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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

NEW BRIGHTON/ARDEN HILLS
(a/k/a U.S. ARMY TWIN CITIES AMMUNITION PLANT)
NEW BRIGHTON, RAMSEY COUNTY, MINNESOTA


APPENDIX A: FIGURES

Location of TCAAP and surrounding communities
Figure 1. Location of TCAAP and surrounding communities

On-TCAAP Source Areas
Figure 2. On-TCAAP Source Areas

Groundwater and Geologic Units
Figure 3. Groundwater and Geologic Units

Conceptual Illustration of TCAAP Operable Units 1 and 3
Figure 4. Conceptual Illustration of TCAAP Operable Units 1 and 3

Areas of Contaminated Private Wells and Mobile Home Park Well
Figure 5. Areas of Contaminated Private Wells and Mobile Home Park Well


TABLE B1.

1980 Population Characteristics: Minnesota, Ramsey County
Age
Groups
(years)
Minnesota Ramsey County
Total Male Female Total Male Female
< 5 307,249 157,312 149,937 32,044 16,524 15,520
5-9 296,295 151,556 144,739 29,626 15,126 14,500
10-14
333,378 170,607 162,771 34,284 17,344 16,940
15-19
399,818 202,254 197,564 43,728 21,757 21,971
20-24
393,566 194,835 198,731 52,339 25,209 27,130
25-34
676,539 339,172

337,367

82,131 40,745 41,386
35-44
449,216 224,105 225,111 47,439 23,253 24,186
45-54
380,250 188,036 192,214 43,169 20,690 22,479
55-64
360,095 172,877 187,218 41,698 19,180 22,518
> 64
479,564 197,072 282,492 53,326 19,258 34,068
Total

4,075,970

1,997,826

2,078,144

459,784

219,086

240,698

 


TABLE B2.

1980 Population Characteristics: Anoka, Hennepin Counties
Age
Groups
(years)
Anoka County Hennepin County
Total Male Female Total Male Female
< 5

17,389

8,902

8,487

59,771

30,348

29,423

5-9

18,699

9,567

9,132

58,045

29,696

28,349

10-14

20,377

10,452

9,925

67,685

34,409

33,276

15-19

20,746

10,530

10,216

82,803

41,705

41,098

20-24

17,284

8,551

8,733

102,328

49,951

52,377

25-34

37,202

18,066

19,136

183,957

90,864

93,093

35-44

27,626

13,939

13,687

107,761

53,255

54,506

45-54

17,571

9,156

8,415

91,911

44,600

47,311

55-64

10,907

5,501

5,406

85,088

40,227

44,861

> 64

8,197

3,425

4,772

102,062

37,372

64,690

Total

195,998

98,089

97,909

941,411

452,427

488,984

TABLE B3.

1985 Population Characteristics: Minnesota, Ramsey County
Age
Groups
(years)
Minnesota Ramsey County
Total Male Female Total Male Female
< 5 341,846 174,958 166,888 37,597 19,439 18,158
5-14 606,869 311,557 295,312 56,100 28,108 27,992
15-24 720,850 362,778 358,072 89,926 44,077 45,849
25-44 1,276,996 643,397 633,599 139,468 69,968 69,500
45-64 733,685 359,922 373,763 82,232 38,490 43,742
> 64 512,727 208,289 304,438 55,339 19,993 35,346
Total 4,192,973 2,060,901 2,132,072 460,662 220,075 240,587


TABLE B4.

1985 Population Characteristics: Anoka, Hennepin Counties
Age
Groups
(years)
Anoka County Hennepin County
Total Male Female Total Male Female
< 5 19,628 10,051 9,577 67,827 34,113 33,714
5-14 38,699 20,172 18,560 110,742 56,384 54,358
15-24 36,535 18,425 18,110 185,521 92,368 93,153
25-44 78,851 39,908 38,943 318,150 157,327 160,823
45-64 32,023 16,066 15,957 171,113 82,476 88,637
> 64 9,803 4,040 5,763 107,253 39,554 67,699
Total 215,572 108,662 106,910 960,606 462,222 498,384


TABLE B5.

1988 Population Characteristics: Minnesota, Ramsey County
Age
Groups
(years)
Minnesota Ramsey County
Total Male Female Total Male Female
< 5 350,332 179,661 170,671 38,273 19,792 18,481
5-14 622,052 319,785 302,267 57,111 28,620 28,491
15-24 773,593 388,752 384,841 91,543 44,877 46,666
25-44 1,281,731 646,363 635,368 141,979 71,240 70,739
  747,481 367,825 379,656 83,714 39,192 44,522
> 64 531,361 214,505 316,856 60,063 22,097 37,966
Total 4,306,550 2,116,891 2,189,659 472,683 225,818 246,865


TABLE B6.

1988 Population Characteristics: Anoka, Hennepin Counties
Age
Groups
(years)
Anoka County Hennepin County
Total Male Female Total Male Female
< 5 21,067 10,777 10,290 69,424 34,944 34,480
5-14 41,569 21,628 19,941 113,351 57,758 55,593
15-24 41,526 20,920 20,606 189,887 94,619 95,268
25-44 82,318 41,626 40,692 325,638 161,160 164,478
45-64 34,369 17,225 17,144 175,138 84,488 90,650
> 64 8,799 3,581 5,218 116,518 43,375 73,143
Total 229,648 115,757 113,891 989,956 476,344 513,612


TABLE B7.

Population Characteristics for 1980
  407.01 407.03 408 409.01 409.02 411.05 Total
Total 4466 2386 2446 2040 4054 681 16073
Male 2246 1184 1193 1014 2022 358 8017
Female 2212 1202 1239 1026 2020 313 8012
               
White 4383 2299 2369 1998 3980 645 15674
Black 9 20 17 10 12 10 78
American Indian,
Eskimo, Aleut
5 9 8 13 17 1 53
Asian or
Pacific Islander
50 34 41 16 31 8 180
Other 19 24 11 3 14 17 88
               
Age Group:              
< 5 years 401 176 240 203 436 40 1496
5-14 years 869 349 402 367 677 151 2815
15-24 years 670 433 397 390 1027 145 3062
25-34 years 959 598 576 458 868 98 3557
35-44 years 714 344 349 225 419 113 2164
45-54 years 431 234 229 211 317 80 1502
55-64 years 283 176 166 148 202 33 1008
> 65 years 131 76 73 38 96 11 425

TABLE B8.

Population Characteristics for 1990
  407.03 407.05 407.06 407.07 408.01 408.02 408.03 409.01 409.02 411.05 Total
Total 6105 3171 5023 4610 3348 937 4914 2337 3976 5555 39976
Male 2952 1598 2455 2297 1627 423 2314 1196 1973 2735 22170
Female 3153 1573 2568 2313 1721 514 2600 1141 2003 2820 17806
White 5918 2984 4857 4477 3108 905 4747 2283 3785 5342  
Black 48 31 37 17 66 18 21 7 36 35  
American Indian,
Eskimo, Aleut
13 16 10 14 8   3 18 46 9  
Asian or
Pacific Islander
109 117 106 94 154 13 140 27 85 157  
Other 17 23 13 8 12 1 3 2 24 12  
Age Group:                      
< 5 years 434 367 581 340 252 36 324 196 392 302 3224
5-14 years 837 465 971 854 646 44 626 343 540 826  
15-24 years 751 295 390 587 407 669 562 334 694 790  
25-34 years 1011 850 1061 587 456 146 580 453 1031 668  
35-44 years 1276 587 1158 1025 738 32 858 411 521 919  
45-54 years 845 290 437 648 448 6 617 266 383 941  
55-64 years 530 204 243 295 231 4 458 189 236 637  
> 65 years 421 113 182 274 170   889 145 179 472 2845


APPENDIX C: ON-TCAAP SITE DESCRIPTIONS

Derived from the U.S. Army Environmental Hygiene Agency's
Ecological Assessment Report
Reference #12

SITE A

Site A is an area of approximately 7.5 hectares at the northern boundary of the plant. It appears to be fairly flat, but a slight change in elevation is sufficient to produce an area of intermittent marsh in the southeastern corner. The cover is mainly grass; trees are intermittent at the eastern end of the area. There are shrubby willows in the marsh areas. One building is on site: the extremely long and narrow indoor firing range (Bldg. 308). The area has been divided into five subsites. These were in use from the 1940s until at least 1966.

Past disposal activities in this area included burial of mercurous nitrate-contaminated cartridge cases; dumping of sewage sludge; open burning of primer, tracer, and incendiary waste; burning of flammable liquids; and burial of miscellaneous debris. Most burning seems to have been carried out in pits rather than on the surface. There is a landfill face in Area A-5 with exposed debris, such as paint cans. Surface soils and sediments are contaminated with metals.

SITE B

Site B, just to the east of Site A, consists of three separate subsites totalling about 0.9 hectare along the northern boundary of TCAAP. These subsites are in an area of intermittent, small marshes. There is little relief in the area. There are numerous clusters of trees, especially around a farmstead that was abandoned before construction of TCAAP. There is no documentation of hazardous substance disposal at this site, although it is possible that small amounts of sewage sludge were dumped before 1966. The southeastern corner of Area B-3 is part of a large landfill area.

SITE C

Site C is a flat grassland of 6.7 hectares just south of Site A. Area C-1, the subsite of primary concern, is about 1.4 hectares. From 1947 to at least 1957, the site was used for the open burning of lumber, solvents, oils, and other production materials. Burning of brush and grass continued until 1970. Solvents and oils were burned in pits.

SITE D

Site D is a 0.7-hectare area on the slopes of the Arsenal Kame. It has been completely cleared, and it supports only a sparse growth of grasses and forbs (herbs other than grass). Most of the area has been covered by a clay cap and structures associated with an ISV. Pits at this site were used for burning oil, solvents, rags, floor sweepings, and powder from sumps in production buildings. Thousands of gallons of solvents were placed in these pits; the sandy substrate at this location provided a pathway to the groundwater. Additional materials disposed of were neutralized cyanide solutions from plating operations and wastes from decontaminated machines and buildings. The site was in use from 1950 until at least 1968, and perhaps as late as 1973.

SITE E

Site E comprises 5 hectares of the Arsenal Kame. This portion of the kame is composed of grassland and patches of forest; Subsite E-2 was last cleared in 1980 and has only light vegetation. There is a considerable amount of manmade relief across the site, including a 300-meter fill face with a variety of protruding debris. The top of the landfill has been covered with clean fill, graded, and revegetated with grasses. This area was a dump for noncombustible rubbish dating from the building of the plant until late 1949. Unidentified chemicals may also have been disposed of there. E-2 also was used as a burning area for rubbish.

SITE F

Site F is about 4 hectares and is low on the eastern slope of the Arsenal Kame. The disposal area is a plateau that falls off abruptly to the south. This level area has a hard substrate of gravel with a light covering of forbs and grasses. There are a few scattered trees, mainly around the perimeter of the area. This site was used from 1950 to at least 1978 for burning scrap powder and ordnance, including mercurous nitrate-contaminated cartridge cases, in tanks and kettles. Pits for the burial of those cases and of cyanide-contaminated pots were also located on the site. These activities generated the highest levels of surface contamination on the property. Some use was made of the site until at least 1981. Site F shows some evidence of chemical stress; a small plot of unvegetated ground is in an area of high surface contamination. The sparse vegetative cover over other parts of this site may result in part from past disturbances there; it was in use more recently than any other site.

SITE G

Site G covers about 1.7 hectares at the base of the Arsenal Kame, about 200 meters south of Site F. This site functioned as a general purpose dump from the 1940s until late 1976. Some of its contents include material from demolished buildings, urethane foam, floor sweepings, scrap metal and metal grindings, and ashes from scrap paper-burning cages. Most of the site is now an artificial plateau characterized by a fairly high and steep fill face with protruding debris. Water sampled from a seep at the base of this face and shows some radioactivity. This plateau has been covered with a clay cap and is the site of another ISV system. Just off the fill areas to the north and south are bands of trees; otherwise, the area is lightly vegetated. Immediately to the northeast of the site boundary is a small pond (0.1 hectare) that receives drainage from the site. This pond is heavily used by wildlife in the vicinity, because it is some distance to any other standing water.

SITE H

Site H is in the southeastern corner of the property. It occupies 4.5 hectares of rolling grassland on the north shore of Sunfish Lake; there are intermittent trees. A cage used for burning wood and paper trash was located near the shore until late in 1946. Another cage located west of this spot was used for similar purposes from 1953 to 1968 or 1969. A considerable portion of the area has been used as a dump. Aerial photographs show that an entire bay of the lake was filled in during World War II. There is a fill face along a portion of the lake shore, and some minor debris is visible on the land surface and on the lake bottom. Dumping probably ceased when off-site waste disposal began in 1967. Solvents, incinerator clinkers, and ash from the burning cages are some of the materials that were dumped at Site H. With a maximum depth of 1.6 meters and a median depth of 1.25 meters, the lake is subject to winter kill. The consequent lack of large predatory fish has made it suitable for use as a rearing pond for game fish to be released by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.

SITE I

Site I is in the industrial area of the plant and corresponds to Building 502 and its immediate surroundings. Part of the Site I facility has been used to produce artillery shell forgings. The forges were cooled by water that was discharged to floor drains along with water used in general clean-up operations. The floor drains in this part of the building were connected to the storm sewer system rather than the sanitary sewer. The forging equipment used large quantities of hydraulic fluid containing high percentages of PCBs. Leakage from this equipment, lubricants used in the forging process, and other contaminants consequently had a pathway into the storm sewer. The storm sewer discharged into a ditch that feeds into Round Lake through a sewer outfall at the intersection of Highways 96 and 10.

During 1942 and 1943, about 1.9 million liters of waste were discharged from this building and Building 501 into the lake each day. In 1944, when the forges were added to both of these buildings, daily discharges increased. They remained high until the end of the war. The storm sewer system was altered in 1953 in response to complaints about grease and oil pollution in Round Lake; water from some of the floor drains was subsequently sent to the sanitary sewer. For about 1 year before this conversion, Round Lake may have received about 3.8 million liters (1 million gallons) of waste water that was still being discharged to the floor drains. In 1969, Honeywell, the tenant of the building, noted that many floor drains were still connected to the storm sewer. This situation has since been remedied.

Quantities of PCBs were found in the soils outside the eastern end of the building. These soils were excavated and contained in a facility on the site. Site I is a major point of origin for VOCs that are contaminating the groundwater. These contaminants appear at relatively low concentrations in the shallow Unit 1 aquifer, which might contribute groundwater to Round Lake. However, the remedial investigation calls for additional study of this aquifer. Site I has also been the location of depleted uranium milling operations since 1974. Low levels of depleted uranium have been detected in the lake sediments near the sewer outfall. The depleted uranium in the samples was below the levels of uranium that occur naturally in the soil. Site I is still in use as a production facility.

SITE J

Site J is a portion of the TCAPP sewer system. It is relevant to this assessment because of an emergency overflow provision that allowed sanitary sewer wastes to flow into Round Lake. The overflow outfall entered Round Lake at a point west of the storm sewer outfall. This part of the sewage system was blocked off in 1982 or 1983. There have been at least 5 on-site and 14 off-site sewer main breaks that might have necessitated diversion of either treated or untreated sewage to Round Lake. Generally, it is unknown how much sewage may have been diverted to the lake from this source during the plant's history. There are records of several multimillion-liter discharges. A great variety of contaminants could have been included in this sewage, including depleted uranium, other metals, and cyanide.

SITE K

Site K, which corresponds to Building 103 and its immediate surroundings, is adjacent to Rice Creek. Rice Creek is used for fishing and is classified as suitable for wildlife uses. Building 103 was used for .50-caliber ammunition manufacture during World War II. From 1946 through 1951, cleaning, storage, and degreasing of production machinery took place there. Ammunition manufacture resumed in 1951 and was finally terminated in 1957. The building was reactivated in 1961 and continues to be used; products were changed from ammunition to fuses, mines, and weapons systems. Degreasing, metal finishing, and painting have been important activities in this most recent phase.

There is significant contamination of soils and groundwater with both solvents and zinc beneath Building 103. The piezometric surface of the perched aquifer beneath the building is higher than the surface of Rice Creek. Thus, this groundwater has the ability to move towards the creek. In the past, the storm sewer has provided a pathway for contaminated groundwater to enter the creek. Currently, a system is in place that extracts contaminated groundwater and sends it through an air-stripping tower to remove most of the volatile organic solvents, but the tower does not remove metals. The processed water is then discharged to Rice Creek. Analysis of this effluent has occasionally shown levels of zinc in excess of acute toxicity levels. The remedial investigation calls for additional sampling of surface water and sediments in the creek to delineate and quantify more adequately any contamination that may exist.

SITE 129-3

Site 129-3 is in the middle of the Arsenal Kame, southeast of Site E. At one point, their boundaries are separated by about 50 meters. The site occupies about 0.5 hectare of savanna, which slopes gently to the west. This site was used for the disposal of sump wastewater, mainly from a lead styphnate primer mixing process. For this purpose, two pits, with a total area of about 900 square meters, were excavated. Neutralized sump water was dumped into the pits and allowed to percolate into the ground or evaporate. Residue remaining in the pit was then burned. There may have been a separate pit for the disposal of mercurous nitrate. This site was in operation from December 1971 until sometime before July 1976. The pits were filled in and sealed sometime during 1977.

SITE 129-5

Site 129-5 is a 2.2-hectare area of mixed terrain near the western shore of Lake Marsden. About half of the area in the northern edge of the firing range consists of a savanna habitat that slopes gently toward the lake and is cut by gullies. The gravel surface is sparsely revegetated. In 1945 or 1946, pits for burning explosives were established in an unspecified location in the southeastern quadrant of the site. Some of the northeastern corner of the site may have been included in a large area that was established in 1948 for burning ammunition and smokeless powder. This operation ceased in 1951. The area was subsequently mined and then covered over by gravel-washing activities. Some solvents may have been burned at the site, and ammunition debris is visible on the surface.

SITE 129-15

Site 129-15 occupies 2.7 hectares of the kame and lies about 100 meters from Site F, which is on the same east-facing slope. This site, the northern part of F, and the intervening ground are covered with forest interspersed with small clearings and roads. Animals that are part of the TCAAP deer herd are frequently found in this area. The most prominent feature of the site is a landfill; it has created an artificial plateau with a steep fill face about 7 or 8 meters high. The top of the fill area is covered with gravel and is only partly revegetated with herbs and forbs. This area was used as a general landfill for nonsalvageable and supposedly noncombustible materials, including urethane foam and plastics and demolition debris. It was active from 1970 or 1972 until 1978.


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