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The North Sanitary Landfill posed a public health hazard in the past. At one time, there were at least fourteen private wells contaminated with chemicals above levels of concern. Public water has been supplied to nine of these residences, two wells are still in use, and the status of the other three wells is unknown. Public water was also supplied to all of the residences along Valleycrest Drive. The exposure stopped at the nine residences when they were provided with public water. It is not known how long the exposure actually lasted. Sampling of the two wells still in use indicated low level contamination that should not pose a risk to the residents. Some residences were supplied with public water as early as the 1960's. The site started landfilling operations in 1966 and the first private well was reported to be contaminated in 1972. Public water was supplied to other area residents around 1974. A total of twenty-seven residential wells, located primarily on Troy Street west and north of the site, were sampled from 1988 to 1991.

The North Sanitary Landfill site poses an indeterminate public health hazard because of the possibility of exposure to site-related chemicals. This conclusion does not mean that there are not hazardous materials at the site, but that additional data are needed to characterize the hazard potential of the site. Preliminary data shows that on-site soil may be contaminated with site-related chemicals. The full extent of the contamination is not known. The site is only partially fenced and people likely enter the site. There are no monitoring data for leachate, surface water, sediment, off-site soil, or soil gases. Water quality in residential wells in the Avondale community just east of the NSL site is currently unknown. The exact number and location of private wells still in use in the area is not known. There may still be people using private wells that may be impacted by disposal at the site.

Environmental monitoring data are limited, and the scope of the contamination is not known. We cannot determine if other chemicals on-site or off-site, pose a risk to people. It is not known if and at what levels other chemicals are present on site or off site. Additional environmental monitoring data are needed to fully characterize the potential and completed exposure pathways at the site. Additional information detailing on-site and off-site contamination is needed and should be addressed in the remedial investigation/feasibility study.


1. Monitoring data are needed to determine the risks associated with on-site and off-site soil, airborne dust, groundwater, soil gases, leachate, surface water, and sediment.

2. Complete a private water well survey to determine the number of residents in the area using private wells as a water source.

3. Obtain accurate information from the city of Dayton on the dates when public water was supplied to the nine residences with contaminated wells or other residences near the site.

4. The data and information developed in the North Sanitary Landfill Preliminary Public Health Assessment have been evaluated for appropriate follow-up activities. At this time, ODH and Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) have concluded that there is insufficient information to determine the need for follow-up activities at this time. The need for additional follow-up activities will be reevaluated when additional information is gathered concerning the private well survey and when additional monitoring data are collected. ODH will continue to work on community education efforts in the community, including fact sheets and public availability meetings.


The following Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) for the North Sanitary Landfill site contains a description of actions to be taken by ODH and/or ATSDR at and in the vicinity of this site subsequent to the completion of this preliminary public health assessment. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this preliminary public health assessment not only identifies public health hazards but also provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. Included in this plan is a commitment on the part of ATSDR/ODH to follow-up on this plan to ensure that it is implemented.

ODH will evaluate the environmental monitoring data collected as part of the remedial investigation.

ODH will complete a more indepth evaluation of the potential risks associated with the site when more comprehensive data become available.

ODH with work with the Montgomery County Health Department and the city of Dayton to complete a well survey of the area. ODH with also determine exact dates when public water was supplied to some residents in the area. A private well user survey was sent to approximately 100 residents in the area and ODH is currently awaiting the results.


Tracy Shelley, M.S.
Chief, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Robert Frey, Ph.D
Geologist, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Irena Scott, Ph.D
Researcher, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Amanda Burkett, M.A.
Epidemiologist, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Reviewed by B. Kim Mortensen, Ph.D
Chief, Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

ATSDR Regional Representative

Louise Fabinski
Regional Operations
Senior Health Scientist
Region V

ATSDR Technical Project Officer
Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment
and Consultation, Remedial Program Branch


This North Sanitary Landfill Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Ohio Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman, M.S.
Technical Project Officer
Superfund Site Assessment Branch
Division of Health Assessment and Consultation (DHAC)

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Richard Gillig
for Robert C. Williams, P.E., DEE
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Benzene. ATSDR/TP-88/03, 1989.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Draft Toxicological Profile for 1,1- Cadmium. ATSDR, 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Draft Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethene. ATSDR, 1992.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for 1,1-Dichloroethane. ATSDR, 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Lead. ATSDR/TP-88/17, 1990.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. ATSDR/TP-88/24.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. ATSDR/TP-88/25, 1989.

Austin, H. et al. Reviews and Commentary. Benzene and Leukemia, A Review of the Literature and a Risk Assessment. Am. J. Epidemiol. 127:3, 419-439. 1988.

Byers, V., A. Levin, D. Ozonoff, and R. Baldwin. Association between clinical symptoms and lymphocyte abnormalities in a population with chronic domestic exposure to industrial solvent-contaminated domestic water supply and a high incidence of leukaemia. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 27:77-81. 1988.

Bove, Frank J., Fulcomer, Mark C., and Klotz, Judith B. Population-Based Surveillance and Etiological Research of Adverse Reproductive Outcomes and Toxic Wastes, Phase IV-A and Phase IV-B. New Jersey Department of Health. November 1992.

CH2M Hill. 1986. Miami Well Field Study for the City of Dayton.

Ecology & Environment. 1991. Expanded Site Inspection/Groundwater Pathway Assessment for North Sanitary Landfill, Dayton, Ohio.

Goldberg, S., M. Lebowitz, E. Graver, and S. Hicks. An association of human congenital cardiac malformations and drinking water contaminants. JACC Vol. 16:155-164. July, 1990.

Lagakos, S., B. Wessen, and M. Zelen. An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. Jr. Am. Statist. Assoc. 81:583-596. 1986.

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Responses to Community Relations Plan Survey, Valleycrest Landfill, Dayton, Ohio.

Plummer, C. 1974. Miami Conservancy District, Dayton, Ohio. Weekly Progess Report, January 28 to February 1, 1974.

Plummer, C. 1973. An Investigation of the Effects of Waste Disposal Practices on Groundwater Quality in Montgomery County. Miami Conservancy District, Regional Planning Committee.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1993. National Priorities Listing for the North Sanitary Landfill, Dayton, Ohio.

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