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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

POWELL ROAD LANDFILL
DAYTON, MONTGOMERY COUNTY, OHIO


CONCLUSIONS

Powell Road Landfill poses a public health hazard because of a possibility of past exposures and because of the potential for exposure to VOCs in drinking water supplies. The available data do not indicate that people are currently being exposed. On-site workers might have been or may be exposed to airborne VOCs. Future exposure to airborne contaminants would be important if the landfill cap integrity is adversely affected during remediation activities. Proper protective equipment would limit exposure.

Groundwater on site and off site was contaminated with VOCs. Exposure to vinyl chloride, chloroethane, 1,2- dichloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane through ingestion, inhalation, and contact with the skin may have occurred and may occur in the future. There are a number of primary drinking water sources in the vicinity of Powell Road Landfill, which have been or have the potential to become contaminated. A well field supplying the city of Dayton is located 1.5 miles south of the site. In addition, the city of Dayton is proposing a second well field northwest of the site. The community of Eldorado Plat, just south of the site, uses private well supplies. The communities of Huber Heights and part of Mad River Township are supplied by wells (Ohio Suburban Water Company) located .75 miles south of the site. The Sunny Acres Mobile Home Park wells were contaminated at one time, but exposure has ceased. Groundwater flow from the site is toward the southeast in the direction of these communities' water supplies. The estimated travel time of contaminated groundwater from the site to Eldorado Plat is 1-3 years and 1-5 years to the Ohio Suburban Water Company wells.

The presence of a number of chemical constituents in vent vapor and vent liquid may also serve as a source of contaminants which may be transported via soil gas. Soil gas data were limited and the extent of soil gas contamination could not be determined.


RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Adequate personal protective equipment should be worn during site remediation to limit exposure to VOCs in on-site air.

2. Monitor on-site ambient air during any remedial activities that may alter the integrity of the landfill cap. This is necessary to insure that levels of contaminants in on-site ambient air do not increase posing a risk to workers and downwind residents.

3. Expand the soil gas survey to determine the extent of soil gas contamination and likelihood of migration to nearby residents.

4. Groundwater monitoring should be done at area water supplies (public and private), to periodically test for the presence of contaminants. Wells southeast of PRL and in the direction of groundwater flow, are particularly at risk of contamination.

5. Implement flood control methods to reduce the impact of flooding of the Great Miami River on the base of the landfill.

6. Regularly inspect the methane alarms in the two homes north of the site.

7. When indicated by public health needs, and as resources permit, the evaluation of additional relevant health outcome data and community health concerns, if available, is recommended.

Health Activities Recommendation Panel (HARP) recomendations:

The data and information developed in the Powell Road Landfill Public Health Assessment have been evaluated for appropriate follow-up health activities. ATSDR and ODH determined that residents may need information about the nature and possible consequences of exposure to contaminants associated with the Powell Road Landfill. An environmental health education program is recommended to advise the local medical community and local citizens about chemical exposure. The following follow-up actions have also been considered:

- Inclusion in the TCE subregistry;
- A disease and symptom prevalence study; and
- Development of a voluntary disease and symptom tracking system.

If data become available suggesting that humans are currently being exposed to levels of hazardous substances that may adversely impact human health, ATSDR will reevaluate this site for additional follow-up public health actions.


PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

The Public Health Action Plan for the Powell Road Landfill contains a description of actions to be taken by ATSDR and the ODH.

1. Because the community has expressed concerns about this site, the Ohio Department of Health and ATSDR plan to develop a Community Assistance Panel (CAP) for the community in the vicinity of Powell Road Landfill. The CAP will provide a forum to exchange information. Important topics and information to be discussed are the limitations of possible follow-up actions, and how the agencies can assist in identifying the people who may have been exposed. The CAP will also ensure community involvement in any follow-up action performed.

2. An environmental health education program is recommended to advise the public health professional and the local medical community of the nature and possible consequences of exposure to contaminants at the Powell Road Landfill site. The value of obtaining a complete and accurate exposure histories will be stressed as part of this program. In addition, information that is provided on the contaminants of concern may include, but not be limited to, the physical nature of the contaminant, potential exposure pathways, routes of exposure, potential health effects, symptoms of exposure, testing, and treatment, if known. This activity will be conducted by the ATSDR Division of Health Education in conjunction with the local medical community.

3. The Ohio Department of Health will review any additional environmental sampling at the site.

Comments on Public Health Actions:

1. Follow-up actions at this site may be difficult to perform because the possibly exposed population is believed to be transient, the length of time, and the levels of chemicals to which people may have been exposed is not known, and cannot be determined because of the length of time since exposure ceased. The exposures to the population off site ended approximately eight years ago when public water was supplied to the community.

2. At the present time, ATSDR has no plans to add registrants to the TCE subregistry. If an analysis of the data on current registrants should indicate a need for additional members, this site will be considered for inclusion on the TCE subregistry.


PREPARERS OF REPORT

Tracy L. Shelley, M.S.
Chief, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Robert C. Frey, Ph.D
Geologist, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Irena Scott, Ph.D
Researcher, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Evelyn Christner, M.A.
Epidemiologist, Health Assessment Branch
Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

Reviewed by B. Kim Mortensen, Ph.D
Chief, Bureau of Epidemiology and Toxicology
Ohio Department of Health

ATSDR Regional Representative
Louise Fabinski
Regional Operations
Senior Health Scientist
Region V

ATSDR Technical Project Officer
Richard R. Kauffman
Environmental Health Scientist
Division of Health Assessment
and Consultation, Remedial Program Branch


CERTIFICATION

This public health assessment was prepared by the Ohio Department of Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Richard R. Kauffman
Technical Project Officer, SPS, RPB, DHAC

The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment, and concurs with its findings.

Robert C. Williams
Director, DHAC, ATSDR


REFERENCES

Bove, Frank J., Fulcomer, Mark C., and Klotz, Judith B. Population- Based Surveillance and Etiological Research of Adverse Reproductive Outcomes and Toxic Wastes, Phase IV-A and Phase IV-B. New Jersey Department of Health. November 1992.

Byers, V., A. Levin, D. Ozonoff, and R. Baldwin. Association between clinical symptoms and lymphocyte abnormalities in a population with chronic domestic exposure to industrial solvent-contaminated domestic water supply and a high incidence of leukaemia. Cancer. Immunol. Immunother. 27:77-81. 1988.

CH2M Hill, Inc. Miami Well Field Study--Environmental Protection Program Plan Report, Volume 1. 1986.

Dames and Moore, Eagon and Associates, Inc. Remedial Investigation Report for Powell Road Landfill. 1990.

Eagon & Associates. Powell Road Landfill Remedial Investigation, Hydrogeologic Investigation-Addendum. 1991.

Goldberg, Stanley J., Lebowitz, Michael D., Graver, Ellen J., and Hicks, Susan. An Association of Juman Congenital Cardiac Malformations and Drinking Water Contaminants. JACC Vol. 16, No.1, July 1990.

Lagakos, S., B. Wessen, and M. Zelen. An analysis of contaminated well water and health effects in Woburn, Massachusetts. Jr. Am. Statist. Assoc. 81:583-596. 1986a.

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Volume I-Regulations. Anderson Publishing Co. 1986.

Sandmeyer, Esther. Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Chapter 47. Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, eds. Clayton and Clayton. 1981.

Toxicological Profile for Chloroethane. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. 1989.

Toxicological Profile for Toluene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. 1989.

Toxicological Profile for Trichloroethylene. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. 1989.

Toxicological Profile for Vinyl Chloride. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service. 1989.


GLOSSARY

Air Stripper: A method of treatment that removes volatile organic compounds from groundwater by exposing the water to the air and allowing the chemical contaminants to de-gas from the water into the atmosphere.

Ambient Air: The air or atmosphere surrounding the site.

Aquifer: A porous and permeable underground layer of soil or rock that holds water; generally capable of producing water for a well.

Confining Bed: A layer of impermeable material, usually clay, that lies above an aquifer and limits the flow of water into, or out from, the aquifer.

Groundwater: Water stored beneath the surface in an aquifer.

Groundwater Divide: A boundary that separates two or more ground-water flow regions.

Leachate: Any liquid that has percolated through or drained from an accumulation of hazardous waste.

Screened Interval: The portion of a well that allows the water to enter the well, consisting of a tubular device with slots or holes that is attached to the bottom of the well casing.

Till: Usually a poorly-sorted mixture of clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposited by a glacier.

Water Table: The level below which underground soil or rock is filled or saturated with groundwater.


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