PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT
WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE
FAIRBORN, GREENE COUNTY, OHIO
On the basis of its evaluation of available environmental information, ATSDR concluded that exposures at WPAFB pose no apparent public health hazards. Conclusions regarding media- and site-specific exposures are as follows:
- No public health hazards are likely to be associated with contamination in ambient air, surface soil, surface water, sediment, and private wells resulting from releases at OU1 (Landfills 8 and 10). Although elevated levels of VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, metals, and dioxins have been measured in some or all of these media, ATSDR's exposure evaluation indicates that adverse health effects are unlikely to result from past contact with site contamination. The USAF completed remedial actions at Landfills 8 and 10 to cover contaminated soil and to collect landfill gas and leachate. The measures were taken to prevent current and future exposure to site contamination and to prevent future migration of contamination from the landfills to the surrounding neighborhoods. The USAF also connected homes along National, Zink, and Kauffman Roads to municipal water supplies to prevent exposure from contamination in private wells.
- No public health hazards are likely to be associated with WPAFB and municipal water supplies containing elevated concentrations of VOCs and metals. The chromium contamination detected in the Fairborn North well field, which is located upgradient of groundwater flow from WPAFB, was likely from sources other than WPAFB. In addition exposure was expected to be minimal since the contaminated well was part of the emergency system and water within the system is blended prior to distribution. The Miami Conservancy well was only used for a portion of the year and contamination was detected in only one sampling round. This well was abandoned and is no longer used. Dayton detected VOC contamination in wells prior to connecting the wells to the distribution system. Contamination never entered the Dayton water supply. At WPAFB, ATSDR's exposure evaluation did not identify contaminant concentrations at levels that may result in adverse health effects. Fairborn, Dayton, and the USAF regularly monitor wells in accordance with OEPA requirements, and where necessary, have installed water treatment systems to ensure the safety of their drinking water supplies. In addition, the USAF conducts on-site groundwater monitoring to track contaminant migration and prevent possible future exposures.
- Recreational uses of the on-base water bodies are not likely to pose a public health hazard. Although SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, metals, and/or dioxins have been detected in surface water, sediment, and fish tissue, ATSDR's exposure evaluation indicates that adverse health effects are unlikely to result from past contact with site contamination. The USAF has completed soil remediation, tracks groundwater contamination, and monitors storm water runoff to insure that WPAFB is not contributing additional contamination to these water bodies. The restricted area extends up- and downstream of WPAFB. Although fish tissue data are not available for on-base water bodies, ATSDR assumes that the likely one year residence time for these stocked fish is insufficient for the fish to bioaccumulate significant contaminant concentrations.
- ODH posted a restriction on fishing within the Mad River based on PCB contamination. WPAFB does not appear to be contributing to this PCB contamination of the Mad River.
The Public Health Action Plan (PHAP) contains a description of actions taken and those to be taken by ATSDR, the USAF, EPA, and OEPA at and in the vicinity of WPAFB subsequent to the completion of this PHA. The purpose of the PHAP is to ensure that this PHA not only identifies potential and ongoing public health hazards, but provides a plan of action designed to mitigate and prevent adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to hazardous substances in the environment. The public health actions that are completed, being implemented, or planned are listed below.
- The USAF identified potential hazardous substance release sites (grouped within 11 OUs) during base investigations. RODs are in place for soil contamination at all the OUs and the USAF has completed soil remedial actions. No further action for on-site soil is planned.
- Groundwater contamination was detected at various locations and depths throughout the Mad River Buried Valley Aquifer underlying WPAFB. Investigations related some of the contaminants to specific sources, however, other contaminants were dispersed and could not be related to a known source. The most significant groundwater contamination is a VOC plume originating at OU5 and migrating off site toward a Dayton water supply well field. The USAF installed a pump and treat system to capture the plume and remove VOCs from the groundwater. At OU2, sampling detected fuel constituents in groundwater. A ROD, selecting natural attenuation and ongoing monitoring, is in place to address OU2 groundwater contamination.
- The USAF operates a gas and leachate collection system at OU1 and a pump and treat system for VOC removal from groundwater at OU5. Water treatment systems are also in place and operated at all water supply wells.
- The USAF is conducting site investigations at one location (Building 59) identified as an AOC to determine whether hazardous substances have been released to the environment.
- The USAF monitors on-site groundwater through hundreds of monitoring wells located throughout the base. The USAF, with oversight by regulatory agencies, finalized the ROD September 29, 1999. This ROD will likely include ongoing monitoring to track contaminant migration, to observe natural attenuation processes, and to prevent future exposures to groundwater contaminants.
- Members of the community and the USAF participate in regularly scheduled EAB meetings. These meetings serve as a forum for communication of ongoing and planned activities at WPAFB to the community and for communication of community concerns to WPAFB personnel.
- ATSDR recommends that the USAF continue to investigate areas of concern at WPAFB. ATSDR will review data from these sites if investigations indicate that people are being exposed to contamination.
- Although ATSDR concludes that recreational fishing from Bass, Gravel, East Twin, and West Twin Lakes poses no apparent public health hazard, fish tissue samples are not available. A one-time fish tissue sample collection by WPAFB from these lakes, analyzed for the contaminants detected in surface water and sediment would further support this conclusion.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 1990. Health Consultation: Methane Migration at Landfills 8 and 10, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. August 30, 1990.
ATSDR. 1991. Health Consultation Follow-up: Landfills 8 and 10, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. November 21, 1991.
ATSDR. 1992. Toxicological profile for thallium. ATSDR, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. July 1992.
ATSDR. 1993. Toxicological profile for arsenic. ATSDR, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. April 1993 (update).
ATSDR. 1997. Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds in Soil, Part 1. ATSDR Interim Policy Guideline. Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 759-768, 1997.
ATSDR. 1998. Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. ATSDR, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. December 1998 (update).
CH2MHill Ohio, Inc. 1995a. Remedial Investigation Report, Operable Unit 4, Landfills 3, 4, 6, and 7, and Drum Staging/Disposal Area (Executive Summary). April 1995.
CH2MHill Ohio, Inc. 1995b. Remedial Investigation Report, Operable Unit 10, Landfills 13, Central Heating Plant 3 and Associated Battery Burial Site, TCE/PCE Plume and Related Potential Source Areas (Executive Summary). December 1995.
CH2MHill. 1997. Final Remedial Investigation Report, Operable Unit 8 (Executive Summary). January 1997.
City of Dayton. 1998. Division of Environmental Management, Historic Water Quality Monitoring Data for Mad River Production Wells, copies provided by Mr. Jim Shoemaker to ATSDR during the September 14 to 18, 1998, site visit. Additional information mailed to ATSDR on September 21, 1998.
Ehret, K. 1999. Personal Communication with Kimberly Ehret, BMP Project Manager, Office of Environmental Management, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (OEM-WPAFB), February 5, 1999.
Engineering-Science, Inc. 1992. Focused Remedial Investigation Report for Landfills 8 and 10 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. March 15, 1992.
Engineering-Science, Inc. 1993. Off-Source Remedial Investigation Report for Landfills 8 and 10 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. August 12, 1993 (Revision No. 2).
Engineering-Science, Inc. 1995. Final Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 2 at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio (Executive Summary). August 1995.
Finke, E. 1999. Personal communication with Edward Finke, Chief, Restoration Branch, OEM-WPAFB, January 7, 1999.
Hawkins, K. 1999. Personal communication with Karen Hawkins, Fairborn Department of Water, January 7 and 11, 1999.
International Consultants, Incorporated. 1996. Final Field Investigation Report, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Operable Unit 7 (Executive Summary). November 8, 1996.
IT Corporation. 1995. Draft Remedial Investigation Report, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Operable Unit 5. February 1, 1995.
IT Corporation. 1997a. Final Remedial Investigation Report, Operable Unit 9 (Executive Summary). September 10, 1997.
IT Corporation. 1997b. Draft Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis Groundwater Basewide Monitoring Program. December 30, 1997.
Luken, J. 1999. Personal communication with Jim Luken, Greene County Department of Health, January 7, 1999.
MARCOA Publishing, Inc. 1997. Legacy, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. 1997.
Metcalf & Eddy. 1995. Final Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 6 (Executive Summary and May 1996 Addendum to Section 6.0). December 1995.
Metcalf & Eddy. 1997. Final FI Report, Operable Unit 11, Chemical Disposal Area and Burial Site II (Executive Summary). August 1997.
Office of Environmental Management-Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (OEM-WPAFB). 1993. Record of Decision, Source Control Operable Unit - Landfills 8 and 10, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Greene County Ohio. July 15, 1993.
OEM-WPAFB. 1994. Record of Decision, Off-Source Operable Unit and Final Remedial Action, Landfills 8 and 10, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Greene County Ohio. June 1994.
OEM-WPAFB. 1996. Wright-Patterson AFB Record of Decision for 21 No Action Sites. August 26, 1996.
OEM-WPAFB. 1997a. Community Relations Plan. August 1997.
OEM-WPAFB. 1997b. Record of Decision for Spill Sites 2, 3, and 10 within Operable Unit 2, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. September 1997.
OEM-WPAFB. 1998a. Final WPAFB FY97 Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program. February 28, 1998.
OEM-WPAFB. 1998b. 1997 Management Action Plan Update. March 1998.
OEM-WPAFB. 1998c. Wright-Patterson AFB Draft Record of Decision for 41 No Action Sites. July 1998.
OEM-WPAFB. 1998d. ATSDR Site Visit. September 14 to 18, 1998.
OEM-WPAFB. 1998e. VOC Sample Submission Reports from 1991 for On-base Supply Wells and from 1998 for Entry Point Sampling, copies provided to ATSDR during the September 14 to 18, 1998, site visit.
OEM-WPAFB. 1998f. The Landfill Cap System and Reuse Survey Results. Information sheets distributed during a September 17, 1998, informational session.
OEM-WPAFB. 1999. Draft - Page manor Housing Area Chlordane Sampling Memorandum, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. February 5, 1999.
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA). 1994. Biological, Sediment, and Water Quality Study of the Lower Mad River and Hebble Creek, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio. June 2, 1994.
OEPA. 1999. Correspondence between Bonnie Buthker, Office of Federal Facilities Oversight, and Jeffery Kellam, ATSDR.
Rogers, L. 1999. Personal communication with Linda Rogers, Base Drinking Water Program Manager, OEM-WPAFB, January 5, 1999.
Science Applications International Corporation. 1995. Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3 Technical Report - Final (Executive Summary). July 1995.
Shoemaker, J. 1999. Personal communication with Jim Shoemaker, Environmental Scientist, Department of Water, City of Dayton, January 7, 1999.
Stoll, E. 1999. Personal communication with Elizabeth Stoll, Deputy Housing Manage, WPAFB, January 4, 1999.
True, L. 1999. Personal communication with Lillian True, Wastewater Program Manager, OEM-WPAFB, January 5, 1999.
United States Geological Survey (USGS). 1996. Results of the Basewide Monitoring Program at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, 1993-1994. 1996.