be associated with any appreciable risk ofdeleterious noncancer effects over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs are derived for acute(< 14 days), intermediate (15-364 days), and chronic (> 365 days) exposures. MRLs arepublished in ATSDR's Toxicological Profiles for specific chemicals.

(EPA's) Reference Dose (RfD) is an estimate of the daily exposure to a contaminant unlikely tocause noncarcinogenic adverse health effects over a lifetime of exposure. Like ATSDR's MRL,EPA's RfD is a dose expressed in mg/kg/day.

Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide (RMEG) is the concentration of a contaminant in air, water or soil that corresponds to EPA's RfD of RfC for that contaminant when default values for body weight and intake rates are taken into account.


COMPARISON VALUE REFERENCES

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Health Assessment Guidance Manual. Atlanta: ATSDR, October 1992.
  2. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Pocket Guide to ChemicalHazards. Washington D.C.: Department of Health Human Services, June 1994.

APPENDIX C: Responses to Public Comments

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) received the followingcomments/questions during the public comment period (August 13, 1999, to September 26,1999) for the Savanna Army Depot Activity Public Health Assessment (PHA) (August 13, 1999).For comments that questioned the validity of statements made in the PHA, ATSDR verified orcorrected the statements. ATSDR has not addressed requests for information to be included inthe PHA, unless the party who filed the request provided the supporting documentation. The listof comments does not include editorial comments concerning such things as word spelling or sentence syntax.

  1. Comment: A commenter is concerned that lead and TNT may be washing into the Mississippi River.

    Response: As discussed in the "Surface Water and Sediment" evaluation section of thePHA, ATSDR states that some metals have been detected in on-site sediment at levelsabove their comparison values (CVs) and in sediment of the Mississippi River backwaterarea adjacent to the Open Burning Ground. ATSDR acknowledges in the PHA that off-site surface water and sediment have not been fully characterized for potential futureexposure. In light of this data gap, ATSDR agrees that additional monitoring of surfacewater and sediment is needed to determine whether site-related contaminants couldmigrate off site at levels of health concern.

    The reader is reminded that even if contaminants were entering the Mississippi River, apublic health hazard exists only if people ingest or otherwise come in contact withcontaminated media, such as water or sediment, at levels associated with health effects.To date, there is no evidence that exposures are occurring on site at levels of healthconcern, that contaminants have migrated off site, or that people ingest surface water orcontact surface water/sediment near the site for extended periods of time.

  2. Comment: A commenter expressed concerned that the public health assessment does notdiscuss the radiation contaminated sites and pesticide burial areas.

    Response: ATSDR discusses potential exposure to radiologic material in the"Environmental Pathways" section of the PHA. In that section, ATSDR notes that datareviews and employee interviews have not identified any accidents associated withspecial weapons operations. Further, no radiological material was found on transferredproperty. As needed, additional radiologic monitoring will be conducted through theDepartment of Defense's Base Realignment and Closure cleanup plan before additional property is transferred.

    Very little environmental monitoring data exist for the pesticide area. Data that areavailable suggest that pesticides may exist in soil of the far northern portion the site. Oneof the best ways to ensure that no public health hazard exists is to remove thecontaminated media. The Savanna Army Depot Activity has prepared plans for removalof the pesticide-contaminated soil from the area in question, however, the removal actionhas been temporarily placed on hold until questions of funding are resolved. ATSDR hasadded a recommendation to its PHA that warning signs be posted in the area until thepesticide-contaminated soil removal action has been completed. Following removal ofcontaminated soil, the area will be safe to access and no harmful exposure should occur.

  3. Comment: One commenter wrote that "More tests are vital before accurate conclusions can be made."

    Response: Based on its review of available environmental monitoring data, ATSDRpresented conclusions in the PHA about public health hazards at Savanna Army DepotActivity. ATSDR emphasized in its PHA that the conclusions reached apply only tosites/exposure pathways for which sampling data were available or were found to beunnecessary. ATSDR feels that the data for those pathways evaluated in the PHA(groundwater and on-site soil [past and present exposures], radioactive materials, andconsumption of locally-raised beef ) are adequate to characterize contamination and,therefore, sufficient to support conclusions. Pathways without sufficient sampling data are also identified in the PHA.

  4. Comment: A commenter was concerned that the assessment was based on data that are ayear old. When will ATSDR prepare a new report reflecting the new data?

    Response: As stated in response to comment 3, the conclusions and recommendations inthe Savanna Army Depot Activity PHA are based on environmental data and exposureinformation available at the time the document was prepared. Further, ATSDRemphasizes that the sampling data were sufficient to draw conclusions for certainsites/exposure pathways identified in the PHA. It should be noted, however, that sitecharacterization and/or remediation may continue for years after releases have first beensuspected and after ATSDR's involvement begins. In such cases, a PHA may not be asingle fixed document but will likely reflect the dynamic process of data collection for thesite and evaluation of the new data. Therefore, if new data are collected that suggest thepublic health may be adversely affected, ATSDR will modify or add to the document to reflect the public health implications of the additional data.


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