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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

RICKENBACKER AIR NATIONAL GUARD BASE (USAF)
(a/k/a RICKENBACKER AIR FORCE BASE)
COLUMBUS, FRANKLIN COUNTY, OHIO


Area Map
Figure 1. Area Map

Site Map
Figure 2. Site Map

ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process
Figure 3. ATSDR's Exposure Evaluation Process

Locations of Installation Restoration Program Sites and Local Production Wells
Figure 4. Locations of Installation Restoration Program Sites and Local Production Wells

Locations of Remedial Investigation Sites
Figure 5. Locations of Remedial Investigation Sites


APPENDIX A: SUMMARY OF 44 INSTALLATION RESTORATION PROGRAM SITES FOR RICKENBACKER AIR NATIONAL GUARD BASE(4)

Site Site Description/WasteDisposal HistoryInvestigationResults/EnvironmentalMonitoring ResultsCorrective Activities and/or CurrentStatusPublic Health Evaluation

Former Hazardous Waste Storage Area

(Site 1)

Site 1 is a former hazardous wastestorage area (HWSA) which wasoperated by the Air Force from 1983 to1986. Environmental investigationsconducted in 1989, 1990, and 1991concluded that groundwatercontamination underlying the site wasattributable to past HWSA activities. Site 1 is no longer used for wastedisposal. Groundwater: Sixteen monitoring wells are monitored quarterly at Site 1 to determine the extent and rate of migration of underlying contaminants. Chemicals of concern include aromatic and chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Aromatics detected are benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) (up to 390 parts per billion [ppb]). Trichloroethylene (TCE) (up to 20,000 ppb) exceeded ATSDR's drinking water comparison value (5 ppb). Vinyl chloride (up to 650 ppb) exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) Maximum Contaminant Limit (MCL) of 2 ppb. Detected concentrations of cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE), trans-1,2-DCE, and 1,1-dichloroethene were below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water. Groundwater contaminants are not migrating off base.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site exceeded ATSDR comparison values for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), but most contamination occurs in subsurface soils.
Corrective Activities:
• The Air Force and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) are discussing the need for Site 1 remediation. The Air Force is programming new Resource Conservation and Recovery Act projects for Site 1 which will include groundwater and soil remediation. The Air Force will carry out all remedial activities necessary to prevent potential future public exposures.

Current Status:
Groundwater continues to be sampled quarterly.
• The Closure/Post Closure Plan for Site 1 was revised in May 1997 and submitted to OEPA in February 1998. Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base (RANGB) awaits OEPA Comments on the Closure/Post Closure Plan.
• Site 1 was transferred under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act to fall under OEPA supervision. Quarterly sampling at the site may continue.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 1. There is no public exposure to underlying groundwater.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred in the past.

No past or current health hazards existbecause there has been no pubicexposure to underlying groundwater. If necessary, potential futureexposures will be prevented byRANGB remediation activities.

JP-4 BulkStorageTank Farm

(Site 2)

Site 2 is located in the northwestern partof the base. It began operations in 1953,but is no longer used. Site 2 consists of adiked area enclosing six, one-milliongallon capacity, above-grade, fuel (JP-4)storage tanks. Until recently, the bulkstorage tanks were either empty or wereused to store jet fuel. The tankspreviously held JP-4 jet fuel and aviationgasoline (Avgas). Each tank issurrounded by an earthen dike with aclay liner. Other facilities present at Site2 include a truck and railloading/unloading rack and pumphouse,a building/laboratory, and an abandonedleach field. Three large fuel spills havebeen recorded since 1979, ranging in sizefrom 1,000 to 60,000 gallons. Most ofthe fuel was reportedly recovered. Groundwater: Petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated VOCs were detected, most at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values. Detects above ATSDR comparison values included sporadic detections of acetone (maximum detected concentration of 1,400 ppb). All detected VOCs were petroleum hydrocarbons. Toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene concentrations were below ATSDR comparison values, but benzene concentrations reached up to 260 ppb in the upper water-bearing zone (UWBZ) and exceeded 20 ppb in the intermediate aquifer. The MCL for benzene in drinking water is 5 ppb. Benzene contamination underlying Site 2 forms a definable plume that is apparently stabilized (steady-state) and does not extend far from the site. Migration of contaminants with groundwater flow appears to be controlled by the occurrence and extent of sand channels within the UWBZ.
Soil: Soil contaminants present at Site 2 are primarily petroleum hydrocarbons. BTEX concentrations were greatest near the rail line and fuel hydrant lines, with benzene (maximum detected concentration of 1.5 parts per million [ppm]) most frequently detected. All contaminant concentrations were below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• In March 1993, an Amended Closure/Post Closure Plan was submitted that included decontamination of site buildings, removal of underground storage tanks (USTs), and installation of a groundwater recovery and treatment system.
• In 1995, the USTs were removed and the site was recommended for inclusion in the Air Force's intrinsic remediation program.
• Other remedial activities have not yet begun, but the Air Force is considering alternatives. The favored remedial approach presently includes institutional controls, natural attenuation, and a groundwater cutoff trench with a reactive treatment barrier wall. This wall will ensure that downgradient production wells are not impacted by the benzene plume.
• Natural attenuation is occurring. Field observations suggest that the Site 2 benzene plume does not extend (approximately 500 feet) far from the contamination source. Transport modeling for benzene indicates that concentrations will be below 5 ppb within 9 years, assuming no continuous source is present, and within 15 years if a continuous source is assumed.
Current Status:
The Air Force published the Final Feasibility Study (FS) for Site 2 in October 1998.
• USEPA, OEPA, and other agencies submitted comments on the Draft Proposed Plan in November 1998. RANGB revised the Draft Proposed Plan and held a Public Meeting, followed by a Public Comment Period in January 1999.
• The Air Force, USEPA, and OEPA signed the Remedial Action Decision Document in October 1999.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of the benzene plume. Several residences, however, are located within one mile and downgradient of Site 2. The benzene plume has not and will not impact any production wells, however, primarily due to natural attenuation and RANGB remediation efforts. There is no public exposure to groundwater contamination.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in an industrial/commercial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

JP-4Pumphouse4

(Site 3)

Site 3 consists of the area adjacent to andincluding the former Pumphouse 4. Eight50,000-gallon USTs, one 25,000-gallonUST, one 6,000-gallon UST, andassociated piping were located at the site.In 1976, a 25,000-gallon spill of jet fuel(JP-4) occurred at this location as a resultof a ruptured fuel line. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• From 1993 to 1995, the site building and USTs were removed from the site during base-wide UST removal operations. As part of this removal operation, contaminated subsurface soil exceeding ATSDR comparison values, was removed and treated offsite. All excavation, investigation, and remedial activities were completed under the Bureau of Underground Storage Tank Regulations (BUSTR) and in compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) worker safety protection requirements.
Current Status:
Site 3 was closed under BUSTR in October 1995.
• This site has been designated a no further action (NFA) site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 3.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

JP-4Pumphouse5

(Site 4)

Site 4 included a building, four 50,000USTs and the area around PumpingStation Number 5. In 1985, 200 gallonsof JP-4 fuel were spilled when a tank wasoverfilled. The spill was reportedly nevercleaned up. The fuel either evaporated,infiltrated the soils, or entered the basestorm-drain network (Site 25). Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• In 1994, all USTs present at this site were removed and the pumphouse building was razed. Contaminated groundwater encountered in excavated UST pits was treated by activated carbon filtration. Contaminated soil encountered adjacent to the USTs was excavated and transported off-site for biological treatment. All excavation, investigation, and remedial activities were completed under BUSTR and in compliance with OSHA worker safety protection requirements.
Current Status:
Site 4 was closed under BUSTR in October 1995.
• This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 4.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

LateralSafety SpillZone

(Site 5)

Site 5 experienced two JP-4 fuel spills,one in 1972 and one in 1985. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 5.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Base FillingStation(Shopette)

(Site 6)

Site 6 is the former base gas station. Theformer UST system at this site consistedof two fiberglass 6,000 gallon tanks. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• In 1994 and 1995, all USTs were removed from the site during base-wide UST removal operations. As part of this removal operation, contaminated subsurface soil exceeding ATSDR comparison values, was removed and treated offsite. All excavation, investigation, and remedial activities were completed under BUSTR and in compliance with OSHA worker safety protection requirements.
Current Status:
The Air Force's sampling reports were submitted to the BUSTR, under the supervision of the State Fire Marshal's Office within the Department of Commerce.
• This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 6.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

TransmitterOil Tank

(Site 7)

Site 7 was investigated as a site withpotential fuel/oil contamination fromunrecorded historical spills. Nocontamination was discovered at Site 7. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 7.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Storm SewerGrate (PaintDumpLocation)

(Site 8)

In the past, paint may have been dumpeddown the Site 8 storm sewer grate duringunrecorded waste disposal practices. RANGB investigations, however, did notphysically locate a storm sewer gate inthe general area. Therefore, no samplingwas done at this location. Groundwater: Groundwater was not sampled.
Soil: Surface soil was not sampled.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the presumed vicinity of Site 8.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to soil occurred because the site vicinity lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. The site does not pose ahealth hazard based on current andlikely future land use.

SalvageYard

(Site 9)

Site 9 consists of a former salvage yardand the surrounding area. Beginning atan unknown date and continuing until1983, pesticides and hazardous materialswere disposed of at Site 9. In a 1983accident, several drums of pesticidescaught fire, and chemicals were spilledwhen the fire was extinguished. Thesalvage yard is currently inactive. Groundwater: SVOCs, pesticides, and metals were detected at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Di-n-butylphthalate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, and metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc) were detected at levels below ATSDR comparison values.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 9.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

JP-4 FuelLineRupture

(Site 10)

In 1982, a JP-4 fuel spill occurred at Site10. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 10.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

JP-4 FuelLineRupture atBuilding 844

(Site 11)

In 1984, a JP-4 fuel spill occurred at Site11. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 11.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Old DrumStorage Area

(Site 12)

Beginning at an unknown date andcontinuing until 1984, solvents,strippers, and oils were disposed of atSite 12. This site consists of a badlyweathered concrete paved area used tostore drums containing methyl ethylketone (2-butanone), solvents, and paintstrippers. The area is adjacent to adrainage swale where any leakage couldhave been flushed, and into which thecontents of some of the drums weredumped. Groundwater: The distribution of contaminants in groundwater indicates that contaminants are migrating across the site, with concentrations decreasing from northwest to southeast. Metals, SVOCs, and VOCs were detected, including total 1,2-DCE and TCE at concentrations over 1,000 ppb, and vinyl chloride and 2-hexanone at concentrations over 100 ppb. The MCLs for TCE, 1,2-DCE, and vinyl chloride are 5 ppb, 70 ppb, and 2 ppb, respectively. There currently is no MCL for 2-hexanone. The VOC contamination at Site 12 forms a discernable plume that may have migrated to the water table at the site. Groundwater flow is to the southeast.
Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, and metals were detected, including acetone, benzene, tetrachloroethylene, TCE, toluene, and xylenes, but most contamination occurred in subsurface soils. Surface soil contaminant levels are below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
• The Air Force and Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) are discussing the need for Site 12 remediation to prevent potential future public exposures.
Current Status:
Because Site 12 is located within property controlled by the Air National Guard, further Installation Restoration Program activities related to Site 12 will be conducted by the Air National Guard.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 12.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist, provided that on-siteworkers comply with OSHA protocoland protective-gear requirements. Ifnecessary, potential future exposureswill be prevented by RANGBremediation activities.

RB-47 CrashSite

(Site 13)

In 1958, jet fuel spilled at Site 13. Site13 was removed from the RANGBpreliminary investigation because thespilled fuel was consumed by a fireresulting from an RB-47 aircraft crash. Groundwater: Groundwater was not sampled.
Soil: Surface soil was not sampled.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 13.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. The site does not pose ahealth hazard based on current andlikely future land use.

KC-135Crash Site

(Site 14)

In 1960, JP-4 spilled at Site 14. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 14.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Fuel Dump,SouthwestEnd ofRunway

(Site 15)

At unknown dates in the past, JP-4 andAvgas were disposed of at Site 15. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 15.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Fuel Dump,NortheastEnd ofRunway

(Site 16)

At unknown dates in the past, JP-4 andAvgas were disposed of at Site 16. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 16.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

OldEntomologyLab

(Site 17)

The Old Entomology Lab was located inthe north end of Building S-422.Equipment used to spray pesticides wascleaned and stored in this building.Pesticides were not stored in thebuilding. Groundwater: Contamination is minimal. Low concentrations, below ATSDR comparison values, of PAHs, one pesticide, one herbicide, and metals were detected in groundwater samples.
Soil: Two VOCs, one SVOC, four pesticides, and four metals were detected above background in surface soil samples, but at levels below ATSDR comparison values.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 17.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

PesticideStorageBuilding

(Site 18)

Site 18 stored pesticides during unknowndates in the past. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 18.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

North CoalPile

(Site 19)

A large rectangular concrete pad capableof holding 6,000 tons of coal is located atSite 19. The north coal pile was in usefrom 1953 to 1989. Currently, no coal isstored in the area. Groundwater: One VOC, one SVOC, and metals were detected, but at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Surface water: One SVOC (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate) and nine metals (antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, selenium, and zinc) were detected above background in surface water samples.
Soil: SVOCs (primarily PAHs), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), and metals were detected in surface soils. Total PAH concentrations ranged up to 32,390 ppb. Beryllium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and selenium were detected above surface soil background concentrations.
Corrective Activities:
• A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was obtained in 1988 for the runoff from the site. This permit requires the analysis of discharge for pH, oil/grease, and total non-filterable residue. In response to permitting requirements, the drainage pattern was altered to collect all runoff at the southern corner of the site.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 19.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist, provided that on-siteworkers comply with OSHA protocoland protective-gear requirements.

South CoalPile

(Site 20)

The South Coal Pile is a largeirregularly-shaped asphalt slab capable ofstoring 4,000 tons of coal. The area wasused from 1953 to 1989. Currently nocoal is stored in the area. The site issurrounded by drainage ditches thatreceive runoff from the pile and flow intoSite 25.The primary potential route ofcontaminant migration at the site ismovement of contaminated sediment viathese ditches. Groundwater: Metals were detected at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Surface water: Eight metals (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, and zinc) were detected above background in surface water samples.
Soil: SVOCs, primarily PAHs, TPHs, and metals were detected above background surface soil. Total SVOC concentrations ranged up to 185,000 ppb. Arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc were also detected above soil background concentrations.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 20.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist, provided that on-siteworkers comply with OSHA protocoland protective-gear requirements.

LeakingDrum andOil ChangeArea atWaterTreatmentPlant

(Site 21)

Site 21 was operated from an unknowndate to 1992. It is identified as two areasof oil-stained soil adjacent to andsoutheast of the Water Treatment Plant.The larger area of oil staining isapproximately 100 square feet and wasthe location where crankcase oil wasdrained from vehicles parked in the area.The second area covers approximately 50square feet and surrounded a drum ofWD-30 lubricating oil. The primarysource of TCE at Site 21 is postulated tobe spillage of solvent material at somepoint in the past history of the base. Twobuildings, 412 and 409, are located onthis site, but only their foundationscurrently remain. Site 21 lies within apartially fenced area surrounding thebase's water treatment plant. Groundwater: Thallium (up to 0.013 ppm) was the only metal detected above its respective MCL (0.002 ppm for thallium). Groundwater samples from a Site 21 monitoring well (located upgradient of the soil removal area) contained vinyl chloride at concentrations (up to 30 ppb) above the MCL of 2 ppb. Other Site 21 wells contained TCE (maximum detected concentration of 5,050 ppb) and cis-1,2-DCE (maximum detected concentration of 2,988 ppb), both detected above their MCLs of 5 ppb and 70 ppb, respectively. It appears that the TCE in groundwater is decaying to form vinyl chloride in groundwater. Migration of vinyl chloride with groundwater flow appears to be controlled by the occurrence and extent of sand channels within the UWBZ.
Soil: Prior to remediation activities, two spillage areas contained petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations above ATSDR comparison values for soil. Current soil contaminant concentrations are below comparison values. Ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes were detected at concentrations of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.14 ppm, respectively. TCE in soil was detected (up to 0.27 ppm) and appears to be acting as a secondary source for TCE in groundwater at Site 21.
Corrective Activities:
• The petroleum contaminated soil was excavated and removed from both locations in 1995. During the removal action, a 1,000-gallon UST containing used oil was discovered and removed.
• Corrective activities have not yet begun, but the Air Force is considering remediation alternatives, including institutional controls, hot spot removal, and natural attenuation for residual contamination.
• Natural attenuation is occurring. Transport modeling indicates that vinyl chloride concentrations will decay below the MCL within 12 years and that the contamination will not migrate offsite due to low groundwater velocity and UWBZ sediment structure.
Current Status:
The Air Force published The Final FS for Site 21 in October 1998.
• USEPA, OEPA, and other agencies submitted comments on the Draft Proposed Plan in November 1998. RANGB revised the Draft Proposed Plan and held a Public Meeting, followed by a Public Comment Period in January 1999.
• The Air Force, USEPA, and OEPA signed the Remedial Action Decision Document in October 1999.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity or downgradient of Site 21. The nearest production wells lie over a mile away and contaminant plumes have not and will not impact these wells. There is no public exposure to groundwater contamination.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Lube OilDrumStorage

(Site 22)

Beginning at an unknown date andcontinuing until 1990, Site 22 served as alube oil and solvent storage area. Site 22consists of a concrete pad behind theheating plant, adjacent to the North CoalPile. This area was used to store drumsof oil. Approximately 20 square feet ofoil-stained gravel are visible around theedge of the pad. Stressed vegetation alsowas evident around the edges of the pad.Oil-stained soil and gravel adjacent to anearby shed are also included in Site 22. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Except for oil-stained gravel in two contained areas, Site 22 surface soil contaminant concentrations were below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• The petroleum contaminated gravel, adjacent soil, and Site 22 pad were excavated and removed from both locations in 1995.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 22.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

FireTrainingArea

(Site 23)

Site 23 consists of three loosely-packedearthen dikes intended to containflammable liquids that were ignited forfire-training purposes. The diked areasrange in size from 4,000 to 22,000square feet. At the time of thepreliminary assessment, much of the dikematerial was stained and had a strongpetroleum odor. The dikes rest on top ofan old runway surface, which isconstructed of 1 to 3 inches of asphaltover 8 to 12 inches of reinforcedconcrete. Surface runoff from the areawould flow to either side of the oldrunway and into catch basins. Althoughthe basins are covered with soil andplants, they appear to collect drainagefrom the site. All drainage flows into Site25. From the 1950s through the 1980s,fuels and oils were spilled on the firetraining area. Groundwater: SVOCs, pesticides, and metals (primarily arsenic and lead) were detected above background in groundwater samples from Site 23, but all at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, and metals were detected above background surface soil. Acetone, ethylbenzene, and methylene chloride were the only VOCs detected in surface soil, all at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values. Total SVOC concentrations ranged up to 9,934 ppb.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 23.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area. Because the site is flat and paved, the potential for erosion of contaminated soil is limited.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist, provided that on-siteworkers comply with OSHA protocoland protective-gear requirements.

SewageTreatmentPlant SludgeBeds

(Site 24)

Site 24 includes USTs, concrete-sidedsludge beds, and the sludge disposalarea. The base sewage treatment plantwas active between the late 1950s and1983. While in operation, the sludgebeds were periodically filled to allowsludge to de-water. The partially driedsludge was either transported off base ordeposited in the sludge disposal area as asoil enhancer for a community gardenplot. No residual sludge remains in thebeds. Presently, the site's flat topographyis covered with vegetation. Groundwater: One VOC,one SVOC, and metals were detected above background, but at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, and metals were detected above background surface soil concentrations. Acetone and 2-butanone were the only VOCs detected in surface soil, all at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values. Arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, sodium, thallium, and zinc were detected above background, primarily from the sludge spreading area.
Corrective Activities:
• In 1994 and 1995, all USTs were removed from the site during base-wide UST removal operations. As part of this removal operation, contaminated soil exceeding ATSDR comparison values was removed from Site 24 and treated offsite. All excavation, investigation, and remedial activities were completed under BUSTR and in compliance with OSHA worker safety protection requirements.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 24.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area. Erosion of contaminated soil at Site 24 is limited by the flat topography and vegetation. The potential for movement of contaminated soil off site is low.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

BaseDrainageDitch

(Site 25)

In the 1940s, the ditch system wasconstructed to (and currently functionsas) a storm drain network. All surfacewater runoff from the base eventuallydischarges into this network. Watercourses in the assessment area includeapproximately 8,600 linear feet (over 8miles in length) of drainage ditches. Thelargest ditches are about 20 feet wide; thesmallest swales are less than two feetdeep. Various spills, leaks, and dumpingeventually discharged into the stormdrain network, including solvents, paints,fuels, and other waste materials. Groundwater:
On-base groundwater underlying Site 25 contained low concentrations of VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, and metals.
• Off-base contaminants concentrations were below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Surface water:
On-base surface water contained low concentrations of SVOCs, pesticides, and metals in some samples, but contaminant concentrations were generally below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water. Some detected concentrations, however, did exceed ATSDR comparison values, including: VOCs up to 10 ppb, SVOCs up to 20 ppb, and PAHs slightly above 100 ppb in limited locations.
• Off-base concentrations were below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil/Sediment:
• SVOCs, primarily PAHs, were detected in on-base sediment samples from all four quadrants at total concentrations over 100,000 ppb. The distribution of PAHs was similar in all four quadrants, with the highest concentrations typically detected in the upper portions of the ditches and near the emergency interceptors. Some areas contained total SVOCs in excess of 6,000,000 ppb.
• The maximum detected off-base total SVOC concentration was 1,463 ppb, collected from the ditch located northeast of the flight-line. SVOCs in sediments collected from Little Walnut Creek included both phthalates and PAHs.
Current Status:
The Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) clean-up team (BCT) for the base has formed a special task force to address issues related to Site 25 (and Site 27). This task force involves the Air Force, USEPA, and OEPA.
• The Air Force received regulator comments on the BCT's Scientific Management Decision Point Paper in November 1998. USEPA did not concur with Air Force recommendations for NFA site status.
• The Air Force will evaluate USEPA comments and revise the BCT's Scientific Management Decision Point Paper as necessary.
• USEPA recommend conducting toxicity testing, a feasibility study, or "hot spot removal" actions.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 25.
Surface Water: No one drinks Site 25 surface water, on or off base.
Soil/Sediment: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site sediment occurred because it lies underwater during most of the year.

There is minimal, if any, publicexposure to contaminated sediments.Exposure to Site 25 sedimentcontaminants appears limited to on-site workers (who are protected underOSHA regulations) and trespassers. Incidental exposure to sediment is notlikely to present a public healthhazard.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist off-site from exposure toSite 25. Levels of off-sitecontamination currently present do notpose a health hazard.

ElectricalTransformerStorage

(Site 26)

Transformer oils may have been spilledat Site 26 in 1975. Groundwater: Groundwater was not sampled.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 26.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

DrainageDitch NearLandfill

(Site 27)

Consolidatedinto Site 25

Site 27 includes the drainage ditchadjacent to the landfill gate. In 1982, aspill of unknown origin was observed inthe ditch. Solvents and paints are theprimary wastes disposed of at Site 27. Groundwater: Underlying and surrounding Site 27, low-level concentrations (below ATSDR comparison values) of VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, and metals were detected. Herbicides and PCBs were not detected.
Surface Water: Surface water contaminant concentrations are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, and metals were identified in sediment samples at Site 27. Total SVOC concentrations exceeded 40,000 ppb. Elevated pesticide concentrations were associated with Site 27 sediment samples. Total pesticide concentrations were slightly below 1,000 pbb.
Current Status:
BCT has formed a special task force to address issues related to Site 27 (and Site 25). This task force involves USEPA and the Air Force.
• The Air Force received regulator comments on the BCT's Scientific Management Decision Point Paper in November 1998. USEPA did not concur with Air Force recommendations for NFA SITE status.
• The Air Force will evaluate USEPA comments and revise the BCT's Scientific Management Decision Point Paper as necessary.
• USEPA recommend conducting toxicity testing, a feasibility study, or "hot spot removal" actions.
• Site 27 has been combined with Site 25 for future investigation and remediation efforts.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 27.
Surface Water: No one drinks Site 27 surface water.
Soil/Sediment: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site sediment occurred because it lies underwater during most of the year.

There is minimal, if any, publicexposure to contaminated sediments.Exposure to Site 27 sedimentcontaminants appears limited to on-site workers (who are protected underOSHA regulations) and trespassers. Incidental exposure to sediment is notlikely to present a public healthhazard.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist off-site from exposure toSite 27 (currently part of Site 25).

USTs

(Site 28)

Site 28 formerly contained numerous USTs, including:
• a 2,500-gallon UST at the sewage plant (Building 600) used from 1960 to 1983 to store fuel oil.
• two 12,000-gallon USTs near the Water Tower that stored gasoline from 1942 to 1953.
• three 25,000-gallon USTs near Building 560 that stored fuel from 1950 to 1964.
• a 2,500-gallon and a 1,000-gallon UST at Building 413 that stored diesel during unknown dates of operation.
• two 6,000-gallon USTs behind the Base Filling Station that stored gasoline from 1953 to 1981.
• a 5,000-gallon Waste Oil Tank at Building 848 that stored waste oil from 1964 to an unknown date of operation.
• a 2,000-, a 25,000-, and four 50,000-gallon USTs at building 1010 that stored JP-4 from 1953 to 1981.
• four 25,000-gallon USTs near building 560 that stored De-icing Fluid from 1942 to 1992.
• a 1,000-gallon UST and four 12,000-gallon USTs at Building 554 that stored diesel and kerosene from 1942 to 1981.
Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• In 1994 and 1995, all USTs were removed from the site during base-wide UST removal operations. As part of this removal operation, contaminated soil exceeding ATSDR comparison values, was removed and treated offsite. All excavation, investigation, and remedial activities were completed under BUSTR and in compliance with OSHA worker safety protection requirements.
Current Status:
In 1998, the Air Force submitted a Final Report to BUSTR, under the supervision of the State Fire Marshal's Office within the Department of Commerce.
This report recommends NFA, except for in one area adjacent to Building 848. At this location, some potential residual contamination is proposed to be further investigated (and remediated, as necessary) under Site 41.
• BUSTR has assigned NFA on all but tow of the USTs in Site 28. BUSTR action on the remaining two USTs is under evaluation.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 28.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

USTs nearBuilding 890

(Site 29)

Site 29 lies within the geographicvicinity of Site 3. Site 29 formerlyconsisted of one 6,000-, one 25,000-,and eight 50,000-gallon USTs that storedJP-4 and/or waste water from 1953 to1990. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 29.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding1093

(Site 30)

Site 30 lies within the geographicvicinity of Site 4. Site 30 formerlycontained a 300-gallon UST that storeddiesel from 1953 to 1990. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 30.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 846(8,000-gallon,diesel)

(Site 31)

Site 31 formerly contained a 8,000-gallon UST that stored diesel from 1970to 1990. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 31.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 846(15,000-gallon)

(Site 32)

Site 32 formerly contained a 15,000-gallon UST that stored MOGAS from 1970 to 1990. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 32.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 846(8,000-gallon,MOGAS)

(Site 33)

Site 33 formerly contained a 8,000-gallon UST that stored MOGAS from1970 to 1990. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 33.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 848

(Site 34)

Site 34 formerly contained a 5,000-gallon UST that stored fuel oil from1964 to 1989. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 34.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 877

(Site 35)

Site 35 formerly contained a 940-gallonUST that stored heating and diesel fuelfrom 1961 to 1989. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 35.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 932

(Site 36)

Site 36 formerly contained a 15,000-gallon UST that stored fuel oil from1955 to 1989. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 36.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

UST atBuilding 944

(Site 37)

Site 37 formerly contained a 800-gallonUST that stored fuel oil from 1977 to1989. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 37.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

USTs atBuilding 891

(Site 38)

Site 38 formerly contained one 6,000-,one 25,000-, and four 50,000-gallonUSTs that stored JP-4 and waste waterfrom 1953 to 1990. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 38.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Fuel Dump,SouthwestEnd ofRunway

(Site 39[ReplacesSite 15])

In the 1940s, Avgas was disposed of atSite 39. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 39.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Fuel Dump,NortheastEnd ofRunway

(Site 40[ReplacesSite 16])

In the 1940s, Avgas was disposed of atSite 40. Groundwater: Groundwater contaminant concentrations underlying the site are below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Current Status:
This site has been designated a NFA site.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 40.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Oil/WaterSeparator atBuilding 848

(Site 41)

This multi-chambered Oil/WaterSeparator, located north of Building 848,is designed to remove free-phasepetroleum from wastewater prior to thewater entering the sanitary sewer system.It has operated from 1977 to present. Theseparator has historically receivedeffluent emanating from the floor drainsin Buildings 846, 848, and 849, all ofwhich were vehicle maintenancefacilities. Releases of contaminants hasoccurred from both the oil/waterseparator and from the waste oil tank. InMay 1995, a release of petroleum fromthe oil/water separator to a sanitary sewermanhole occurred. Site 41 occupies anarea approximately 180 feet by 80 feet,or 0.4 acres. Groundwater: Groundwater occurs at a depth of approximately 4 feet at Site 41. Two areas of groundwater contamination were identified: an area of petroleum hydrocarbons and an area of chlorinated VOC contamination. These two areas correspond to the oil/water separator and the waste oil tank. Acetone (up to 2,400 ppb), benzene (up to 1,300 ppb), TCE (up to 2,700 ppb), and xylene (up to 4,000 ppb) were detected above ATSDR comparison values (1,000 ppb, 5 ppb, 5 ppb, and 2,000 ppb, respectively). TCE was found in samples primarily taken from the sand at depths of approximately 14 feet below ground surface. The TCE plume extends in a down gradient direction approximately 100 feet, contained with a sand lens. Thallium (up to 0.007 ppm) was the only metal detected at a concentration above an MCL (0.002 ppm). The low conductivity nature of silt deposits and the natural formation of sand lenses underlying Site 41 appear to have limited the migration of contaminants at the site.
Soil: BTEX was detected at concentrations below ATSDR comparison values for soil. TCE was detected in two subsurface samples (maximum detected concentration was 38 ppm), but surface soils did not exceed ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
• A waste oil UST that was located northwest of the separator was removed in April 1994. The UST was closed in accordance with Ohio BUSTR regulations.
• An area of petroleum-contaminated soil, spoil from an excavation for a nearby large area network underground cable, was deposited in the fall of 1994. The petroleum-contaminated soil was stockpiled northwest of the separator, and the workers rerouted the cables to avoid disturbing additional contaminated soil.
• Other remedial activities have not yet begun, but the Air Force is considering alternatives. Currently, the favored remediation approach includes institutional controls, oil/water separator removal, free-product removal, TCE hot-spot removal, and natural attenuation for residual contamination.
Current Status:
The Air Force published a Final FS for Site 41 in October 1998.
• USEPA, OEPA, and other agencies submitted comments on the Draft Proposed Plan in November 1998. RANGB revised the Draft Proposed Plan and held a Public Meeting, followed by a Public Comment Period in January 1999.
• The Air Force, USEPA, and OEPA signed the Remedial Action Decision Document in October 1999.
Groundwater: TCE appears to move with groundwater flow in a sand channel within the UWBZ. Since the extent of the sand is limited, migration beyond the sand channel is not expected. No active production wells lie in the vicinity or downgradient of Site 41. The nearest production wells lie over a mile away and contaminant plumes have not and will not impact these wells. There is no public exposure to groundwater contamination.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Jet EngineTest Stand(Building896)

(Site 42)

The Jet Engine Test Stand, also knownas Building 896, is located adjacent toTaxiway A in the central portion of thebase near the southern end of the existingrunways. Site 42 is defined by a circulararea with a diameter of approximately250 feet, encompassing an area ofapproximately 1.1 acres. The test stand isa concrete structure where jet engineswere attached and run up to testperformance. The stand is anapproximately 1,600 square foot concretepad surrounded by pavement, supportfacilities, and a mown grass field. Thetest stand was built in 1961, and it wasmost recently modified in 1986, whenpavement around the test stand wasreplaced. The primary source ofcontaminants at Site 42 appears to besolvent spillage, potentially during testpad cleaning and testing of equipment. Groundwater: An area of groundwater containing halogenated VOCs, primarily vinyl chloride, exists at Site 42. Vinyl chloride concentrations reached up to 3,335 ppb. TCE concentrations reached 9,276 ppb) and cis-1,2-DCE concentrations at the site reached 12,113 ppb. It appears likely that the degradation of the TCE in groundwater may be the primary source of vinyl chloride, cis-1,2-DCE, and other halogenated compounds. Petroleum hydrocarbons were detected along or downgradient from underground fuel lines, with benzene concentrations ranging up to 71 ppb. Arsenic was also detected at concentrations exceeding 50 ppb at Site 42.
Soil: All detected contaminant concentrations were below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• Corrective activities have not yet begun, but the Air Force is considering remediation alternatives, including institutional controls, hot-spot removal, and natural attenuation for residual contamination.
Current Status:
The Air Force published a Final FS for Site 42 in October 1998.
• USEPA, OEPA, and other agencies submitted comments on the Draft Proposed Plan in November 1998. RANGB revised the Draft Proposed Plan and held a Public Meeting, followed by a Public Comment Period in January 1999.
• The Air Force, USEPA, and OEPA signed the Remedial Action Decision Document in October 1999.
Groundwater: From the distribution of TCE in groundwater, it appears that the migration of TCE has been limited to approximately 50 to 100 feet from the Site 42 source. No active production wells lie in the vicinity or downgradient of Site 42. The nearest production wells lie over a mile away and contaminant plumes have not and will not impact these wells. There is no public exposure to groundwater contamination.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Test CellHush House(Building926)

(Site 43)

The Test Cell Hush House is a former jetengine test stand located in the southwestportion of RANGB. Site 43 is locatedwithin a circular area with a diameter ofapproximately 225 feet and an area of 0.9acres. The Test Cell Hush House was anoise-baffling structure where jet engineswere tested. The house was reportedlybuilt in 1978, and was removed in mid-1993. Up to four test stands werevariously present at the site. One emptysingle-room building remains at the site(Building 926). Storm water drainagefrom the site passes through an oil/waterseparator prior to entering the basedrainage system. The primary source ofSite 43 contaminants (primarilygroundwater contamination) is unknown.It is presumed that releases of fuels andsolvents occurred during operation of thefacility and that releases are notcontinuing. Groundwater: The primary contaminant of concern, benzene, was detected at 724 ppb. The highest detected concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons were m,p-xylene (4,432 ppb), 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,480 ppb), 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,813 ppb), and gasoline range organics (550 ppb). In addition to petroleum hydrocarbons, the halogenated VOCs TCE and 1,2-dichloroethane were detected above their MCLs at 21.7 and 12.4 ppb, respectively. All groundwater contamination, however, occurs in a relatively small area in one sand channel.
Soil: Soil contaminant concentrations are below ATSDR comparison values.
Corrective Activities:
• Corrective activities have not yet begun, but the Air Force is considering remediation alternatives, including institutional controls, oil/water separator removal, and natural attenuation for residual contamination.
• Without remedial activities, natural attenuation processes may lower benzene levels within 8 years to levels below the MCL of 5 ppb. Other contaminants will take less time to naturally attenuate below their respective MCLs.
Current Status:
The Air Force published a Final Feasibility Study (FS) for Site 43 in October 1998.
• USEPA, OEPA, and other agencies submitted comments on the Draft Proposed Plan in November 1998. RANGB revised the Draft Proposed Plan and held a Public Meeting, followed by a Public Comment Period in January 1999.
• The Air Force, USEPA, and OEPA signed the Remedial Action Decision Document in October 1999.
Groundwater: The distribution of contaminants in groundwater is limited and stabilized (steady-state). No active production wells lie in the vicinity or downgradient of Site 43. The nearest production wells lie over a mile away and contaminant plumes have not and will not impact these wells. There is no public exposure to groundwater contamination.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

1942 GasStation

(Site 45)

Used for a short duration in the 1940s,this site formerly contained USTs. Groundwater: Initial investigations detected benzene levels slightly above its MCL of 5 ppb. Resampling efforts found all groundwater contaminants, including benzene, at levels below ATSDR comparison values for drinking water.
Soil: Surface soil contaminant concentrations at the site are below ATSDR comparison values for soil.
Corrective Activities:
• OEPA and the Air Force jointly assessed Site 45 contamination. After an additional sampling event for benzene, the site was transferred to BUSTR, under the supervision of the State Fire Marshal's Office within the Department of Commerce.
Current Status:
Pending results from a December 1999 groundwater sampling event, a Remedial Action Summary Report for Site 45 will be submitted to BUSTR in early 2000.
Groundwater: No active production wells lie in the vicinity of Site 45.
Soil: It is unlikely that frequent or prolonged public exposure to site soil occurred because this site lies in a commercial/industrial use area.

No past, current, or future healthhazards exist. Levels of contaminationcurrently present at the site do notpose a health hazard based on currentand likely future land use.

Sources: Friedstrom 2000; McCarren 2000; IT Corp. 1996a&b.


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