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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

SANDOVAL ZINC COMPANY
SANDOVAL, MARION COUNTY, ILLINOIS


SUMMARY

The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) completed a public health assessment (PHA) forthe Sandoval Zinc site on May 4, 1995. Since the release of the 1995 PHA, several site activitieshave taken place. IDPH has reviewed and evaluated information from these activities, and offersnew conclusions and recommendations for the site.

Overall, the Sandoval Zinc site poses no apparent public health hazard to most of the populationin Sandoval. The site may be a public health hazard to preschool children with excessive hand-to-mouth activity exposed to residential surface soils with high levels of lead. However, bloodsample results from children in a day care near the site did not show elevated levels of lead.

Based on current conditions, IDPH makes the following recommendations:

  1. Continue efforts to prevent trespassing on the site.
  2. Continue educational efforts on methods to reduce exposure to metals in the residential environment.
  3. Use procedures to minimize dust during on-site remedial operations.

PURPOSE

The Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) has reviewed information about several activities at the Sandoval Zinc site that have taken place since the release of the May 4, 1995, public health assessment and offers updated conclusions and recommendations for the site.


BACKGROUND

The Sandoval Zinc site occupies about 13 acres southeast of Sandoval in Marion County, Illinois.It is an abandoned primary and secondary zinc smelter that was next to a coal mining operation.Primary smelting, including processing of zinc ores and associated trace metals, occurred from1885 to 1915. From 1916 until the facility closed in 1985, the main operation was recycling usedmetal through secondary smelting. Coal was the primary fuel used to fire the smelting furnaces.Smelting waste may have been transported off the site and used as fill in Sandoval and othernearby communities. Airborne emissions occurred during regular operations and accidental fires.Surface water runoff transported wastes from the site into adjacent ditches, creeks, ponds, andfarm properties.

The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (Illinois EPA) sealed the site by court order in1991. In spite of fencing and posted signs, trespassing continued. The site is not visible from themain roads or businesses. Most of the Sandoval residential area is west of Highway 51(Attachment 1). Some small businesses are about one-half mile west of the site along Highway 51.A day care center with about 125 children enrolled is among those commercial properties. Thenearest home is north of Route 50, less than 0.5 miles northeast of the site. The population ofSandoval in 1990 was 1,535.

As recorded in the 1995 IDPH PHA, the environmental data available at that time showed thathigh levels of metals existed on or near the site. IDPH was concerned about the communitybecause of the persistent and cumulative nature of some metals, including lead and zinc,associated with the site. IDPH used on-site concentrations to estimate exposure doses forchildren, teenagers, and adults trespassing onto the site. Estimated doses for children exceededseveral health guidelines, but estimated doses for teenagers and adults did not. The contaminant ofgreatest concern was lead.

Recommendations of the 1995 PHA included:

Cease/Reduce Exposure Recommendations:

  1. The site properties need to be adequately secured and monitored on a regular basis toprevent access to wastes.

  2. Education of residents should continue regarding methodologies to minimize exposures to environmental contamination. School parent-teacher organizations, parents, and operators of local day care centers should be contacted to alert them of any potential exposure risks.

Site Characterization Recommendations:

  1. Surface soil samples in the nearest residential bare soils, including the day care, should be analyzed for heavy metals to rule out any potential for exposure.

  2. Some individual households with older workers and young children should be included in a program of dust analyses. If contaminants are found in significant concentrations in homes, education should be provided to instruct residents how to reduce heavy metalsources in interior environments.

  3. Blood lead analyses of area residents should be reviewed to determine if excessiveexposures are occurring. Encourage Sandoval parents to comply with state regulationsconcerning blood lead testing of preschool children. Review existing and future blood lead data to determine if an excessive prevalence of elevations exists.

  4. A private well survey and heavy metal sampling should be conducted of the private wells nearest the site. A survey of the existing monitoring wells should be completed todetermine if any wells need to be properly abandoned.

Health Activities Recommendations:

  1. Restrict public access to site areas.

  2. Implement procedures to suppress dust generation and migration if any on-siteremoval/remedial operations, or demolition activities occur.

  3. Where areas of significant off-site contamination are identified, consider strategies for minimizing exposures to site-related contaminated soils on private properties.

  4. Implement community health education programs to inform residents how they can reducetheir exposure to contaminated soils and dusts.

In May and June 1996, Illinois EPA collected additional environmental samples, interviewed areacitizens, coordinated blood lead screening of children attending the nearby daycare facility, andcollected residential soil samples. In September 1997, Illinois EPA completed an Expanded SiteInspection Report (Illinois EPA, 1997).

Illinois EPA contractors began some clean up activities in June 1998. The perimeter fence wasreplaced in sections and repaired. Four warning signs were posted on steel poles inside the fenceon all four sides of the property. All site buildings were dismantled and sent off the site as scrap.Approximately 350 cubic yards of diesel fuel-contaminated zinc waste was removed from the site,and 19 groundwater monitoring wells were sealed. Work was completed by January 1999.Thisdocument updates assessment of the site since those recent activities.

Site Visits

IDPH and Illinois EPA staff visited the site on May 19, 1998. Vandals had stolen or damagedmuch of the fence around the site. Tire tracks were seen throughout the property, windingthrough the unsecured buildings. Generally, the site was the same as described in the previoushealth assessment (IDPH, 1995). Open fields surround the site on all sides except to the northwhere the CSX Railroad tracks are found.

An area between operation buildings on the eastern portion of the site may have been used forprocessing water for smelting operations or a reservoir for waste water. A large farm pond east ofthe site outside the fence line contains metals in its sediment, supports aquatic life, and may beused for fishing and swimming. Tracks made by three-wheeled recreational vehicles and bicycleswere found circling the pond. Part of the farm field next to the southern site boundary may beaffected by the site because it is grey in color and supports little vegetation.

Smelting waste and cinders cover the site. This metal-rich fill has resulted in some contaminationof the underlying aquifer. Exposure to metal-contaminated groundwater may have occurred inone home with a private well. Only one home responding to the 1990 census reported having aprivate, dug well, and the remaining Sandoval households reported using municipal water fromCentralia, Illinois.

Surface runoff from the site empties into drainage ditches outside the eastern and western fencelines. The ditches receive runoff from the fields north of the site via culverts built under therailroad tracks. The ditches divert water to the marshy areas to the south, eventually emptyinginto a local creek.

Some waste had been stored inside the buildings, and many of the buildings were in disrepair in1998. The roof of one large building had collapsed to ground level. Another physical hazard thatmay only be problematic during rainy seasons is an in-ground reservoir that collects water beneathone building. Two large above-ground storage tanks were located on the south side of thebuilding complex. One tank appeared to contain some fuel oil.

Construction debris such as lumber, bricks, and concrete chunks was scattered throughout thesite. Other debris, such as rusted metal goods and broken glass, also was present. Because of itsisolated location, the site has been used as a dumping ground.

IDPH staff revisited the site on April 1, 1999. A 6-foot-tall chain link fence surrounded the site,although there were some gaps in the fence along the north and east sides that would allow accessby a determined trespasser. All buildings on the site had been torn down and removed, leavingonly the deteriorated concrete foundations and supports. An open, aboveground tank that was full of water was outside the fence on the east perimeter of the site.


DISCUSSION

IDPH did not identify elevated blood lead levels in children in the Sandoval zip code; however,IDPH wanted to be sure that the most sensitive of the target population had been tested. Planswere made in the summer of 1996 to screen volunteers from the 125 preschool children enrolledat a daycare less than 0.5 miles west of the site. IDPH provided information to the daycareoperator and parents regarding methods to avoid and reduce potential lead exposures. An air-conditioned, mobile clinic was made available for one day in August 1996. Thirty-three childrenwere tested for lead concentrations in whole blood, and no child had an elevated blood lead level(Marion County Health Department, 1996). The current standard for blood lead levels in youngchildren and pregnant women is 10 micrograms per deciliter (g/dL) of whole blood (U.S.DHHS, 1991).

Staff from Illinois EPA interviewed Sandoval residents in 1996. Former workers and long-timeresidents who provided information said they regularly observed smoke from the plant at the highschool 1.25 miles from the site and at the drive-in theater north of the site. Some Sandovalemployees went home ill with symptoms of headaches, chills, and vomiting. They estimated thatthe recovery time from these symptoms was about 8 hours. Crops grown next to the site werereported to have low yields. Individuals also reported that smelting waste was transported toprivate and public properties in Sandoval and surrounding communities to be used for fill,walkways, and roads. A pond east of the site was used for fishing and for swimming until acommunity swimming pool was constructed about 50 years ago.

Illinois EPA collected on-site waste and off-site residential soil samples in 1996 (Attachment 2).Surface soil samples from 0 to 6 inches deep were collected from five areas on the site. Thesamples appeared to consist of smelting wastes and cinders. These five samples were analyzed fororganic and inorganic compounds.

Illinois EPA invited IDPH to participate in a workshop for middle school students at Sandoval onMay 19, 1998. Before the workshop, IDPH staff accompanied Illinois EPA to the site to meetwith contractors. Later that morning a workshop for approximately 70 students and their teacherswas held. IDPH provided information regarding the health effects of lead to the audience andgave a "Get the Lead Out" videotape to the teacher who organized the workshop. Illinois EPAstaff discussed funding and regulatory activities associated with placing the site on the NationalPriorities List. The purpose of this community health education program was to inform residentshow they can avoid or reduce their exposures to metal-rich soil and dust.

Contaminants of Interest

IDPH compared the results of each soil sample with the appropriate screening comparison valueused to select contaminants for further evaluation for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic healtheffects. Chemicals found at levels greater than comparison values or those for which nocomparison value exists were selected for further evaluation. A discussion of each healthscreening value used is found in Attachment 3.

IDPH evaluated the results of on-site surface soil (waste) samples and sediment samples providedby Illinois EPA (Illinois EPA, 1997). The organic chemicals tested included volatile organiccompounds, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and pesticides. One sample collectedfrom an area associated with an oil storage tank contained some SVOCs, but not at a level ofhealth concern. This material has been removed. The remaining organic chemical results wereestimated values or found in laboratory blanks and are not at levels of health concern.

The inorganic chemicals selected for further evaluation from on-site soil and sediment samplingdata are listed in Table 1. The on-site metals that are most consistently elevated abovebackground levels are arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Notsurprisingly, zinc is the most abundant metal and is found in elevated concentrations in everysample analyzed.

Table 2 contains the inorganic chemicals of interest for the residential properties sampled. Most ofthese samples were collected from 0 to 6 inches below ground level. These data are the basis forfurther discussion. Some chemicals were not selected for further review in this assessmentbecause of low toxicity or low concentrations found in the residential soil samples. Inorganicchemicals that were not selected were aluminum, antimony, beryllium, calcium, iron, mercury,potassium, selenium, silver, sodium, thallium, vanadium, and cyanide.

Public Health Implications

This section includes discussions of potential health effects for possible exposure scenarios tocontaminants found off the site. The concentration range, the mean value, and median value of theresidential soil samples in units of milligrams of metal per kilogram of soil (mg/kg) are shown in Table 3.

Several completed exposure pathways exist at the site (Table 4). Because the peak operation ofthis facility pre-dates most environmental and worker protection regulations, IDPH suspects thatformer employees were chronically exposed to products, waste, and emissions via inhalation andingestion. In addition, past operational air emissions distributed metals to surrounding properties,and past residents were likely exposed through inhalation and ingestion. Today, the site isabandoned.

Trespassing has historically been a problem at this isolated site even though fencing has beenrepaired and replaced regularly. Illinois EPA contractors recently repaired and replaced fencing.

IDPH calculated estimated exposure doses for adults and children to see if doses exceed minimalrisk levels (MRLs). The MRL is a health screening guideline used to determine whether theexposure should be further evaluated. If MRLs were exceeded, IDPH reviewed studies todetermine if estimated doses approached the lowest observed adverse effect level for humans.

Residents may be exposed to metals in the soil in their yards. For one exposure scenario, IDPHassumed children inadvertently ingested the soil while playing twice a week over a 5-year periodin a contaminated area of the yard where vegetation was not very thick. A "pica" child exhibitsexcessive hand-to-mouth activity and is considered to ingest 25 times more soil than a typicalchild. Estimated exposure doses were also calculated for adult residents who would be exposed tocontaminated soil twice a week over a 5-year period, with a body weight of 70 kg and a soilingestion rate of 100 milligrams per day. Estimated dose calculations do not show a public healthhazard for most of the population for the metals measured in residential soils.

Residential soil sample X117 contained the highest levels of copper, lead, nickel, and zinc. Thissample is unusual in that the levels found are more concentrated than those found at the other 22properties. Sample X117 was collected from a yard about 0.5 miles northwest of the site(Attachment 2).

Cadmium

Estimated exposure to cadmium exceeded the ATSDR MRL for pica children at about half of thesample locations; however, the estimated oral dose is less than the no observed adverse effectlevel for humans exposed to cadmium. Health guidelines for other children and adults would notbe exceeded at any of the sample locations.

Lead

Exposure to lead can cause adverse health effects, especially for young children and pregnantwomen, since lead is a neurotoxin that permanently interrupts normal brain development. Leadhas no beneficial biological function and is known to accumulate in the body. ATSDR has notdeveloped a health guideline for lead because no safe threshold has been identified. The U.S. Foodand Drug Administration (USFDA) published a provisional tolerable daily lead intake value of 6micrograms for a 10-kg child based on a blood lead level of 10 micrograms per deciliter. A surveyof a variety of foods determined the average adult lead intake to be 54 micrograms per day(g/day) (ATSDR, 1997).

The Sandoval Zinc smelter did not specifically process lead. Although some lead was likelypresent in the air emissions from the smelter, large amounts of lead were probably not distributedto off-site residential properties. The range of lead concentrations in the 23 residential samples is27 to 2,840 ppm. The next highest lead concentrations were 1,150 and 1,060 ppm. A total of 3 ofthe 23 yards contained more than 1,000 ppm lead, which is the level of lead IDPH established aspermissible for residential areas (IDPH, 1994). The Sandoval median soil lead value is 189 ppm,which is greater than the median level found in Illinois, but within the range of lead concentrationsfound in the state (Illinois EPA, 1994). Blood samples collected from 33 preschool children inAugust 1996 did not show elevated levels of lead.

Zinc

Zinc would be expected to be much higher than background samples throughout the communitysince 100 years of zinc smelting took place east of the residential area. The highest zincconcentration in an on-site sample was about 10 times greater than the highest residential sample.The range of zinc levels in residential soils was from 108 ppm to 21,400 ppm. Pica children mayingest excess zinc to the point that they experience nausea, but other persons of any age areunlikely to be exposed to enough zinc to cause adverse health effects.

Other Metals

Magnesium and manganese were found at levels similar to those found in background samplesfrom uncontaminated areas throughout Illinois. Although greater than background concentrations,IDPH does not believe exposure to levels of arsenic, barium, chromium, and nickel in residentialsoils would cause adverse health effects.

Copper levels were elevated, but no health guideline has been developed for copper. Estimates forexposure to copper in food range from 1-5 mg/day (ATSDR, 1990). Daily contact with copper insoil would result in exposures much less than those from copper commonly found in food, soadverse health effects are unlikely.

Past Worker Exposures

Although current estimated ingestion doses of these metals do not appear to consistently exceedhealth guidelines for most of the population, former workers were likely to have had pastinhalation exposures that may have been problematic since lung tissues tend to absorb metalsmore completely than tissues in the gastrointestinal tract. During interviews with Illinois EPA staffin 1996, residents described the symptoms of workers during past smelter operations, which aresimilar to "metal fume fever" and heat-related illnesses. Reportedly, the presence of thick, whitesmoke was a common occurrence in the past. No historical exposure data (blood lead levels) areknown to exist from any biomonitoring of workers at the smelter. No air sampling data arecurrently available.

On-site Hazards

Older children and adults who trespass on the site may regularly be exposed to material high inlead and other metals that are more concentrated near the old smelting operations. Since thefrequency of trespass is unknown, estimating potential exposure is very difficult. Still, a trespassermay be exposed to metals at levels that would exceed health guidelines. In addition, some on-site physical hazards remain.


COMMUNITY HEALTH CONCERNS

No public meeting has been held for this site, but IDPH has participated in communityinvolvement activities with area residents who have asked questions and expressed concerns aboutissues at the site. The following information is a summary of the health concerns expressed, andIDPH's responses to these questions.

1. What health effects can be caused by exposure to lead in soil?

IDPH has not found any evidence that Sandoval residents are being exposed to high levels of leadin soil. Exposure to lead can cause adverse health effects, especially for young children andpregnant women, since lead is a neurotoxin that permanently interrupts normal brain development.Lead has no beneficial biological function and is known to accumulate in the body. The SandovalZinc smelter did not specifically process lead. Although some lead was likely in the air emissionsfrom the smelter, large amounts of lead were probably not distributed to off-site residentialproperties.

2. Is trespassing onto the site dangerous?

On-site soils contain elevated levels of chemicals, so it is possible that a frequent trespasser maybe exposed to contaminants. Some physical hazards remain at the site that may result in injury.Since the demolition of the on-site buildings, it is expected that the site will not attract as many trespassers.


CHILD HEALTH INITIATIVE

IDPH and ATSDR recognize that children are especially sensitive to some contaminants. For that reason, IDPH includes children when evaluating exposures to contaminants.


CONCLUSIONS

Overall, the site currently poses no apparent public health hazard to most of the population inSandoval. The site may be a public health hazard to preschool children with excessive hand-to-mouth activity exposed to residential surface soils with high levels of lead. However, the bloodsample results from children in a day care near the site did not show elevated levels of lead. Olderchildren and adults who formerly trespassed onto the site may have been exposed to contaminantsand received a dose that exceeded health guidelines for lead and other metals found near the oldsmelting operations. Clean up activities that began in June 1998, and completed in January 1999,have likely reduced the number of trespassers visiting the site.

Since primary smelting occurred only during the first 30 years of operation, the trace metals found in ores did not consistently accumulate to high concentrations in residential soils. Secondary smelting of zinc products continued for another 80 years, and subsequently, zinc concentrations are consistently elevated throughout the community. Because lead is present in some residential yards, educational efforts remain important for families with small children.


RECOMMENDATIONS

Many of the recommendations listed in the 1995 IDPH Public Health Assessment have beenaddressed in some manner. The following are recommended based on current conditions:

  1. Continue efforts to prevent trespassing on the site.

  2. Continue educational efforts on methods to reduce exposure to metals in the residential environment.

  3. Use procedures to minimize dust if additional remedial activities are conducted.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Preparer

Cathy Copley
Environmental Toxicologist
Illinois Department of Public Health

Reviewers

Ken Runkle
Environmental Toxicologist
Illinois Department of Public Health

ATSDR Regional Representative

Louise Fabinski
Regional Operations
Office of the Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officers

Gail Godfrey
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Steve Inserra
Division of Health Studies

Courtney Wilson
Division of Health Education and Promotion


CERTIFICATION

This Sandoval Zinc public health assessment was prepared by the Illinois Department of PublicHealth under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and DiseaseRegistry. It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Gail D. Godfrey
Technical Project Officer
SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
Chief, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for Cadmium.Atlanta, Georgia. February 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Copper. Atlant,Georgia. December 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for Lead. Atlanta,Georgia. August 1997.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Draft Toxicological Profile for Zinc. Atlanta,Georgia. February 1993.

Illinois Department of Public Health (1994) Lead Poisoning Prevention Act (410 ILCS 45) andCode (Part 845). December 31, 1994.

Illinois Department of Public Health (1995) Sandoval Zinc Site Public Health Assessment.Environmental Toxicology Section. May 1995.

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (1997) CERCLA Expanded Site Inspection Report forSandoval Zinc Company. Bureau of Land. Springfield, Illinois. September, 1997.

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (1994). A Summary of Selected BackgroundConditions for Inorganics in Soil. August 1994.

Marion County Health Department (1996) Summary of August 23, 1996 blood lead screening at Sandoval . Memo. Salem, Illinois. September 10, 1996.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1991) Preventing Lead Poisoning in YoungChildren, Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control.


TABLES

Table 1.

Sandoval On-site Soil and Sediment Samples - Selected Metals (sampling depth 0-6") in parts per million (ppm) from May 1996 Illinois EPA Sampling Event.
METAL X101 X102 X103 X104 X105 X201 X203 X204 X205 X206 X207
Arsenic

44

19

58

32

8

37

20

4B

15

27

18

Barium

155

55B

225

157

160

186

158

113

231

209

114

Cadmium

61

49

19

4

4

6

11

2B

3

15

16

Chromium

22

40

52

24

12

13

15

7.8

12

20

9

Copper

1820

1170

4050

1270

764

725

537

28

57

1090

146

Lead

22300

2460

3220

2700

603

3300

833

50

156

3370

339

Magnesium

840B

4760

709B

496B

1120B

1170B

950B

942B

1300B

1330B

559B

Manganese

293

273

326

683

637

860

1010

502

1820

545

613

Nickel

292

608

3750

530

84

83

242

10B

23

259

17

Zinc

339000

214000

97400

15300

3360

6520

6300

261

2050

39000

2710

Location

Near entry

Near aboveground tank

Near SW corner of furnace

Near SE fence line corner

Pond western bank

Culvert N of RR and E pond

SE ditch

E PPE (Back-ground)

N of RR and W ditch

N of St leading to site

W PPE

B = metal found in laboratory blank


Table 2.

Sandoval Residential Property Surface Soil - Selected Metals (0-6" in depth) in parts per million (ppm) from May 1996 Illinois EPA Sampling Event.
SAMPLE X106 X107 X108 X109 X110 X111 X112 X113 X114 X115 X116 X117 Comparison Values
Pica/Child/Adult
Arsenic 9 11 8 22 12 6 45 5 11 11 8 35 0.6/20/200 EMEG
Barium 106 135 133 131 304 123 283 85 237 127 226 219 100/4000/50000 RMEG
Cadmium 0.5B 3 0. 3B 0.5B 19 0.8B 7 0.4B 1B 0.5B 1B 5 0.4/10/100 EMEG
Chromium 10 10 11 11 52 9 26 7 14 12 8 16 10/300/4000 RMEG
Copper 21 503 14 155 133 42 408 36 96 33 68 1630 NONE
Lead 69 1060 27 174 220 131 1150 85 248 47 217 2840 NONE
Magnesium 1010B 3070 787B 958B 2420 1340B 4020 436B 515B 2620 704B 3040 NONE
Manganese 591 384 248 192 299 494 479 371 245 417 856 355 10/300/4000 RMEG
Nickel 10 67 7B 24 55 25 258 14 10B 13 19 495 40/1000/10000 RMEG
Zinc 349 5200 112 791 1290 554 12500 442 464 272 773 21400 600/20000/200000 CEMEG
LOCATION Park School grounds 19 Orchard (Back-ground) High School Orange behind daycare RT 50 E of site Gore home N 4162
RT 51
Spa 503 Scott 111 Scott

Table 2.

Sandoval Residential Property Surface Soil - Selected Metals (0-6" in depth) in parts per million (ppm) from May 1996 Illinois EPA Sampling Event.
SAMPLE X118 X119 X120 X121 X122 X123 X124 X125 X126 X127 X128 Comparison Values Pica/Child/Adult
Arsenic 12 12 8 16 1B 10 6 9 6 9 6 0.6/20/200 EMEG
Barium 370 362 202 478 51 86 198 213 127 132 97 100/4000/50000 RMEG
Cadmium 2 1 2 5 0.6B 0.3B 0.7B 4 0.3B 0.7B 0.7B 0.4/10/100 EMEG
Chromium 25 15 8 24 7 12 16 17 10 13 8 10/300/4000 RMEG
Copper 107 51 197 204 13 20 45 84 17 152 45 NONE
Lead 266 385 418 747 33 49 135 170 39 274 189 NONE
Magnesium 1050B 793B 1140B 2090 9090 939B 2170 1090B 1130B 1460 768B NONE
Manganese 363 946 631 1020 179 508 562 584 512 615 444 10/300/4000 RMEG
Nickel 18 17 24 28 12 6B 19 17 9B 61 13 40/1000/10000 RMEG
Zinc 897 591 2090 1650 226 108 431 1420 150 1200 1270 600/20000/200000 CEMEG
LOCATION N Main School- yard Clay 114 S. Main Pearl Maple Wyoming Maple Main Nevada 887 Cemetery


Table 3.

Comparison of Sandoval Residential Soil Samples to Illinois Background Levels (in milligrams per kilogram).
METALS Off-site Soil Illinois Soils(a)
Range Mean Median Ranges Mean Median
Arsenic

1-45

12

9

0.35-24

6.7

5.9

Barium

51-478

192

135

<5-1720

130

119

Cadmium

0.3-19

2.4

0.8

<2.5-8.2

0.97

0.5

Chromium

7-52

15

12

<2-151

17.3

14.0

Copper

13-1630

177

68

1-156

19.7

14.0

Lead

27-2840

390

189

4.7-647

49.2

25

Magnesium

436-9090

1853

1130

476-74500

7231

3410

Manganese

179-1020

491

479

61.5-5590

767

631

Nickel

7-495

53

18

<3-135

16.8

14.1

Zinc

23-21400

2356

773

<5.5-798

102.9

67.4

a) "A Summary of Selected Background Conditions for Inorganic in Soil" Illinois EPA/ENV/94-161, August 1994.


Table 4.

Completed Exposure Pathways
Pathway Name: Source Medium Exposure Point Exposure Route Receptor Population Time of Exposure Exposure Activities Estimated Number Exposed Chemicals (identify by name or reference to table in document
Off-site Surface Soil Smelter Residential Soil Yards Ingestion Inhalation Residents Past
Present
Future
Contacting contaminated soil. 1,500 Table 3
On-site Surface Soil Smelter Surface Soil Surface material Ingestion Inhalation Trespassers Past
Present
Future
Contacting contaminated material. 30 Table 1
Contam-inated Air Smelter Air Site and surrounding area Inhalation On-site Smelter Workers;
Area Residents
Past Primary and Secondary Smelting 2,000 Table 1


ATTACHMENTS

Location of Sandoval Zinc
Attachment 1. Location of Sandoval Zinc

Approximate Location of Off-Site Soil Samples
Attachment 2. Approximate Location of Off-Site Soil Samples


ATTACHMENT 3: COMPARISON VALUES USED IN SCREENING CONTAMINANTS FOR FURTHER EVALUATION

Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs) are developed for chemicals based on theirtoxicity, frequency of occurrence at National Priority List (NPL) sites, and potential for humanexposure. They are derived to protect the most sensitive populations and are not action levels, butrather comparison values. They do not consider carcinogenic effects, chemical interactions,multiple route exposure, or other media-specific routes of exposure, and are very conservativeconcentration values designed to protect sensitive members of the population.

Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs) are another type of comparison valuederived to protect the most sensitive populations. They do not consider carcinogenic effects,chemical interactions, multiple route exposure, or other media-specific routes of exposure, andare very conservative concentration values designed to protect sensitive members of thepopulation.

Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs) are estimated contaminant concentrations based on aprobability of one excess cancer in a million persons exposed to a chemical over a lifetime. Theseare also very conservative values designed to protect sensitive members of the population.


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