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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

BUCKEYE RECLAMATION LANDFILL
ST. CLAIRSVILLE, BELMONT COUNTY, OHIO


CONCLUSIONS

Buckeye Reclamation Landfill is a public health hazard because of possible exposure to phenols in surface leachate, and the potential for drinking water supplies to become contaminated. Workers at the landfill may have been exposed to site-related chemicals, through skin contact to and inhalation of phenolic compounds in leachate. Phenols are easily absorbed through the skin. The seeps were outside of the fenced Waste Pit area. Leachate contained chemicals which were also present in the Waste Pit, including volatile organic and semivolatile organic compounds. Trespassers, which would include hunters, motorcyclists, and possibly children may also be at risk of exposure. Although workers at the landfill may have been exposed to site-related chemicals, most of the 13 workers were employed at the landfill for two years or less and the exposure duration is not likely to result in health effects.

Groundwater on site contained VOCs. Benzene was detected in nearly all of the monitoring wells on site. Arsenic and chromium were also present in on-site groundwater. No current use for on-site groundwater exists and human exposure from on-site groundwater is not occurring, however, groundwater on site may recharge on-site portions of Kings Run and the off-site alluvial aquifer. This may lead to more extensive, future contamination. At the time of the Remedial Investigation, only one residential well contained toluene at very low levels. The concentration was so low that health effects would not occur. In addition, one residential well contained a relatively high concentration level of lead. The presence of lead in this one sample may not be related to the site, however, it is of public health concern because of the health effects of exposure to lead.

Past mining in the area and disposal of mine waste may enhance movement of contaminants from the soil into the shallowest aquifer (gob aquifer) and from there into the other aquifers. The interconnections between the aquifers may enhance contaminant transport, however, groundwater flow data is insufficient to accurately determine the extent of contaminant migration from the site.


RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Wear proper protective clothing during remedial activities to reduce possible exposure to contaminated soil and dust.

2. Collect additional samples from the off-site alluvial aquifer to accurately determine if this aquifer is hydrologically connected to the on-site aquifers.

3. Collect additional groundwater samples from the Redstone Aquifer to determine the extent of contamination and groundwater flow in this aquifer.

4. Resample the residential well which contained lead to confirm the initial results.

5. Monitor off-site private wells to determine the extent of contaminant migration and to ensure that residents near the site do not use contaminated groundwater.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) Recommendations:

The data and information developed in the Buckeye Reclamation Landfill Public Health Assessment have been evaluated for follow-up health actions. A community health education program will be considered, if community response indicates a need for assistance in understanding the potential for exposure to site-related chemicals. In addition, because the number of workers on site during landfill operations is so small, an epidemiological investigation is not likely to provide useful information.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The Public Health Action Plan for the Buckeye Reclamation Landfill contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and the Ohio Department of Health.

1. The Ohio Department of Health will evaluate additional environmental monitoring data.

2. The Ohio Department of Health will work with the Ohio EPA to insure that the private well containing lead is addressed.

3. ATSDR and the Ohio Department of Health will consider a community health education program if community response indicates a need.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Tracy L. Shelley, M.S.
Chief, Health Assessment Branch
Ohio Department of Health

Robert C. Frey, Ph.D
Geologist, Health Assessment Branch
Ohio Department of Health

Irena Scott, Ph.D
Researcher, Health Assessment Branch
Ohio Department of Health

Reviewed by B. Kim Mortensen, Ph.D
Chief, Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health


ATSDR Regional Representative
Louise Fabinski
Region V
Regional Services
Office of the Assistant Administrator, ATSDR


ATSDR Technical Project Officer
Richard R. Kauffman
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation
Remedial Program Branch


CERTIFICATION

This Buckeye Reclamation Landfill public health assessment was prepared by the Ohio Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Juan J. Reyes for
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1989. Toxicological Profile for Arsenic. ATSDR/TP-88/02.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1990. Toxicological Profile for Benzo(a)pyrene. ATSDR/ TP-88/05.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1990. Toxicological Profile for Lead. ATSDR/TP-88/17.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1989. Toxicological Profile for Phenol.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1990. Toxicological Profile for Naphthalene and 2-Methyl-naphthalene. ATSDR/TP-90-18.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1990. Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydro-carbons. ATSDR/TP-90-20.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 1989. Toxicological Profile for Toluene.

Cifelli, R.C. and Rauch, H.W. 1986. Preliminary results of research on aquifer dewatering effects by underground coal mining in north-central West Virginia. Abstracts for the 2nd Workshop on Surface Subsidence due to Underground Mining. U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement and West Virginia University. p. 92-93.

Deichmann, W. B. and M. L. Keplinger. 1981. Phenols and Phenolic Compounds. Chapter 36. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, eds. Clayton and Clayton.

Gosselin, R. E., R. P. Smith, and H. C. Hodge. 1984. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. p. II-166.

Hartung, R. Cyanides and Nitriles, Chapter 58. 1981. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, eds. Clayton and Clayton.

Hobba, W.A. 1977. Effects of underground mining and mine collapse on the hydrology of selected basins in West Virginia. West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Rept. of Invest. RI-33, p. 77.

International Labor Office Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. 1983. Vols. I and II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office. p. 2114.

International Labour Office. 1983. Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety. Vols. I & II. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office. p. 2213.

Lindbohm, M., M. Sallmen, A. Anttila, H. Taskinen, and K. Hemminki. 1991. Paternal occupational lead exposure and spontaneous abortion. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 17: 95-103.

Metcalf and Eddy. 1990. Feasibility Study for the Buckeye Reclamation Landfill, St. Clairsville, Ohio.

Reynolds, J. E. Fl, Prasad, A.B. (eds.). 1982. Martindale- The Extra Pharmacopoeia. 28th ed. London: The Pharmaceutical Press. p. 926.

Sandmeyer, Ester. Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Chapter 47. 1981. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, eds. Clayton and Clayton.

Sax, N. I. 1984. Dangerous properties of Industrial Materials. 6th ed. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold. p. 1323.

Sittig, Marshall. 1985. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. Noyes Publications. p.950.

Stewart, R. D., et.al. 1969. Archives Environmental Health 19 (4): 467-72.

Stokinger, Herbert. 1981. The metals, Chapter 29. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, eds. Clayton and Clayton.

Torkelson, T. R. and V. K. Rowe. 1981. Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, Chapter--Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, eds. Clayton and Clayton.

Versar, Inc. 1989. Final Remedial Investigation Report for Buckeye Reclamation Landfill, St. Clairsville, Ohio.

Woodward-Clyde. 1985. Initial Site Investigation Report.


GLOSSARY

Acid Mine Drainage:
Surface or underground water draining from mines or sites of mine waste disposal. Water is acidic with high concentrations of iron, aluminum, and other metals. Suspended iron and other dissolved solids often five the water a cloudy orange color.
Aquifer:
A type of porous and permeable earth material (soil or rock) that is capable of holding and storing significant amounts of water.
Bedrock:
The continuous solid rock that forms the earths crust.
Carcinogen:
Any substance that produces cancer.
Central Nervous System:
The brain and the spinal cord.
Chronic Exposure:
An exposure that persists over a period of time.
Corrosive:
To eat into or wear away by the action of chemicals.
Epidemiologic:
The study of the elements that contribute to the occurrence or the nonoccurrence of a disease in a population.
Gastrointestinal:
The stomach and the intestines.
Groundwater:
Water stored beneath the surface of the ground in rock or soil layers.
Hydrological:
Of or pertaining to the study of water, its occurrence, distribution, and chemistry.
Immune System:
The system that protects the body against harmful disease agents.
Infiltration:
The movement of water into and through soil or rock.
Ingestion:
To take into the body, as by swallowing or absorbing.
Intraperitoneal Cavity:
The abdominal cavity.
Leachate:
Water that contains a high amount of dissolved solids and is created by fluid seeping from a landfill.
pH:
A measure of waters' acid or basic property. On a scale of 1 to 14, below 7 is acid and above 7 is basic.
Porous:
Earth materials (soil or rock) composed of variably- packed grains with tiny air or water filled spaces (pores) in- between.
Pulmonary Circulation:
The circulation to the lungs.
Topography:
Pertaining to landform, i.e., the lay of the land.
Water Table:
The level below which underground soil or rock is filled or saturated with groundwater.

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