PRELIMINARY PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
NORTH SANITARY LANDFILL - DAYTON
DAYTON, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, OHIO
The Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study for the North Sanitary Landfill site has not yet begun. The U.S. EPA FIT sampled surface soils, subsurface soils, and groundwater at the site in 1991. The Ohio EPA sampled a number of residential wells in the area over a period of three years from 1988 to 1991.
This section is not a complete listing of all of the chemicals found at the site. Chemicals presented in this section will be discussed in further detail in other sections of the public health assessment. The chemicals listed in these Data Tables are not necessarily a threat to human health and may be eliminated in other sections of the public health assessment. The chemicals listed in the tables were selected because they are present at levels above comparison values and were consistently found at the site.
Comparison values are used as guides to aid in the determination of the chemicals of concern. A chemical is not automatically included as a chemical of concern if it exceeds the comparison value, because people must also be exposed to the chemical or have the potential to be exposed. Comparison values for the chemicals that do not cause cancer are either ATSDR's Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs) or are calculated by ODH when no EMEGs exist for a chemical. The calculated values used the U.S. EPA standard Reference Doses (RfD), adult and/or child body weights, and ingestion rates. If exposure to a child is not likely to occur, as in the workplace, the comparison value will be given only for adults. Cancer Guides are used to assist in the evaluation of the cancer potential for a chemical. They are calculated using the U.S. EPA cancer slope factors, adult body weights and ingestion rates. The formulas used for these calculations are included in Appendix B. The comparison values for drinking water are either the U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL), ATSDR EMEGs, or calculated by ODH, which ever is the lowest number.
Soil samples were taken at the site from at least 25 locations (Figure 3, Appendix A). The samples were taken from the upper six inches of soil, primarily from the former waste disposal areas. PCBs were detected slightly above levels of concern in two samples. Mercury and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected below levels of concern (Table 2). Levels of organic chemicals were highest in Disposal Area #1 and at the south end of Disposal Area #5. Mercury was distributed rather uniformly in surface soils across the site.
Subsurface sampling was completed in 1991. Soil samples were taken from soil borings at depths of from 23 to 35 feet, just above or below the local water table. The same chemicals detected in on-site shallow soils (0-6 inches) were present at lower concentrations in subsurface soils.
|CHEMICAL||CONCENTRATION (mg/kg)||COMPARISON VALUE (mg/kg)|
|ND=Chemical not detected
mg/kg=Parts per million
1 = Noncancer comparison value calculated by ODH
2 = Cancer Risk Guide calculated by ODH
Groundwater - Monitoring Wells
Six on-site monitoring wells were sampled by U.S. EPA contractors in May, 1991. All wells were screened at shallow depths, averaging 33 feet below ground surface, just below the water table. Elevated levels of a number of chemical contaminants were detected in on-site groundwater (Table 3). The highest levels of contaminants came from monitoring well #6 drilled in Disposal Area #5 and in monitoring well #8 at the north edge of the site (Figure 4, Appendix A).
CONTAMINATION IN ON-SITE GROUNDWATER MONITORING WELLS (1991)
|CHEMICAL||CONCENTRATION (µg/L)||COMPARISON VALUE (µg/L)|
|ND=Chemical not detected
NA=Data not available
µg/L=Parts per billion
1 = U.S.EPA Maximum Contaminant Level
2 = Cancer Risk Guide calculated by ODH
*Comparison Value given for both DCE isomers
Groundwater - Private Wells
As early as 1972, at least one private well on Valleycrest Drive was shown to be contaminated with trichloroethene, dichloroethene, dichloroethane, lead, and cadmium. Four other private wells along Valleycrest Drive were contaminated. The sample results were not available for review.
A total of twenty-seven residential wells, on Troy Street west and north of the site, were sampled from 1988 to 1991. Eleven of these wells were contaminated with a variety of organic chemicals and metals (Table 4). The source(s) of the contamination in these 11 residential wells is not known.
In total, from 1972 to 1991, fourteen privates well have been shown to be impacted by the site or other nearby facilities. Public water has been supplied to nine of these residences, two wells are still in use, and the status of the other three wells is unknown. In addition, public water was supplied to all of the residences along Valleycrest Drive. Water quality in residential wells in the Avondale community just east of the NSL site is currently unknown.
|CHEMICAL||CONCENTRATION (µg/L)||COMPARISON VALUE (µg/L)|
|ND-Chemical not detected
NA=Data not available
µg/L=Parts per billion
1=U.S. EPA Maximum contaminant level
2=Cancer Risk Guide calculated by ODH
*Comparison Value given for both DCE isomers
The sample date of the one residential well with high level of lead was not known, however, this well has not been used as a water supply since at least 1970 (exact date unknown). The resident stated that they were supplied with public water in the late sixties.
Groundwater - Monitoring Wells
Groundwater contamination has also been discovered in the sand and gravel aquifer near the NSL site. Gasoline is floating on top of the water table under the petroleum storage terminal on Brandt Pike. There was also a major solvent spill at the adjacent industrial laundry facility in 1986 (Mark Case, MCHD, 1994). Monitoring wells at the BP petroleum storage facility sampled in 1991 (BP-11; BP18, see Figure 4) had high levels of a number of VOCs including benzene 2,900-7,900 µg/L; toluene 7,400-11,000 µg/L; ethylbenzene 6,600-10,000 µg/L; and xylenes 31,000-51,000 µg/L (E & E, 1991).
Currently, there are no on-site or off-site data available for soil gas, ambient air, leachate, surface water, sediments, deep parts of the on-site aquifer or off-site soil. The landfilling of municipal waste generally causes the formation of soil gases, particularly methane. These gases can migrate away from waste areas and enter sewers, utility conduits, and buildings. On-site soil sampling data are limited.
In addition, the exact number and location of private wells still in use in the area is not known. They may still be people using private wells that may be impacted by disposal at the site. There is also confusion about when public water was supplied to area residents.
In preparing this preliminary health assessment, the Ohio Department of Health and ATSDR rely on the information provided in the referenced documents and assume that adequate quality assurance and quality control measures were followed with regard to chain-of-custody, laboratory procedures, and data reporting. The validity of the analysis and conclusions drawn for this public health assessment are determined by the completeness and reliability of this referenced information.
The site is in the process of being fenced. Much of the site appears to be a grass and brush-covered vacant lot. There were piles of household garbage and automobile parts were scattered across the site and there are deep gravel pits on site. Children could easily hurt themselves on the rusted automobile parts. Landfilled wastes and rusted drums were reported at the surface in Disposal Area #1 by U.S. EPA contractors (E & E, 1991). Trash, auto parts, and abandoned vehicles were observed in these pits (E & E, 1991).
The Pathways Analysis Section contains discussions of how chemicals move in the environment (environmental pathways) and how people can be exposed to the chemicals (human exposure pathways). For example, chemicals in a landfill can move through the landfill into the groundwater or seep out of a landfill at the surface (leachate). Chemicals in soil can be blown off site by the wind or can be carried away from the site by rain water runoff. Contaminated dirt can also be washed into nearby streams or lakes. Chemicals in the soil can also migrate into the groundwater. Rainwater washes some chemicals through the soil into the groundwater. Chemicals that do not mix with water can move through the soil by mixing with other chemicals such as solvents. Contaminated groundwater can move away from a site with the natural flow of the aquifer or by pumping of the groundwater by cities (for water supplies), businesses, and private drinking water wells.
Chemicals that occur as a gas in the pores or small openings between soil particles are called "soil gas." Soil gas can migrate through subsurface soil into foundations, sewers, utility lines, and other structures or vent into the air (Hemker and Bertelson, 1991). It is not known how fast or slow soil gases can move through soil. Factors such as subsurface fractures and barometric pressure fluctuations can affect the rate of movement of gases (Thibodeaux, Springer, and Riley, 1982). Soil gases tend to move from areas of high pressure, such as underground, to areas of low pressure, such as the air or in buildings.
Chemicals disposed of at North Sanitary Landfill have moved away from the site by moving through the soil into the groundwater. Liquid waste may have been dumped into what is essentially the water table. Citizens have stated that blowing dust and dirt were a problem at the site during landfilling operations. It is a possibility that contaminated dirt or dust has blown off of the site. Soil near the surface on site was slightly contaminated although the data were somewhat limited. No off site surface samples have been taken. The extent of soil contamination on site is not known and it is not known if there is any contamination of off-site soil.
Human Exposure Pathways
There are two types of human exposure pathways, completed and potential. A completed exposure pathway means that there is a source of the chemical (the site), contaminated media at the site (such as groundwater or soil), there is a point at which people can be exposed (a well drawing from the contaminated groundwater plume), and people are exposed (using contaminated water from the well). The exposure could have occurred in the past, could be occurring now, or could occur in the future.
When a water source is contaminated, exposure may occur by three different ways or routes of exposure. People can be exposed to chemicals by drinking the water, inhaling chemicals that volatilize from water during showering or bathing, and by the skin coming in contact with the chemicals.
A potential exposure pathway means that we are uncertain about one of the pieces of the pathway discussed previously. A potential exposure pathway would exist at a site where groundwater is contaminated and there are no people currently using the water. Everyone living near the site are hooked up to public water. A potential exposure pathway would exist at a site if there are not adequate monitoring data to determine whether or not people have been exposed.
An exposure pathway can be eliminated as a pathway of concern if a chemical is in the groundwater or soil, but people are not in contact with the contaminated dirt or water. For example, groundwater at a site or near a site is contaminated, but everyone within a 10 mile radius of the site uses public water from a reservoir far away from the site. Since the groundwater is not used, people will not be exposed to the chemicals in the groundwater.
Groundwater is a completed exposure pathway at the North Sanitary Landfill site (Table 5). As early as 1972, at least one private well on Valleycrest Drive was known to be contaminated with trichloroethene, dichloroethene, dichloroethane, lead, and cadmium. Four other private wells along Valleycrest Drive were also contaminated. Later, eleven other private wells were shown to be contaminated with a number of VOCs and metals. In total, from 1972 to 1991, fourteen private well have been contaminated by the site or other nearby facilities. Public water has been supplied to nine of these residences, two wells are still in use, and the status of the other three wells is unknown. Public water was also supplied to all of the residences along Valleycrest Drive.
Water quality in residential wells in the Avondale community just east of the NSL site is currently unknown. The exact number and location of private wells still in use in the area is not known. There may still be people using private wells that may be impacted by disposal at the site. Local residents living adjacent to the site in Mad River Township get their drinking water from private wells drilled into the sand and gravel aquifer that underlies the site or may be hooked up to public water. ODNR well logs show approximately 114 private wells within a 1-mile radius of the NSL site. It is not known if all of these 114 wells are currently in use or when if any residents have hooked up to public water supplies. In addition, not every private well has a well log and there may be more private wells in use for which there are no well logs.
The city of Dayton's Miami South Wellfield is also dependant on this sand and gravel aquifer. The well field is 4,000 feet northwest of the site. The well field pumps 20-24 million gallons per day and provides drinking water to roughly 150,000 residents of the city of Dayton.
The monitoring data for surface soils on site is limited. Surface soil off site, soil gas on site and off site, surface water and sediment on site and off site have not been sampled. Historical data indicates that disposal practices were sloppy and likely contributed to contamination of all of these media, therefore, they are considered to be potential exposure pathways.
|Source||Media||Route of Exposure||Exposed Population||When the Exposure Occurred|
|North Sanitary Landfill||Completed Exposure Pathways|
|Residents with private wells downgradient from the site.||Past, |
|Potential Exposure Pathways|
|Soil Gas||Breathing||Residents living next to the site||Unknown|
|Surface Soil||Eating, Skin Contact||Residents living next to the site, on-site trespassers||Unknown|
|Surface Water, Sediment,
|Skin Contact||Residents living next to the site, on-site trespassers||Unknown|
Lead exposure could have occurred through drinking contaminated drinking water. At least one private well contained very high levels of lead. It is not known for certain if exposure occurred because the resident was provided with public water several years prior to the discovery of the contamination. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to lead through the groundwater at or near the site.
The effects of lead in the body are the same no matter how it has entered. Lead exposure is most dangerous in young children and fetuses. Pregnant women who have had lead exposure will pass lead to their unborn children. Unborn children can be harmed during fetal development. Lead exposure in a pregnant woman may result in premature birth, low birth weight, or even miscarriage (ATSDR, 1990). Young children absorb lead through the digestive tract more readily than do adults and they are more sensitive to its effects. Lead exposure in young children can decrease their intelligence (IQ) scores, cause hearing problems, and slow their growth. These effects may last as they get older and interfere with their performance in school. It can damage the brain and kidneys of children and adults, and may increase blood pressure in adults (ATSDR, 1990).
Private wells located north of the site were found to be contaminated with trichloroethene. People can be exposed to TCE by drinking contaminated water, inhaling vapors released from water during household use, and coming in contact with the water through showering. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to TCE. The contamination was discovered during sampling between 1988 and 1992. By 1992, the residents with contaminated wells were provided with Dayton city water. The highest level of TCE was 40 µg/L. If a person were to drink groundwater containing the highest level of trichloroethene for their entire lives, the estimated dose should not significantly increase the risk of developing cancer. The exposure would need to be over the person's lifetime. This estimated dose does not incorporate exposures that may occur through skin contact and inhalation of vapors released from water during household use. TCE levels did exceed the U.S.EPA MCL.
TCE absorption following oral exposure is quite rapid. The principal target organs of TCE in both humans and animals are the bone marrow, brain, spinal cord, liver, and kidney (ATSDR,1988). No information is available about the effects of TCE to humans in the exposure level range that occurred.
TCE in drinking water in combination with other VOCs has been associated with congenital mouth and nervous system defects and very low birthweight (Bove et al., 1992), and childhood leukemia, deaths around the time of birth, childhood disorders, and congenital abnormalities (Lagakos, 1986). TCE has also been associated with leukemia and recurrent infections (Byers et al., 1988), and heart disease (Goldberg, 1990). These studies, however, did not provide sufficient evidence that TCE causes these harmful health effects, because the people were exposed to more than one chemical simultaneously. It is difficult to determine which chemical or combination of chemicals would be associated with the various adverse effects. Moreover, information on other risk factors for these adverse effects was not included in this study.
Private wells located north of the site were found to be contaminated with vinyl chloride. Residents could have been exposed by drinking contaminated water, inhaling vapors released from water during household use, and coming in contact with the water through showering. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to vinyl chloride through the groundwater at or near the site. The contamination was discovered during sampling between 1988 and 1992. By 1992, the residents with contaminated wells were provided with Dayton city water. The highest level of vinyl chloride was 2.07 µg/L. If a person were to drink groundwater containing the highest level of vinyl chloride for their entire lives, the estimated dose could slightly increase the risk of developing cancer. The exposure would have to be over the person's lifetime. This estimated dose does not incorporate exposures that may occur through skin contact and inhalation of vapors released from water during household use. Vinyl chloride levels also exceed the U.S.EPA MCL.
Rat studies indicate that vinyl chloride is rapidly and completely absorbed from the digestive tract. The chief target organ for orally exposed animals is the liver (ATSDR,1989). Studies of the effects of low levels of vinyl chloride in humans have not been conducted.
Long-term occupational exposure to levels much higher than those that would be expected from the contaminated wells, has caused "vinyl chloride disease." This disease is characterized by severe damage to the liver, effects on the lungs, thickening of the skin, poor circulation in the fingers, changes in the bones at the end of the fingers, and changes in the blood. An increased risk of developing liver cancer and possibly several other cancers has been linked with occupational inhalation exposure (ATSDR, 1989). Vinyl chloride is regarded worldwide as a chemical that causes cancer in humans, however, the exposure levels necessary to cause cancer in humans is not known.
Private wells located north of the site were found to be contaminated with cadmium. People could have been exposed to cadmium by drinking contaminated water. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to cadmium. The contamination was discovered during sampling between 1988 and 1992. By 1992, the residents with contaminated wells were provided with Dayton city water. The highest level of cadmium was 41 µg/L. If a person were to drink groundwater containing the highest level of cadmium for their entire lives, the estimated dose could slightly exceed levels of concern.
In people, the kidney is the target organ of cadmium exposure. Exposure to levels around 15,000 µg/L can cause excess excretion certain types of proteins. It is not known what other health effects would result from excess excretion of these proteins. Human and animal exposure to cadmium in high concentrations causes irritation of the gastrointestinal system resulting in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. At very high levels of exposure, men and women have experienced effects on reproduction. High blood pressure has also been associated with oral exposure to cadmium, but only consistently in animal studies. Animal studies have also shown an association with effects on the nervous system and exposure to cadmium. Symptoms of exposure included, decreases in motor activity, weakness, and muscle atrophy (ATSDR, 1992).
Groundwater on site contained high levels of benzene. The highest level of benzene on site was 56 µg/L. Monitoring wells just west of the site also contained very high levels of benzene. There is a potential for private wells near the site to become contaminated with benzene. People could be exposed to benzene by drinking contaminated water, inhaling vapors released from water during household use, and coming in contact with the water through showering. There are no data which indicate that people are being exposed or have been exposed to benzene.
If a person were to ingest water containing benzene at the highest level found in on-site groundwater, the estimated dose should not increase the risk of developing cancer. The exposure would have to be throughout the persons lifetime. This estimate does not incorporate exposures that may occur through skin contact and inhalation of vapors released from water during household use.The concentration exceeded the U.S. EPA MCL.
Animal studies have shown that nearly all of an ingested dose of benzene is absorbed. The chief target systems for benzene are the blood and the immune systems. There is epidemiologic research suggesting that low level human exposure to benzene is associated with a type of leukemia, however, this information is too limited to substantiate a causal relationship at levels as low as 1-10 parts per million (ppm) (Austin et al., 1988). Human and animal studies indicate that benzene harms the immune system. It lowers the body's defense against tumors and increases the chance for infections. Benzene exposure has also been linked with genetic effects in both animals and humans. Animal studies show that benzene adversely effects the unborn. These effects include low birth weight, delayed bone formation, and bone marrow damage. Some of these effects can occur at benzene levels as low as 10 parts of benzene per million parts of air.
DCE is found in two chemical forms, a cis and a trans isomer (or form). The DCE measurements at the landfill did not distinguish these forms. Groundwater on site contained high levels of 1,2-DCE. Private wells sampled between 1988 and 1991 also contained 1,2-DCE, but at much lower levels. The highest level of 1,2-DCE on site was 430 µg/L. There is a potential for additional private wells near the site to become contaminated with 1,2-DCE. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to 1,2-DCE. People could be exposed to DCE by drinking contaminated water, inhaling vapors released from water during household use, and coming in contact with the water through showering.
If a person were to ingest water containing 1,2-DCE at the highest level found in on-site groundwater, the estimated dose should not exceed levels of concern. The concentration did exceed the U.S. EPA MCL. This estimate does not incorporate exposures that may occur through skin contact and inhalation of vapors released from water during household use.
There were no human data available for acute or long-term exposure to 1,2-dichloroethene, DCE. Low concentrations of 1,2-dichloroethene, in drinking water in combination with other VOCs, have been associated with congenital mouth and nervous system defects (Bove et al., 1992), and childhood leukemia, deaths around the time of birth, childhood disorders, congenital abnormalities, recurrent infections, and with heart disease (Lagakos, 1986) (Byers et al., 1988) (Goldberg, 1990). These studies, however, do not provide sufficient evidence that 1,2-dichloroethene causes these adverse health effects, because the people were simultaneously exposed to more than one chemical. It is difficult to determine which chemical or combination of chemicals would be associated with the various adverse effects. Moreover, information on other risk factors for these adverse effects was not included in these studies.
Private wells contained 1,1-DCE at 10 µg/L. Exposure to DCE through drinking contaminated groundwater should not exceed levels of concern. People could be exposed to DCE by drinking contaminated water, inhaling vapors released from water during household use, and coming in contact with the water through showering. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to 1,1-DCE. The concentration, however, slightly exceeded the U.S. EPA MCL of 7 µg/L. If a person were to ingest water containing DCE at the highest level found in on-site groundwater, the estimated dose should not increase the risk of developing cancer.
When people inhale 1,1-DCE, it can induce harmful nervous system effects and possibly liver and kidney damage. No information is available on the health effects in humans who ate food or drank water that contained 1,1-DCE. Animal studies show that inhaled 1,1-DCE can affect the liver, kidneys, and lungs (the lowest level that has been reported to have an effect is 10 ppm). Breathing exposure of pregnant female rats to 1,1-DCE resulted in birth defects in the offspring. Animals that consumed much higher concentrations of the substance than found at this site, experienced liver and kidney effects. The EPA had determined that it is a possible human carcinogen (cancer-causing agent).
Private wells contained 24 µg/L of DCA. There were much higher levels found in on-site groundwater. People could be exposed to DCA by drinking contaminated water, inhaling vapors released from water during household use, and coming in contact with the water through showering. There are no data which indicate that people are currently being exposed to 1,1-DCA. There is no reliable information about how exposure to 1,1-DCA affects people's health or about what are the lowest levels that are harmful.
When 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA) is breathed in or swallowed, it may go to many body organs. However, most of it remains unchanged and leaves the body within two days. A small part of it is broken down and these breakdown products are quickly lost in the breath or urine.. In animals, breathing exposure to high levels of 1,1-DCA can affect the kidneys and the breathing exposure of pregnant animals has resulted in effects upon offspring cancer (ATSDR,1992).
The only health outcome data readily available for review are birth and death statistics for Montgomery County. These data are not relevant when evaluating the potential effects from one site located in one city in the county.
1. Concerns were expressed that air strippers at a nearby facility were operating without filters. People felt that air from strippers may pose threat to neighborhood residents. Other community members concurred with this concern.
Response: The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency did indicate that the strippers are operating without carbon filters. They have stated that they will at least sample the water coming into the strippers.
2. Citizens also remarked on an increased incidence in cancer cases (especially lung, but also colon and leukemia) in the area. Several of the people diagnosed with lung cancer had no history of smoking and did not have any readily identifiable common occupational exposure. A "census tracking" exercise of the area surrounding the site was completed by Wright State Nursing students.
Response: We reviewed the "census tracking" document and determined that the information was very generalized and not particularly relevant to the site.
3. Citizens from different areas, mostly on Valleycrest, mentioned a stench that rose from plumbing in their houses. One person engaged a plumber who indicated that it was gas build-up, but this person had no other information and could not remember the name of the plumber.
Response: We are aware, from a number of different sources, about odor concerns about the site. At this time there is no information available for review on soil gases or surface water, both likely causes of odor problems. We have recommended that samples of soil gas and surface water be taken as part of the remedial investigation.
4. Citizen mentioned the existence of a Cyanide Lake at one time across from his house.
Response: Cyanide will be included on the list of chemicals that will be checked for during the site investigation.
5. Other concerns were voiced about the incidence of nose bleeds. Some mentioned they believed migrating dust from the site might be the culprit. These nose bleeds are reported to occur all year round and the duration of the problem has been 6 months to 2 years. Several people mentioned burning eyes and headaches a frequent occurrences.
Response: At this time, soil at the site does not appear to be extensively contaminated, although, the monitoring data are limited in scope. There is not enough information to say whether or not materials at the site could cause excessive nosebleeds. We will complete a toxicological review to determine what, if any, chemicals could cause this to occur. We have recommended that additional sampling be done during the remedial investigation. We will be better able to respond to this concern when we have more complete monitoring data.
6. There was consensus among the citizens present that containment of the site was a major problem. As soon as fencing is up, people cut it down or run down the fence posts. They have attempted to contact Ohio EPA staff and the police, but these people do not respond quickly enough to catch trespassers. There was mutual concern about continued dumping of garbage on the site. Citizens have seen people dumping household garbage and dead animals.
Response: The site is in the process of being fenced. ODH will work with Ohio EPA and the Montgomery County Health Department to notify the local authorities of our concerns about the site. In addition, the owner is required by superfund law to ensure site security.
7. Because of activity on the site, citizens thought soil should be monitored on a more frequent basis. Concerns were also voiced about the safety of eating from a vegetable garden in her yard.
Response: We have also recommended that additional on-site and off-site soil samples be taken during the remedial investigation at the site. We will be better able to respond to this concern after the completion of the remedial investigation.
Community concern information was also gathered by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) centered around whether or not the site poses a health risk to local residents, the types of chemicals dumped in the landfill, the potential health risks to children playing at the site, the timing of the site's clean-up, and risks to local residents posed by what ever clean-up activities are carried out at the site.
Other concerns related to the site included a widely-held perception of a high incidence of cancer in adjacent residential neighborhoods. Residents reported a high incidence of headaches, nose-bleeds, and childhood asthma in families living on Pompano Court, downwind and adjacent to Disposal Area #1. Residents were concerned about the threat the site posed to local residential wells and the city of Dayton's water supply. Residents also complained of exposures to foundry dust and on-site fires "spewing toxic smoke" when the landfill was in operation.
The site was considered a public nuisance and eye-sore, leading to lowering of residential property values. Concerns listed included remarks that the site was overgrown with weeds and brush, contained stagnant pools of water, was used as a dump for household garbage and auto parts, was a hang-out for drug addicts, and was frequented by dirt-bikers and four-wheelers. Citizens expressed a common goal for the site to be cleaned up and fenced.