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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE
FAIRBORN, GREENE COUNTY, OHIO


TABLES

TABLE 1: EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL PUBLIC HEALTH HAZARDS AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE

Site Site Description/Waste Disposal History Investigation Results/Environmental Monitoring Results Corrective Activities and/or Current Status Evaluation of Public Health Hazard
Operable Unit 1 (Landfills 8 and 10)
Landfills 8 and 10 Operable Unit (OU) 1 is located in Woodland Hills, a residential neighborhood in the northeast section of Area B. Landfill 8 was an 11-acre disposal area operated from 1947 until the early 1970s. Landfill 10 was an 8-acre disposal area operated from 1965 to 1970. General refuse disposal, toxic and hazardous chemical disposal, acid neutralization, and fire training activities were conducted at these trench and cover landfills. There is some evidence of lead disposal. Approximately 36,000 gallons of chemical waste, unknown quantities of oily waste, and hospital wastes were received by the landfills. Drums were reportedly observed on the surface of Landfill 8. Remedial Investigations (RIs) were conducted for OU1 and off-site migration in March 1992 and summer 1993, respectively.

The following contamination was detected:
Ambient air: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals
Indoor air: No contaminants were detected above comparison values (CVs)
Surface and Subsurface Soil, Groundwater, and Leachate Wells : VOCs, semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), herbicides, metals, and dioxins
Surface Water and Sediment: VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, metals, and dioxins
Private Wells: VOCs, heptachlor, and metals were detected above CVs. SVOCs were detected at low concentrations.
Hospital waste: No wastes were identified at the surface.

Residents with private wells on National, Zink, and Kauffman Roads were connected to the town water supply in 1994. The landfills were capped with an impermeable layer based on a Record of Decision (ROD) issued in July 1993. The cap follows the requirements for a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle D sanitary landfill closure. A fence and locked gate were installed around the perimeter of the landfill to prevent access.

Landfill gases are collected and treated onsite. Leachate is collected and discharged to the Fairborn Publicly-Owned Treatment Works (POTW) for treatment.

Currently, WPAFB is investigating removing the gates and fences surrounding the landfills. The landfills would be used for non-invasive recreational purposes, such as walking paths.

Groundwater: Groundwater was not used as a water supply on base. No exposures occurred.
Air, surface soil, surface water, and sediment: No apparent health hazards were identified. Exposure was infrequent and of short duration. Exposure doses were lower than those believed to cause adverse health effects. Remedial actions prevent current and future exposures.
Private wells: No apparent health hazards were identified. Contaminants were detected above CVs infrequently. Exposure doses were lower than those believed to cause adverse health effects. The USAF connected homes to municipal water in 1994, preventing current and future exposures.
Hospital waste: Trench and cover practices during operation and the in-place RCRA landfill cap prevent contact with hospital wastes.

Operable Unit 2 (Spill Sites 2, 3, & 10; Temporary Coal Storage Pile; Coal and Chemical Storage Area; Burial Site 1; Long Term Coal Storage Area; and Building 89 Coal Storage Pile)

Spill Sites 2, 3, and 10 OU2 is located in the northeastern portion of Area C. The petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL) facility has been in operation since the mid-1940s. Spill Site 2 was identified as a result of an April 1976 spill of approximately 8,200 gallons of jet petroleum 4 (JP-4). Spill Site 3 resulted from a March 1981 release of approximately 1,200 to 2,500 gallons of number 2 fuel oil. Spill Site 10 included the release of approximately 150 gallons of JP-4 from a ruptured fuel line. Other releases of petroleum products may have occurred from leaking underground structures. These spill sites were investigated during the OU2 RI completed in August 1995

The following contamination was detected:
Air: Direct air sampling was not conducted. Estimated concentrations were modeled using soil data.
Surface and Subsurface Soil: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and beryllium
Groundwater: BTEX, trichloroethylene (TCE), PAHs, and metals (mainly iron, manganese, and arsenic)

Surface Water
: Benzene, carbon disulfide, fluoranthene, and chloromethane were detected infrequently. Antimony and aluminum were detected above CVs.
Sediment: PAHs and lead

Remedial actions were implemented at the time of each spill.

Two free-product recovery wells operated from March 1991 to April 1995 and from October 1993 to November 1995, respectively. Approximately 1,600 gallons of petroleum products were recovered from the first well. No appreciable amount of product were recovered from the second well.

In 1996, all underground piping was abandoned and two additional product recovery wells were installed. No appreciable amount of product has been recovered.

A ROD was signed in 1997. The selected remedy included in-situ biodegradation of subsurface soil, natural attenuation of groundwater, continued operation and maintenance of removal actions, institutional controls, and soil and groundwater monitoring.

Air: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Modeling did not identify potential air contamination above CVs from OU2.
Soil: No apparent public health hazard is associated with soil since the highest concentrations were detected in the subsurface. Access restrictions have been implemented to prevent current and future exposures.
Groundwater: Potential health impacts from groundwater were assessed as part of the Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP), discussed at the end of this table.
Surface Water/Sediment: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminants were detected infrequently and likely originated from storm water runoff and urban activities. No migration of contaminants from OU2 to Hebble Creek was identified.
Temporary Coal Storage Pile and Coal and Chemical Storage Area The temporary coal pile was a 3.7 acre area used to store coal from the mid-1940s through the 1950s. The 1 acre chemical storage area held 25 1-gallon containers of muriatic and sulfuric acid and two 0.5-gallon containers of carbon tetrachloride and was active from 1940 to the early 1970s. These sites were investigated during the OU2 RI.

Soil: Coal constituents (metals and PAHs) were detected in soil with the highest concentrations at the surface.
Groundwater: No evidence of soil contamination migrating to groundwater was identified.

These sites are located in a commercial/ industrial area with limited access. No further action was proposed and these sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Institutional controls are in place to restrict access to these areas.
Groundwater: No apparent health hazard was identified as no contamination originating from these sites was identified.
Burial Site 1 and Long Term Coal Storage Area These two sites were identified from review of aerial photographs. The burial site encompasses 2 acres and was identified as a disposal area used from 1966 to 1971. Further investigations revealed that this area was actually an old garden plot. The 3-acre coal storage area was active for approximately 20 years until 1989. These sites were investigated during the OU2 RI.

Soil: BTEX, PAHs, and metals associated with coal and urban pollution were detected.
Groundwater: No evidence of soil contamination migrating to groundwater was identified.

No further action was proposed and these sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent health public hazard was identified. Institutional controls are in place to restrict access to these areas.
Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified as no contamination originating from these sites was identified.
Building 89 Coal Storage Pile This coal storage area, approximately 6.2 acres, was operated from 1941 to the early 1970s. Building 89 was investigated during the OU2 RI.

Soil and Groundwater: Low levels of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were detected in both media.

No further action was proposed and the site was included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Access to the site is restricted.
Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Monitoring will continue under the BMP.

Operable Unit 3 (Landfills 11, 12, and 14; Fire Training Areas 2, 3, 4, and 5; Spill Site 1; and Earthfill Disposal Zones 11 and 12)

Landfill 11 and 12 OU3 is located along the western boundary of Area C adjacent to the Mad River. Landfill 11 was a 16-acre trench and cover operation located within an old channel of the Mad River. It was active from 1968 to 1977. Various chemicals and unknown quantities of oil wastes, solvents, and hospital wastes were disposed at this location. Landfill 12 was used for chemical disposal, acid neutralization, and hazardous material storage from 1968 to 1973. Exact quantities, types, physical state, and hazardous constituents disposed and stored at the site are unknown These sites were investigated under the OU3 RI, completed in July 1995. Numerous buried containers were identified at Landfill 12.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: PAHs, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), and metals
Groundwater: Benzene, TCE, antimony; low levels of pesticides/ herbicides; and TCE, arsenic, and manganese (at Landfill 12) above Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs).
Surface Water: Low levels of VOCs, SVOCs, and metals
Sediment: TPH, PAHs, and metals

Drums from both landfills were removed in 1990. Containers at Landfill 12 were excavated and disposed between October 1997 and March 1998.

Remedial actions at Landfill 11 included surface debris removal and capping with a soil/ vegetative cover. Surface water flow controls and institutional controls were implemented. The entire contents of Landfill 12 were excavated, characterized, and disposed of off base. These sites were included in the 1998 ROD for 41-No Action Sites as complete remedial actions were considered protective of human health.

Soil: Currently, there is no apparent public health hazard. Remedies are in place to prevent exposure. Past exposures were likely infrequent and of short duration, therefore the site posed no apparent public health hazard.
Groundwater: Contaminants detected in groundwater were addressed under the BMP.
Surface Water and Sediment: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Concentrations were detected below levels of concern.
Fire Training Areas 2 and 5 Fire Training Area 2 was operated from 1955 to 1969. Contaminated fuels were applied to the saturated ground and ignited for fire training activities. Fire Training Area 5 began service in 1981 and has only used uncontaminated fuels. Fuels were applied to water contained within a concrete area and ignited. In December 1986, approximately 2,700 gallons of jet fuel were released from a holding tank at Fire Training Area 5. Bioremediation (1987 to 1989) and bioventing (1994) projects were conducted to address the 1986 fuel spill at Fire Training Area 5. Both areas were investigated during the OU3 RI.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: Low levels of VOCs (mainly BTEX), SVOCs (mainly PAHs), TPH, pesticides/ herbicides, and metals (Highest concentrations were detected in subsurface soil.)
Groundwater: Low levels of VOCs, SVOCs (mainly PAHs), TPH, pesticides/ herbicides, and metals; benzene and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate above CVs.

No further action was proposed and these sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. These sites are located within the clear zone of an active runway. Future development of these areas is restricted. Institutional controls are also in place to prevent access to these areas.
Groundwater: Contaminants detected in groundwater were addressed under the BMP.
Fire Training Areas 3 and 4 and Spill Site 1 Fire training exercises were conducted at areas 3 and 4 between 1960 and 1980. Contaminated fuel, stored near the site, was spilled directly on the ground and ignited for training exercises. Spill Site 1 was identified as an area north of Fire Training Area 3 where 1,000 to 2,000 gallons of fuel were released in 1972. A soil gas survey was conducted at these sites in late 1989. These sites were included in the OU3 RI.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: Low levels of VOCs (mainly BTEX), SVOCs (mainly PAHs), TPH, pesticides/ herbicides, and metals (Highest concentrations were detected in surface soil.)
Soil gas: BTEX and TPH at the spill site
Groundwater: PAHs and metals at the spill site

No further action was proposed and these sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. These sites are located within the clear zone of an active runway. Future development of these areas is restricted. Institutional controls are also in place to prevent access to these areas.
Groundwater: Contaminants detected in groundwater were addressed under the BMP.
Landfill 14 and Earthfill Disposal Zones 11 and 12 These three landfills were likely used to dispose of construction debris. Organic muck is also suspected to be present in the two earthfill disposal zones. These sites were assessed under the OU3 RI.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: Low levels of VOCs at the earthfill disposal zones, and PAHs, TPH, pesticides, PCBs, and metals at the landfill
Groundwater: No compounds above background were identified at the earthfill disposal zones. Groundwater contamination was not detected at the landfill.

These sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. These sites are located within the clear zone of an active runway. Future development of these areas is restricted. Institutional controls are also in place to prevent access to these areas.
Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified as contaminants were not detected above background concentrations.
Operable Unit 4 (Landfills 3, 4, 6, and 7 and Central Heating Plant 2)
Landfills 3, 4, 6, and 7, and the Drum Staging and Disposal Area OU4 and these four landfills are located in the southern portion of Areas A and C. The landfills were operated in the 1940s and 1950s and received general refuse generated at WPAFB. The drum areas are located northwest of Landfill 7 and were identified as areas where drums were stored or disposed. These sites were investigated under the OU4 RI, completed in April 1995.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: SVOCs, TPH, pesticides and metals at Landfill 3; and VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, and metals at the drum area
Soil gas: Higher than expected concentrations of hydrocarbons were detected in gas from Landfill 3
Groundwater: Chlorinated VOCs downgradient of OU4 with TCE above its MCL
Leachate: VOCs at Landfill 3
Surface water: VOCs, TPH, and metals in Hebble Creek and its tributaries
Sediment: VOCs, SVOCs, pesticides, PCBs, and metals in Hebble Creek and its tributaries

Landfills 3 and 4 were considered to have appropriate covers in place. Soil and vegetation associated with a golf course was present at Landfill 3. A gravel and asphalt cover was present at Landfill 4. Therefore, no additional remedial actions were conducted at these sites. A presumptive remedy was implemented at Landfills 6 and 7. This included removing surface debris where necessary, installing a soil and vegetated cap, and instituting surface water and runoff controls. Drums were removed from the disposal area in 1990. Soil: No apparent public health hazard to soil is present as landfill capping activities have limited potential exposure to contaminants in soil.
Groundwater: Contamination in groundwater was addressed under the BMP.
Surface water/ sediment: No apparent public health hazard from exposure to surface water and sediment was identified. The installation of landfill caps and debris removal limits future migration of contamination to surface water bodies.
Central Heating Plant 2, Building 271 This heating plant was operated from 1940 to 1980 when it was closed as part of a heating plant consolidation plan. The site was addressed under the OU4 RI. A release of mercury was discovered during excavations in 1996.

No contaminants above CVs were detected in any media.

To address the release of mercury in sewer pipes, the floor drains were flushed and entombed in concrete. The sewer lines were capped. No additional actions were proposed and the site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. No apparent public health hazard was identified as no contamination above CVs was identified.

Operable Unit 5 (Landfill 5, Fire Training Area 1, Burial Site 4, and Gravel Lakes Tank Site)

Landfill 5 OU5 is located in the southern portion of Area C, near the Huffman Dam. Landfill 5 is a 23-acre area within the Mad River 100-year floodplain that was used for disposal activities. The landfill served as a lumber reclamation area in the 1940s, a waste petroleum disposal area until 1978, and a general refuse disposal area which was closed in 1991. A RI for OU5 was completed in February 1995.

The following contamination was detected:
Ambient Air: No contaminants detected above background concentrations.
Soil: TPH
Groundwater: hydrocarbons with a layer of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). A plume of PCE, TCE, and 1,2-dichloroethene (1,2-DCE) was detected south of the landfill, however, a specific source has not been identified.
Surface Water: Metals and low concentrations of VOCs and SVOCs
Sediment: PAHs, pesticides, metals, dioxins, and low concentrations of VOCs

Investigations concluded that waste primarily consists of coal ash, soil, and construction debris. The eastern portion contains hydrocarbon contamination from weathered JP-4.

Remedial actions included installing a low permeability cap and a groundwater treatment system. The treatment system is operated to prevent further migration of contamination across base boundaries.

Based on the remedial actions in place, this site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites.

Ambient Air: No exposures have or are occurring
Soil: No apparent public health hazards were identified. The site is accessed infrequently as a closed landfill and a ROD is in place.
Groundwater: No apparent public health hazards were identified. WPAFB supply wells were not impacted by this source and the Huffman Damn wells affected by the site have never contributed to the water supply. A treatment system is in place.
Surface Water/sediment: No apparent public health hazards were identified. Recreational use does not result in exposures likely to have adverse health effects.
Fire Training Area 1, Burial Site 4, and Gravel Lakes Tank Site Fire training, conducted from 1950 to 1955, consisted of burning contaminated fuels in an area of saturated soil. The burial site contained 10 to 15 disposed drums, and sludge was reportedly burned at the tank site. Investigations were conducted under the OU5 RI.

Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, and metals were detected below CVs and/or background levels.
Groundwater: Low levels of TPH and VOCs were detected.

No appreciable concentrations of contaminants were detected during investigations. These sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminants were detected at levels below CVs.
Groundwater: Contaminants in groundwater were addressed under the BMP.

Operable Unit 6 (Landfills 1 and 2 and Earthfill Disposal Zone 1)

Landfill 1 and 2 OU6 is located in the southwest corner of Area B. Landfills 1 and 2 operated as surface dumps from the 1920s through the 1950s. The type, quantity, physical state, hazardous constituents, and pollutants disposed are unknown. The landfills were investigated during the OU6 RI, completed in December 1995.

The following contamination was detected:
Fill material: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, PCBs, pesticides, and metals
Soil: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, pesticides, and metals
Soil Gas: VOCs
Groundwater: Cadmium and chromium above CVs
Surface Water/ Sediment: VOCs, SVOCs, TPH, pesticides, and metals
Private Wells: No compounds were detected above MCLs

Contaminant concentrations detected in surface water and sediment were similar to background levels. A presumptive remedy was implemented to reduce the potential for exposure. The remedy included modifying and maintaining existing soil and vegetative covers. Storm water runoff is also controlled to prevent migration.

With the completion of remedial actions, these sites were included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites.

Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. The landfills were capped and access is limited by a fence and locked gate.
Groundwater: Contamination in groundwater was addressed under the BMP.
Private Wells: No apparent public health hazard was identified.
Earthfill Disposal Zone 1 Earthfill Disposal Zone 1 is approximately 23 acres and accepted fill material for disposal in the 1940s. Currently, a portion of this area is used as a community park maintained by the city of Riverside. This area was evaluated during a 1992 site investigation and the OU6 RI.

Soil: Petroleum hydrocarbons and metals were detected. Their presence was attributed to the asphalt pathways in the park and the nearby roadway. Low-levels of pesticides/ herbicides were also detected.
Groundwater: Antimony was detected above the MCL in one monitoring well during one sampling round.

Based on evaluation of the contaminants and concentrations detected in soil and groundwater, no further action was deemed necessary. The earthfill disposal zone was included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminants detected in soil were attributed to current uses of the site.
Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminants in groundwater were evaluated under the BMP.

Operable Unit 7 (Landfill 9)

Landfill 9 OU 7 is located in the northern portion of Area C, north of State Route 235. Landfill 9 is a 3 acre site located in the northeast corner of WPAFB. This landfill was operated from 1962 to 1964 and received general refuse from the base. Field investigations were completed in November 1996.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: SVOCs (mainly PAHs), metals and low levels of pesticides
Soil gas: Methane and low levels of VOCs
Groundwater: Aluminum and manganese above CVs
Sediment: PAHs and metals, low levels of VOCs and one pesticide, and dioxins and furans in one sample

Although contaminants were detected in low concentrations, a soil and vegetated cap were constructed at Landfill 9. The intent of the cap is to minimize erosion and prevent future exposure. Access to the area is limited with a fence and locked gate. This site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. A cap was installed to prevent exposure. Future development is limited as this site is located within the flight line of an active runway.
Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminants in groundwater were evaluated under the BMP.
Sediment: No apparent public health hazard was identified. A cap was installed to prevent erosion and migration

Operable Unit 8 (Spill Sites 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11, Underground Storage Tank (UST) Building 71A, and Central Heating Plant 1)

Spill Site 5 and UST, Building 71A OU8 is located in the northwestern section of Area B. This spill site and UST site are located adjacent to Building 71A. Petroleum fuel releases were identified in 1985 during excavation and removal of USTs. The area had been used for fuel testing since 1943. A RI for OU8, completed in January 1997, addressed these releases.

The following contamination was detected:
Fill material: BTEX
Soil: BTEX, PCE, TCE, methylene chloride, PAHs, TPH, and lead
Groundwater: TCE and light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) in two wells

Contaminant concentrations were below levels of concern. A bioslurper was operated from March 1997 to December 1997 for LNAPL removal. No LNAPL or BTEX were detected in groundwater after operation of the bioslurper ceased. These sites were included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. The majority of the contamination was within subsurface soils.
Groundwater: Contaminants in groundwater were evaluated under the BMP.
Spill Site 6 Approximately 100 to 200 gallons of PCB-containing oil leaked from a transformer located near Building 14. Investigations were conducted in 1988 and 1990.

Soil: PCBs were detected above CVs
Groundwater: No PCBs were detected

In 1986, the transformer, concrete pad, and surrounding soil were removed. Additional soil was removed in 1987 and 1991. This site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Further Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminated soils have been removed. Past exposures were likely infrequent and of short duration, therefore the site likely posed no apparent public health hazard.
Groundwater: No PCB contamination was identified, therefore, no health hazard was identified.
Spill Site 7 and 9 These spills occurred at tank farms operated from 1956 until 1992. The tanks were used to store fuels and fuel additives used in research activities. Site investigations were conducted in the early 1990s.

Soil: Elevated levels of VOCs were detected
Groundwater: No contaminants were detected above CVs

The USTs and contaminated soil were removed and disposed under the Bureau of UST Removals (BUSTR) regulations. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved removal actions. These sites were included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard has been identified. Contamination was concentrated in subsurface soil. Soil was removed and disposed of off site. Past exposures were infrequent and of short duration, therefore, the site likely posed no apparent public health hazard.
Groundwater: No contamination above CVs was detected, therefore, no public health hazard was identified.
Spill Site 11 Site spill 11 was identified at a survivability/ vulnerability range for aircraft fuel tanks and components. Testing activities have been conducted at this site since 1967. Several releases of fuels occurred at the site. This spill site was investigated under the OU8 RI.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: Ethylbenzene, total xylenes, SVOCs, and low levels of TPH
Groundwater: BTEX and TPH
Sediment: SVOCs and localized areas of TPH
Surface Water: TPH was detected in one sample collected after a heavy rainfall

Some removal actions were conducted when the spills occurred. However, some contamination remains and during heavy rainfall fuels are flushed to the surface. Remedial actions consisted of limiting migration through installation of a french drain tied to an oil/ water separator. Corrective actions were completed under CERCLA.

No further action is proposed for soil contamination. Soil contamination at this site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Groundwater remediation is addressed under the BMP.

Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified.
Groundwater: Contaminants in groundwater were evaluated under the BMP.
Surface Water/ Sediment: No apparent public health hazard was identified.
Central Heating Plant 1, Building 66 This heating plant, located in the north central section of Area B, was operated from 1930 through 1980, when it was closed as part of a heating plant consolidation. Coal served as the primary fuel. This site was evaluated during the IRP Phase II Stage 2 Investigation.

No contaminants were detected above CVs in site media.

The heating plant is no longer active. The coal has been removed and portions of the area have been paved. Exposure pathways are limited. This site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. No apparent public health hazards were identified as contaminants were not detected.

Operable Unit 9 (Earthfill Disposal Zones 2 through 10; Burial Site 3; Central Heating Plant 5 and the Defense Reutilization Marketing Office [DRMO] Storage Yard; Deactivated Nuclear Reactor; and Radioactive Waste Burial Site)

Earthfill Disposal Zones 2 through 10 These disposal zones, located in the northeastern portion of Area B, range from 2 to 35 acres. They consist of fill material and small amounts of metals. Material was disposed in these areas during the 1940s. An RI for OU9 including these sites was completed in September 1997.

The following contamination was detected:
Air: No contaminants were detected above background concentrations
Soil: Beryllium above CVs
Groundwater: Benzene, TCE, 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), vinyl chloride, and low levels of SVOCs and metals
Surface Water: VOCs and metals below CVs and/or background levels
Sediment: VOCs and SVOCS (mainly PAHs attributed to pavement) and low levels of PCBs and pesticides below CVs and/or background levels

No further action is proposed at any of these sites. These sites were included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Air/ Surface Water/ Sediment: No apparent public health hazard was identified as contaminants were detected below CVs and background levels.
Soil: No apparent public health hazard from soil was identified.
Groundwater: Contaminants in groundwater were evaluated under the BMP.
Burial Site 3 The size and exact location of Burial Site 3 is unknown. It is suspected that fuel sludge was deposited at this site. Sampling was conducted under the OU9 RI.

Soil: No contamination above CVs was detected
Groundwater: Aluminum, iron, and manganese were detected above MCLs

No further action is proposed to address soil at this site as no contamination above levels of concern was detected. Groundwater was addressed under the BMP. Soil: No contaminants above CVs were detected, therefore, no health hazards were identified.
Groundwater: Metals in groundwater were addressed under the BMP.
Central Heating Plant 5 and DRMO Storage Area The heating plant, located near Kauffman Avenue, began operation in 1956 and expanded in 1980. Coal is used as the primary fuel. The DRMO storage area is located adjacent to the heating plant and is used to store numerous items. These sites were included in the OU9 RI and a November 1996 Supplemental Investigation.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: VOCs, SVOCs (mainly PAHs), PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, and metals
Groundwater: VOCs, iron, aluminum, and manganese

Because of elevated levels of PAHs at the coal storage area, facilities were improved and upgraded. Storm water runoff controls were installed and areas were repaved or regraded. Soils containing high concentrations of PAHs in the DRMO storage area were excavated and disposed of off site. These sites were then included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazards were identified. Remedial actions limited potential exposures. Past exposures were likely infrequent and of short duration.
Groundwater: Contaminants detected in groundwater were addressed under the BMP.
Deactivated Nuclear Reactor A 10-megawatt nuclear reactor was located in the northern portion of Area B and operated from 1965 to 1970. The reactor was decommissioned in 1970. Ongoing radiological monitoring of soil, vegetation, surface water, and groundwater is conducted.

No radiological parameters above CVs have been detected.

During decommissioning, the fuel rods, cooling water, and other wastes were disposed. In 1992, the primary cooling system structures were removed. No further action is proposed and this site was included in the September 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. No apparent public health hazards were identified. No contamination has been identified and ongoing monitoring is conducted.
Radioactive Waste Burial Site This alleged burial site is located in the southern portion of Area B. The disposal area, which reportedly accepted radioactive waste, consisted of a concrete slab and a 24-inch diameter pipe on its end within a small fenced area. An investigation of the area was conducted in 1990.

No elevated levels of radioactivity were detected in the concrete slab or soil.

During investigations, it was discovered that this area served as a staging location for drum removal, versus a disposal area. The concrete slab was removed and this site was included in the ROD for 41 No Action Sites. No apparent public health hazards were identified as no elevated levels of radioactivity were detected.

Operable Unit 10 (Landfill 13; Tank Farm 49A and UST Building 119; Central Heating Plant 3 and 4; Spill Sites 4 and 8; and Building 89, Building 13 Sump Pump, and Flagpole Anomaly, East Ramp Tank Removal)

Landfill 13 OU10 is located in Area C south of OU2. Landfill 13 is located near Wright Avenue. This 4 to 5-acre dumpsite operated from 1922 to 1940 and accepted aircraft parts and construction debris. Currently, Landfill 13 is a paved parking area. The RI for OU10, including Landfill 13, was completed in December 1995.

Soil: No contaminants above CVs were detected
Groundwater: All compounds detected were within background ranges

No remedial actions were proposed for this site as no contamination above CVs or background was detected. This site was included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil/ Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified.
Tank Farm 49A and UST Building 119 USTs and associated piping were identified as the source of fuel contamination detected in soil and groundwater. Fuel leaks were identified during a BUSTR investigation in the late 1980s. The site was further evaluated under the OU10 RI.

Soil: Jet fuel components were detected below CVs
Groundwater: Benzene was detected slightly above the MCL

Under BUSTR regulations, leaking tanks, piping, and soil were removed and disposed of off site. These sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard exists. Contamination was concentrated in subsurface soil, which has been excavated and disposed of off site.
Groundwater: Contaminants in groundwater were evaluated under the BMP.
Central Heating Plant 3, Building 170 The heating plant, which used coal as its primary source, operated from 1940 through 1980. The coal was stored on a concrete pad. Runoff was directed to the storm drainage system. A battery burial area and compressor oil sump were also identified as potential sources within this site. This site was investigated under the OU10 RI.

Soil: SVOCs and metals were detected
Groundwater: No appreciable contamination was detected

The site is partially covered, limiting exposure to contaminated soil, and was included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. The majority of the site is paved and access is limited. Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified, however, groundwater was further evaluated under the BMP.
Central Heating Plant 4, Building 1240 Located along the southeastern boundary of Area A in Kitty Hawk Center, this heating plant is one of the two plants still in operation. Coal is the primary fuel and the adjacent coal pile is contained on a concrete pad with concrete walls. Runoff from the coal pile is contained and discharged to the storm sewer system. This site was evaluated during the IRP Phase II Stage 2 Investigation.

No contaminants were detected above CVs in site media.

No remedial actions were proposed and this site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. No apparent public health hazards were identified as contaminants were not detected above CVs.
Spill Site 4 During construction of a water line within the bounds of OU10, an area of soil contaminated with fuel components was identified. The release was attributed to a former UST (removed in 1983) and its piping (removed in 1988). This area was investigated in 1988, 1989, and 1990 under BUSTR regulations.

Soil/ Groundwater: After contaminated soil was removed, only fuel components at concentrations below CVs were detected

Contaminated soil and the remaining piping was removed in accordance with BUSTR regulations. No further action was required and this site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil/ Groundwater: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contamination was concentrated in subsurface soil, which has been removed to limit exposure and potential migration. Groundwater was evaluated under the BMP.
Spill Site 8 Two transformers, located in Area C along Route 444, were identified as the source for a release of PCB-containing oil. Contamination was discovered when the transformers were removed under the Military Construction Project in 1988.

Soil: PCBs were detected at a maximum concentration of 42 parts per million (ppm)

Soil with PCB contamination above 10 ppm was excavated and removed offsite. The area of contamination above 10 ppm was approximately 6 feet by 6 feet. No further action is proposed and this site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. No significant past exposures were identified as the area of contamination was very small and access was limited. The contaminated soil has been removed,
Building 89, Building 13 Sump Pump, and Flagpole Anomaly These three areas, located within OU10, were identified as potential sources of contamination based on past uses and sampling results. Building 89 contained a dry cleaner, the sump pump was used for oily wastes, and VOCs had been detected in soil gas near the flagpole. These three sites are not designated Installation Restoration Program (IRP) sites, but were investigated under the OU10 RI.

The following contamination was detected:
Soil: PCE
Groundwater: PCE, VOCs, and metals

Evaluation of sampling results indicated that these three sites were not the source of soil or groundwater contamination. Upgradient releases were identified as the possible sources. These sites were included in the 1996 ROD for 21 No Action Sites. Soil/ Groundwater: No apparent public health hazards were identified. Observed contamination is likely from upgradient sources that have migrated through groundwater movement. Contamination in groundwater was addressed in the BMP.
East Ramp Tank Removal Located in the northeast section of Area C, this concrete UST was part of a gasoline defueling system abandoned in 1970. The site was investigated under BUSTR regulations.

Soil: Low levels of VOCs and TPH were detected.
Groundwater: No evidence of contamination was detected.

The UST and contaminated soil were removed during the Military Construction Project in 1988. The Site Disposition Report concluded that no additional corrective action was needed. This site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contaminated soil was removed.
Groundwater: No public health hazards were identified as groundwater contamination was absent.

Operable Unit 11 (Burial Site 2: Chemical Disposal Area; and UST, Building 4020)

Burial Site 2 and Chemical Disposal Areas OU11 is located in the western portion of Area C adjacent to the Mad River. From 1971 to 1975, Burial Site 2 received sludge from cleaned fuel storage tanks. It is unknown if these sludges were containerized. The chemical disposal area was part of the surface water drainage system. Various shop wastes were discarded in drainage channels between 1963 and 1971. A field investigation of these sites was completed in August 1997.

Soil: PAHs, metals, and low levels of VOCs were detected.
Groundwater: No contaminants above CVs were detected.
Sediment: VOCs, PAHs, and metals were detected in drainage ditches in the disposal area.

The sites were evaluated based on potential land uses, which include vegetation maintenance/control at the burial site and light industrial or commercial use at the chemical disposal area. No further actions were recommended. These sites were included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil/ Sediment: No apparent public health hazard was identified based on land uses.
Groundwater: No contaminants were detected above CVs. Groundwater was further evaluated under the BMP.
UST, Building 4020 This UST collected waste fuel and hydraulic fluid from 1956 to 1986. A leak in the UST was discovered in 1986. The leaking UST was evaluated under the BUSTR regulations and the IRP Phase II, Stage 2 Investigations.

Soil: TPH, xylenes, and toluene were detected.
Groundwater: No evidence of contamination was found.

When the leak was discovered in 1986, the UST and contaminated soil were removed. No further action was proposed and the site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazard was identified. Contamination was limited to subsurface soil.
Groundwater: No public health hazards were identified as contamination was not detected in groundwater.

Unassigned Sites (Burial Sites 5 and 6 and Building 59)

Burial Sites 5 and 6 These two burial sites are located in Area B southwest of OU9. They were identified as potential hazardous waste burial sites based on aerial photographs and interviews with personnel. A site investigation was conducted in 1997. The following contamination was detected:
Soil Gas: None detected
Soil: Low levels of VOCs, SVOCs, and PAHs
Groundwater: Low levels of PCE, benzene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and PAHs
No evidence of actual burial was found at either location. Minor concentrations of contaminants detected were attributed to upgradient sources. No further action is proposed and this site was included in the 1998 ROD for 41 No Action Sites. Soil: No apparent public health hazards were identified. Contaminants were detected at low concentrations and were not associated with site activities.
Groundwater: Contaminants were further evaluated under the BMP.
Building 59 Located in Area B near OU8, Building 59 is an abandoned structure scheduled for removal. In 1997, water found in the basement of this building was sampled.

Standing Water: TCE, 1,2-DCE, and vinyl chloride were detected.

Further investigations of this building are scheduled to commence in Fall 1998. Investigations will focus on identifying the source of the water and contamination. No apparent public health hazards were identified. The building is abandoned and access is limited. Ongoing studies will provide additional information.

Basewide Monitoring Program (BMP)

Basewide - Areas A, B, and C During investigations, groundwater contamination was identified throughout WPAFB. Because groundwater contamination has migrated beyond OU boundaries and plumes have commingled, a groundwater OU was established in 1996 under the BMP. The BMP focused on site-wide groundwater, surface water, and sediment contamination. Existing data from the OU RIs and additional data were collected and analyzed during the 1993 to 1994 BMP.

The following contamination was detected:
Groundwater: Chlorinated VOCs, BTEX, 4,4-DDT, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, metals, and dioxins
Surface Water: SVOCs, PCBs, pesticides, and metals
Sediment: acetone, SVOCs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, and metals

An Engineering Evaluation/ Cost Analysis (EE/CA) for the groundwater OU recommended remedial actions for groundwater contamination. Contaminant plumes were identified in OU5 and the area east of Spill Site 11. Recommended actions for OU5 included continued treatment and monitoring. Long-term monitoring and in-situ oxidation was recommended at the area east of Spill Site 11, a pilot study is planned at this site. In addition, monitoring was recommended for areas with remedies in place (OU1 and OU2) and locations where contaminants exceed CVs but there are no definite plumes. A ROD is planned for 1999. Groundwater: Although WPAFB workers and residents were exposed to VOCs in water supply wells, no apparent public health hazards were identified. An exposure evaluation did not identify potentially harmful levels of contamination. The USAF treats and monitors the water supply. The USAF also monitors groundwater contamination and has treatment systems in place.
Surface Water/sediment: Recreational users and WPAFB maintenance workers may have been exposed to contaminants in surface water and sediment. However, no apparent public health hazards were identified. Exposure is expected to be infrequent and of short duration. An exposure evaluation did not identify potentially harmful levels of contamination.
Sources: CH2MHill Ohio, Inc., 1995a and 1995b; CH2MHill, 1997; City of Dayton, 1998; Ehret, 1999; Engineering-Science, Inc., 1992, 1993 and 1995; Finke, 1999; Hawkins, 1999; International Consultants, Incorporated, 1996; IT Corporation, 1995, 1997a, and 1997b; Luken, 1999; Metcalf & Eddy, 1995 and 1997; OEM-WPAFB, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1997a, 1997b, 1998a-f, and 1999; OEPA, 1994; Rogers, 1999; Science Applications International Corporation, 1995; Shoemaker, 1999; Stoll, 1999; True, 1999; USGS, 1996.

BMP Basewide Monitoring Program
BTEX benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes
BUSTR Bureau of Underground Storage Tank Removals
CV comparison value
1,2-DCA 1,2-dichloroethane
1,2-DCE 1,2-dichloroethene
DRMO Defense Reutilization Marketing Office
EE/CA engineering evaluation/cost analysis
EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency
IRP Installation Restoration Program
JP-4 jet petroleum number 4
LNAPL light non-aqueous phase liquid
MCL maximum contaminant level
NAPL non-aqueous phase liquid
OEPA Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Act
OU operable unit
PAH polyaromatic hydrocarbons
PCB polychlorinated biphenyl
PCE tetrachloroethylene
POL petroleum, oil, and lubrication
POTW publicly owned treatment works
ppm parts per million
RCRA Resource Conservation Recovery Act
RI remedial investigation
ROD record of decision
SVOC semivolatile organic compound
TCE trichloroethylene
TPH total petroleum hydrocarbons
USAF United States Air Force
UST underground storage tank
VOC volatile organic compound


TABLE 2: POTENTIAL EXPOSURE PATHWAYS AT WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE
CONCERN POTENTIAL EXPOSURE PATHWAY ELEMENTS COMMENTS
SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA POINT OF EXPOSURE ROUTE OF EXPOSURE POTENTIALLY EXPOSED POPULATION EXPOSURE PERIOD EVALUATED
Contaminated media at Operable Unit 1 (OU1), (Landfills 8 and 10)

 

Debris and disposal practices at Landfills 8 and 10 Ambient air Housing area Inhalation Residents of Woodland Hills housing units Past
Current
Future
Past: Residents may have been exposed to acetone above comparison values (CVs) but below concentrations likely to result in adverse health effects for likely exposures.
Current/Future: The U.S. Air Force (USAF) installed a gas collection system at the landfills to prevent current and future exposures.
Surface soil Landfill cover Dermal contact,
Incidental ingestion
Residents of Woodland Hills housing units Past
Current
Future
Past: Recreational users may have been exposed to contamination above CVs, but below concentrations likely to result in adverse health effects for likely exposures. Exposures were likely infrequent and of short duration.
Current/Future: The USAF constructed a landfill cap including a 2-foot soil cover to prevent current and future exposures. The landfills are currently surrounded by a security fence. However, the USAF is exploring the possibility of removing this fence and using the landfills for passive recreation, such as walking trails.
Surface water and sediment Streams Dermal contact,
Incidental ingestion
Residents of Woodland Hills housing units Past
Current
Future
Past/Current/Future: Recreational users may have been exposed to contamination above CVs, but below concentrations likely to result in adverse health effects for likely exposures. Exposures were likely infrequent and of short duration. The streams are surrounded by dense vegetation that limits site access. In addition, the USAF installed a leachate collection system to prevent exposures.
Groundwater Private wells Ingestion, Inhalation,
Dermal contact
Offsite residences Past
Current
Future
Past: Some residents with private wells were exposed to contamination above CVs, but below concentrations likely to result in adverse health effects.
Current/Future: The USAF connected homes to municipal water supplies in 1994. Residents, except three, abandoned the private wells. Residents that maintain their wells use them for irrigation.
Contaminated groundwater Spills, releases, and activities located throughout WPAFB Groundwater Drinking water wells Ingestion, Inhalation, Dermal contact Residents and employees at WPAFB; visitors to WPAFB Past
Current
Future
Past: WPAFB workers and residents were exposed to contamination above CVs, but below concentrations likely to result in adverse health effects.
Current/Future: The USAF installed treatment systems at each water supply well and monitors the water supply to ensure contamination is not entering the system.
Contaminated surface water and sediment used for recreation Spills, releases, and activities located throughout WPAFB Surface water and sediment Onsite and offsite surface water bodies Dermal,
Incidental ingestion
Area residents; residents and employees at WPAFB; visitors to WPAFB Past
Current
Future
Past/Current/Future: On- and off- base recreational users may have been exposed to contamination above CVs, but below concentrations likely to result in adverse health effects. The USAF completed source removal actions and a Record of Decision (ROD) is in place for all soil contamination sites. The USAF monitors surface water runoff discharged to the Mad River under a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) monitors the health of the Mad River and instituted a fishing advisory recommending that people limit there intake of fish caught in the Mad River. This advisory extends up- and downstream of WPAFB.
CV comparison value NPDES National Pollution Discharge Elimination System OEPA Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
OU operable unit ROD record of decision USAF United States Air Force


TABLE 3: SUMMARY OF AMBIENT AIR DATA THAT EXCEED COMPARISON VALUES AT OU1 (LANDFILLS 8 AND 10)
  Ambient Air Soil Comparison Values
Chemical Minimum Detected
(ug/m3)
Maximum
Detected
(ug/m3)
Frequency of
detection1
Value
(ug/m3)

Source

Acetone 45N 236,000NJ 17/40 30,892 EMEG child
Benzene 16.6NJ 17.6NJ 3/40 0.1 CREG
Dimethyl Sulfide 2.9J 5.1J 4/40 not available   
Methylene Chloride 17J 46 5/40 3 CREG
PCE2   16.3J 1/5 0.6 CREG
1,1,2-Trichloroethane   53.6NJ 1/40 0.6 CREG
TCE 13N 20.5J 3/40 0.6 CREG
Phenanthrene3 0.004NJ 0.02N 37/40 not available  
Arsenic 0.0012J 0.0028J 29/40 0.0002 CREG
Beryllium 0.0006 0.0008 6/40 0.0004 CREG
Chromium   0.0061 1/40 0.00008 CREG
Lead3 0.0124 0.0202 16/40 not available  

Source: Engineering Science, Inc., 1993

Notes: ug/m3 micrograms per cubic meter
  N data qualifier, indicates that the analyte was tentatively identified
  J data qualifier, indicates that the reported concentration is estimated
  TCE trichloroethylene
  PCE tetrachloroethylene
  CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
  child standard for a child

1Frequency of detection is the times sought/times detected.
2PCE was detected only in an upwind (background) sample.
3Phenanthrene and lead were detected below the background concentrations (0.033NJ and 0.0205, respectively) at all sampling locations.


TABLE 4: SUMMARY OF SURFACE SOIL DATA THAT EXCEED COMPARISON VALUES AT OU1 (LANDFILLS 8 AND 10)

  Landfill 8 - Surface Soil Soil Comparison Values
Chemical Minimum Detected
(ppm)
Maximum Detected
(ppm)
Frequency of
detection1
Value
(ppm)
Source
Phenanthrene 0.019J 0.12J 5/9 not available  
delta-BHC   0.0041J 1/9 not available  
Arsenic 6.2 10.9J 9/9 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 0.5J 0.9J 9/9 0.2 CREG
Iron 14,900 24,900 9/9 23,000 RBC-N

  Landfill 10 - Surface Soil Soil Comparison Values
Chemical Minimum Detected
(ppm)
Maximum Detected
(ppm)
Frequency of
detection1
Value
(ppm)
Source
delta-BHC 0.026J

0.096

2/7 not available  
gamma-Chlordane 0.0034 0.65 6/7 0.5 CREG
Aroclor-1254 0.041J 2.3 4/7 1.0 EMEG-child
Arsenic 6.1J 8J 7/7 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 0.4J 1J 7/7 0.2 CREG
Iron 11,600 26,600 7/7 23,000 RBC
 

Source: Engineering-Science, Inc., 1993

Notes: ppm parts per million
  J data qualifier, indicates that the reported concentration is estimated
  BHC hexachlorocyclohexane
  EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
  CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  RBC Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Risk Based Concentration
  child standard for a child

1Frequency of detection is the times sought/times detected.


TABLE 5: SUMMARY OF SURFACE WATER AND SEDIMENT DATA THAT EXCEED COMPARISON VALUES AT OU1 (LANDFILLS 8 AND 10)

  Landfill 8
Leachate Surface Water
Landfill 8
Surface Water
Drinking Water
Comparison Values
Chemical Minimum Detected (ppb) Maximum Detected (ppb) Frequency of detection1 Minimum Detected (ppb) Maximum Detected (ppb) Frequency of detection1 Value
(ppb)
Source
Benzene 0.5J 3 2/10       1 CREG
Vinyl Chloride 0.5J 1J 6/10       0.7 EMEG-child
bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 1J 6J 5/10 0.6J 7J 8/36 4.8 RBC
Aldrin   0.013J 1/10       0.002 CREG
Arsenic 7.5J 199 10/10 2.2J 31.6J 7/36 0.02 CREG
Barium 238 1,350 10/10       700 RMEG-child
Beryllium 1.2J 1.9J 2/10   2J 1/36 0.008 CREG
Cadmium 7.6 13.1J 2/10       2 EMEG-child
Iron 14,700 143,000 10/10 65J 73,000 29/36 11,000 RBC
Lead 5.8J 90 6/10 7.5J 112J 2/36 15 MCL action level
Manganese 442 1,320 10/10 8.2J 6,230 33/36 50 RMEG-child
Thallium 2.1J 2.3J 2/10       0.4 LTHA
Vanadium 3.3 64.3 5/10 3.9J 54.6 5/36 30 iRMEG-child
TEQ for Dioxins (ppt) 0.22 26 unknown       0.47 RBC
Acenaphthylene       0.011J 0.46 7/40 not available   
Benzo(a)anthracene       0.014J 0.88 25/40 0.87 RBC
Benzo(a)pyrene 0.082J 0.190J 2/11 0.017J 1.1 28/40 0.087 CREG
Benzo(b)fluoranthene       0.016J 1.2 23/40 0.87 RBC
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene       0.028J 0.23J 8/40 not available  
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene       0.023J 0.19J 5/40 0.087 RBC
Phenanthrene 0.057J 0.330J 4/11 0.012J 1.0 33/40 not available  
delta-BHC         0.0033J 1/38 not available  
Endosulfan II       0.0007J 0.0009J 2/38 not available  
Endrin ketone       0.0039 0.0085J 2/38 not available  
Arsenic 4.6J 72.3J 11/11 1.4J 20.7J 40/40 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 0.2J 0.8J 6/11 0.2J 0.6J 20/40 0.2 CREG
Cadmium       0.9J 12.3J 6/40 10 EMEG-child
Iron 15,000 35,500 11/11 54J 24,500J 39/40 23,000 RBC
Benzene 2J 37 4/4       1 CREG
PCE 5 14 2/4       0.7 CREG
TCE 18 100 2/4       3 CREG
Vinyl Chloride 0.7J 2 2/4       0.2 EMEG-child
Benzo(a)pyrene         1J 1/16 0.005 CREG
Benzo(b)fluoranthene         1J 1/16 0.092 RBC
Benzo(k)fluoranthene         1J 1/16 0.92 RBC
bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate       1J 6J 5/16 4.8 RBC
4-chloro-3-methylphenol   11 1/3       not available  
Phenanthrene         2J 1/16 not available  
Aldrin   0.061J 1/3       0.002 CREG
delta-BHC   0.009J 1/3       not available  
alpha-Chlordane         0.05J 1/16 0.03 CREG
gamma-Chlordane         0.05J 1/16 0.03 CREG
4,4'-DDE         0.1 1/16 0.1 CREG
Heptachlor   0.018J 1/3       0.008 CREG
Antimony   18.6J 1/3       4 RMEG-child
Arsenic   6.4J 1/3   4.2J 1/16 0.02 CREG
Iron 16,800 39,600 3/3       11,000 RBC
Lead   16.1J 1/3 12.8J 39.1J 4/16 15 MCL action level
Manganese 322 1180 3/3 6J.7J 915 16/16 50 RMEG-child
Thallium         12.7J 1/16 0.4 LTHA
TEQ for Dioxins (ppt)   7.6 unknown 0.98 1.5 unknown 0.47 RBC
Acenaphthylene       0.036J 0.27J 6/10 not available  
Benzo(a)anthracene       0.035J 6.0J 8/10 0.87 RBC
Benzo(a)pyrene       0.036J 5.5J 9/11 0.087 CREG
Benzo(b)fluoranthene       0.054J 6.8J 8/10 0.87 RBC
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene       0.940J 1.5J 2/10 not available  
4-chloro-3-methylphenol   0.13J 1/5       not available  
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene       0.15J 0.56 6/10 0.087 RBC
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene       0.099J 2.5 8/10 0.87 RBC
Phenanthrene   0.066J 1/5 0.034J 13J 11/11 not available  
delta-BHC   0.001J 1/5       not available  
Arsenic 3.7J 36.8J 5/5 2.1J 5.8J 11/11 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 0.6J 0.7J 2/5 0.2J 0.5J 3/11 0.2 CREG
Source: Engineering Science, Inc., 1993

Notes: ppb

parts per billion

  ppt parts per trillion
  J data qualifier, indicates that the reported concentration is estimated
  DDE dichlorodiphenylchloroethane
  TCE trichloroethylene
  EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
  MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
  child standard for a child
  RBC Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Risk Based Concentration
  ppm parts per million
  TEQ toxicity equivalents
  BHC hexachlorocyclohexane
  PCE tetrachloroethylene
  CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  LTHA Lifetime Health Advisory
  RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
  i intermediate

1Frequency of detection is the times sought/times detected.


TABLE 6: SUMMARY OF PRIVATE WELL DATA THAT EXCEED COMPARISON VALUES AT OU1 (LANDFILLS 8 AND 10)

  Landfill 8
Private Wells
Drinking Water
Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected (ppb) Maximum Detected (ppb) Frequency of detection1 Value
(ppb)
Source
Bromodichloromethane2   2 1/19 0.6 CREG
Chloroform2   49 1/19 6 CREG
Dibromochloromethane2   2J 1/19 0.13 RBC
bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 0.8J 5J 4/18 4.8 RBC
Arsenic3 3.4J 52 18/19 0.02 CREG
Manganese3 3.3J 1,580 16/19 50 RMEG-child

  Landfill 10
Private Wells
Drinking Water
Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected (ppb) Maximum Detected (ppb) Frequency of detection1 Value
(ppb)
Source
Heptachlor   0.008NJ
1/14
0.008
CREG
Arsenic3 3.3J
13.8J
7/12
0.02
CREG
Manganese3 7J
98.1
4/14
50
RMEG-child
Source: Engineering Science, Inc., 1993

Notes: ppb parts per billion
  J data qualifier, indicates that the reported concentration is estimated
  N data qualifier, indicates that the analyte was tentatively identified
  CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  RBC Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Risk Based Concentration
  RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
  child standard for a child

1Frequency of detection is the times sought/times detected.
2These chemicals belong to a class of compounds (trihalomethanes) that are likely formed from chlorine disinfection of the water supply.
3Arsenic and manganese are naturally occurring metals in groundwater.


TABLE 7: SUMMARY OF WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB WELL DATA THAT EXCEED COMPARISON VALUES

  Distribution System Water
Sampled between 1985 and 1988
Drinking Water
Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected
(ppb)
Maximum Detected
(ppb)
Frequency of detection Value
(ppb)
Source
Bromodichloromethane 2 0.26 18.7 81/522 0.6 CREG
Chloroform 2 0.24 57.7 144/522 6 CREG
Dibromochloromethane 2 0.8 32 77/522 0.4 CREG
Bromoform2 0.31 17 64/522 4 CREG
PCE 0.22 76.6 179/522 0.7 CREG
TCE 0.22 21.3 341/522 3 CREG
Carbon tetrachloride 0.23 2.8 51/522 0.3 CREG
Vinyl chloride 0.6 1.89 2/522 0.2 EMEG-child
1,1-Dichloroethene   0.26 1/522 0.06 CREG
Source: OEPA, 1999

  Untreated Water
Sampled in 1991
Drinking Water
Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected (ppb) Maximum Detected (ppb) Frequency of detection Value
(ppb)
Source
Bromodichloromethane 1 2.7 4/12 0.6 CREG
Carbon tetrachloride   0.9 1/12 0.3 CREG
Dibromochloromethane 1.4 3.5 4/12 0.4 CREG
PCE 1.2 31.1 6/12 0.7 CREG
TCE 0.6 5.7 10/12 3 CREG

  Treated Water
Sampled in 1998
Drinking Water
Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected
(ppb)
Maximum Detected
(ppb)
Frequency of detection Value
(ppb)
Source
Bromodichloromethane 2 0.7 13 6/6 0.6 CREG
Chloroform 2 0.9 37 5/6 6 CREG
Dibromochloromethane 2 1.3 8.7 6/6 0.4 CREG
Source: OEM-WPAFB, 1998d

Notes: ppb parts per billion
  PCE tetrachloroethylene
  EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
  TCE

trichloroethylene

  CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  child standard for a child

1Frequency of detection is the times sought/times detected.
2These chemicals belong to a class of compounds (trihalomethanes) that are likely formed from chlorine disinfection of the water supply.


TABLE 8: SUMMARY OF SURFACE WATER, SEDIMENT, AND FISH TISSUE DATA THAT EXCEED COMPARISON VALUES

  Surface Water Drinking Water Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected (ppb) Maximum Detected (ppb) Frequency of detection1 Value
(ppb)
Source
bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 1J 7 unknown 7.8 RBC
Pentachlorophenol 5 120 unknown 0.3 CREG
alpha-BHC   0.02 unknown 0.006 CREG
Antimony 7.7 40.2 unknown 4 RMEG-child
Arsenic 1.2 10.6 unknown 0.02 CREG
Beryllium 1.2 1.9 unknown 0.008 CREG
Iron 37.7 21,000 unknown 11,000 RBC
Lead 1.2 150 unknown 15 MCL-action level
Manganese 2.3 1,880 unknown 50 RMEG-child
Thallium   3,000 unknown 400 LTHA

  Sediment Soil Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected (ppm) Maximum Detected (ppm) Frequency of detection1 Value
(ppm)
Source
Acenaphthylene 0.05 0.083 unknown not available  
Benzo(a)anthracene 0.045 22 unknown 0.87 RBC
Benzo(a)pyrene 0.1 4.5 unknown 0.1 CREG
Benzo(b)fluoranthene 0.150 3.4 unknown 0.87 RBC
Benzo(g,h,i)perylene 0.054 2.5 unknown not available  
Dibenz(a,h)anthracene 0.097 1.2 unknown 0.087 RBC
Indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 0.06 3.1 unknown 0.87 RBC
Phenanthrene 0.053 39 unknown not available  
Endosulfan II   0.012J unknown not available  
Endrin aldehyde 0.0059J 0.024J unknown not available  
Endrin ketone 0.01J 0.12J unknown not available  
Endosulfan sulfate   0.0063J unknown not available  
Heptachlor epoxide   0.19 unknown 0.08 CREG
Arsenic 4.6 38.2 unknown 0.5 CREG
Beryllium 0.2 2.5 unknown 0.2 CREG
Cadmium 1.1 16.5 unknown 10 EMEG-child
Iron 4,878 75,600 unknown 23,000 RBC
Lead 5.7 564 unknown 400 EPA SSL
TEQ for Dioxins (ppt) 2.91 75.93 10/10 50 ATSDR policy

  Fish Tissue Fish Tissue Comparison Values
Chemical
Minimum Detected (ppm) Maximum Detected (ppm) Frequency of detection1 Value
(ppm)
Source
Aroclor-1254 0.16 0.42 3/6 0.0016 RBC
Total PCBs 0.16 0.42 3/6 0.0016 RBC
Lead   0.45 1/6 not available  

Source: Engineering Science, Inc., 1995; OEPA, 1994; USGS, 1996

Notes: ppt parts per trillion
  ppb parts per million
  ppm parts per million
  TEQ toxicity equivalents
  J data qualifier, indicates that the reported concentration is estimated
  ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
  EPA Environmental Protection Agency
  BHC hexachlorocyclohexane
  PCB polychlorinated biphenyls
  CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
  EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
  LTHA Lifetime Health Advisory
  MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
  policy ATSDR policy for Dioxins in Soil (Interim Policy Guidance)
  RBC Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, Risk Based Concentration
  RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
  SSL Soil Screening Level
  child standard for a child

1Frequency of detection is the times sought/times detected.


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