Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to site content

PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NATIONAL LEAD INDUSTRIES/TARACORP LEAD SMELT SITE
GRANITE CITY, MADISON COUNTY,ILLINOIS


CONCLUSIONS

The Taracorp site in Granite City, Illinois, poses a public health hazard because chronic exposure to lead, antimony, arsenic, and cadmium in off-site soils may cause adverse health effects in children.

  1. A lead exposure study of the population surrounding the site concluded that house dustserved as a major source of lead exposure in small children living near the site and thesource of lead in house dust was the lead in paint and soil. The study indicated that soiland paint were small but significant sources of lead exposure. This study also indicatedthat children between 6 months and 71 months of age near the site were 18 times morelikely to have detectable cadmium in urine. In addition, children with pica habits mayalso experience adverse health effects from exposure to nickel and chromium in off-sitesoils. In addition, airborne cadmium, chromium, and arsenic may increase the risk oflung cancer in area residents.

  2. The Taracorp waste pile is exposed to wind and water erosion, which carrycontaminants to areas where people contact them. This exposure may be minimized bythe use of dust suppressants on the waste pile.

  3. On- and off-site remedial activities involving removal of surface soil and waste pileswill increase the risk of worker and residential exposure to site-related contaminantsthrough inhalation and ingestion.

  4. Workers may be exposed to lead from on-site processes.

  5. If the contaminated soil is removed from root crops, exposure to lead in homegrownfruits and vegetables is not considered a primary exposure pathway. It is not known ifcadmium uptake in homegrown fruits and vegetables is significant.

  6. Groundwater contamination is not presently considered a threat to public health based on lack of groundwater consumption in the area and little off-site migration.

  7. No surface water bodies are polluted by site-related contaminants.

RECOMMENDATIONS

  1. Remediate waste piles to reduce or eliminate exposure to waste pile contaminants.

  2. Reduce exposure to lead by reducing or eliminating exposure sources including dust,lead-based paint, and soil.

  3. Provide information to area residents on how to take measures to reduce exposure tocontaminants in soil, especially exposures to children. These measures include goodhygiene practices, sodding of bare areas of soil, and washing root vegetables.

  4. Provide optimal dust control measures during remedial activities.

  5. Provide appropriate air monitoring at the work site perimeter to ensure warning if the safety of nearby residents is threatened.

  6. Provide appropriate protective clothing for workers who may be exposed tocontaminants during site operations and remediation.

  7. Collect downgradient monitoring well samples next to the site. These should beanalyzed annually to determine contaminant migration.

  8. Conduct blood lead screening for children 6 years of age and younger as part of their routine medical care.

  9. Fruits and vegetables grown in local gardens should be analyzed for cadmium levels.

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The following actions either have or will be performed to meet the needs expressed by the recommendations of this public health assessment. IDPH, in cooperation with ATSDR, will:

  1. Continue to work and consult with Illinois EPA and USEPA on implementation of therecommendations, and on the public health issues that may arise as any action occurs;

  2. Continue to inform area citizens and health professionals of the public health issues associated with the site; and

  3. Continue to solicit the health concerns of citizens living in the site area directly or through Illinois EPA, USEPA, and public meetings.

PREPARERS OF REPORT

Preparer:

David R. Webb
Environmental Toxicologist
Illinois Department of Public Health

Reviewers:
Ken Runkle
Bruce C. Barrow
Illinois Department of Public Health

ATSDR Regional Representative:

Louise Fabinski
Office of Assistant Administrator

ATSDR Technical Project Officers:

Gail Godfrey
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation

Steve Inserra
Division of Health Studies

Courtney Jones
Division of Health Education and Promotion


REFERENCES

  1. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Case Studies in EnvironmentalMedicine, Lead Toxicity. Atlanta, Ga., 1990.

  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. FINAL REPORT: Madison CountyLead Exposure Study - Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield, Illinois.Atlanta, Ga., April 1995.

  3. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Public Health Assessment GuidanceManual. Atlanta, Ga., 1992.

  4. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Antimony (Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1990.

  5. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic(Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1991.

  6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Cadmium(Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1991.

  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chromium (Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1991.

  8. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Lead(Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1991.

  9. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Nickel(Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1991.

  10. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Selenium (Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1988.

  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Zinc(Draft). Atlanta, Ga., 1988.

  12. Illinois Department of Public Health, 1989. Off-site Soil Data (Unpublished), 1992.

  13. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1977Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1977.

  14. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1978Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1978.

  15. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1979Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1979.

  16. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1980Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1980.

  17. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1981Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1981.

  18. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1982Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1982.

  19. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1983Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1983.

  20. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1984Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1984.

  21. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1985Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1985.

  22. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1986Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1986.

  23. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1987Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1987.

  24. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1988Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1988.

  25. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1989Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1989.

  26. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Air Pollution Control, 1990Annual Air Quality Report, Springfield, Il., 1990.

  27. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. On-site Analysis Results (Unpublished),Collinsville, IL. May 1983.

  28. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Land Pollution Control, LeadSurvey of Granite City, Madison, and Venice, Springfield, Il., 1983.

  29. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Division of Land Pollution Control, Draft: A Land Pollution Assessment of Granite City/Taracorp Industries, Springfield, Il., 1984.

  30. Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. File Information regarding SoilCharacterization Samples in Off-site Areas near Jennison-Wright. Springfield, IL., 1990.

  31. Occupational Health and Safety Administration. File Information, Belleville, IL., 1989.

  32. O'Brien and Gere, Draft Report - Feasibility Study, Taracorp Site, Granite City, Illinois, August 1988.

  33. O'Brien and Gere, Draft Report - Remedial Investigation, Granite City Site, GraniteCity, Il., January 1988.

  34. U.S. Census Bureau. Data for Granite City, Madison, and Venice, Madison County,Illinois, Washington, D.C., 1980.

  35. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Air Quality Criteria for Lead, Volume I,Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1986.

  36. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Air Quality Criteria for Lead, Volume II,Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1986.

  37. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Air Quality Criteria for Lead, Volume III,Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1986.

  38. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Air Quality Criteria for Lead, Volume IV,Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1986.

  39. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Health Effects Assessment for Lead, Office ofEmergency and Remedial Response, Washington, D.C., 1984.

  40. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Review Draft: Evaluation of the PotentialCarcinogenicity of Lead and Lead Compounds: In Support of Reportable QuantityAdjustments Pursuant to CERCLA Section 102, Office of Health and EnvironmentalAssessment, Washington, D.C., March 1989.

  41. Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Site Assessment Report: The Jennison-Wright Facility,Granite City, Illinois. 1988.

Next Section     Table of Contents

  
 
USA.gov: The U.S. Government's Official Web PortalDepartment of Health and Human Services
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Atlanta, GA 30341
Contact CDC: 800-232-4636 / TTY: 888-232-6348

A-Z Index

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. E
  6. F
  7. G
  8. H
  9. I
  10. J
  11. K
  12. L
  13. M
  14. N
  15. O
  16. P
  17. Q
  18. R
  19. S
  20. T
  21. U
  22. V
  23. W
  24. X
  25. Y
  26. Z
  27. #