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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CHEMFAX, INC.
GULFPORT, HARRISON COUNTY, MISSISSIPPI


APPENDIX A -- SITE MAPS

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure
Number Title

  1. Site Location Map

  2. Site Map

Figure 1. Site Location Map



Figure 2. Site Map



APPENDIX B -- CONTAMINANT AND PATHWAY TABLES

LIST OF TABLES

Table
Number Title

  1. Ambient Air, On Site

  2. Groundwater, On Site and Off Site

  3. Surface Soil, On Site and Off Site

  4. Subsurface Soil, On Site and Off Site

  5. Sediment, On Site and Off Site

  6. Surface Water, On Site and Off Site

  7. Summary--Completed Exposure Pathways

  8. Summary--Potential Exposure Pathways

  9. Comparison of Estimated Exposed Dose to Health Guidelines for Chemfax Workers On Site, Other Nearby Workers and Various Residents Off Site.



LIST OF ACRONYMS, CODES, AND ABBREVIATIONS

CREGCancer Risk Evaluation Guide
RMEGReference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
MRLMinimum Risk Level
EMEGEnvironmental Media Evaluation Guide
ALAction Level
ppbparts per billion
Jestimated value
4,4-DDDp,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane
NAnone available
NDnot detected



Table 1 Ambient Air, On Site
ContaminantMaximum Concentration*
in ppb
Year--1990
Selection Comparison
Value
ppbSource
1,1,1-trichloroethaneA-0.38J
B-0.24J
C-0.23J
NA
1,2,4-trichlorobenzeneA-0.19J
B-ND
C-0.19J
NA
1,2,4-trimethylbenzeneA-12
B-ND
C-ND
NA
1,3,5-trimethylbenzeneA-4.8
B-0.38
C-ND
NA
benzeneA-18
B-ND
C-1.6
0.03CREG
carbon tetrachlorideA-0.14J
B-0.12J
C-0.12J
0.01CREG
dichlorodifluoromethaneA-0.97
B-0.66
C-0.90
NA
methylene chlorideA-22
B-1.1
C-22
0.6CREG
naphthaleneA-12
B-2.4
C-ND
2MRL
styreneA-120
B-0.7J
C-1.7
60MRL
trichlorofluoromethaneA-1.8
B-0.28
C-1.8
NA
trichlorotrifluoro-
methane
A-8.4
B-ND
C-ND
NA
xyleneA-95
B-ND
C-ND
NA
A- Maximum value for sampling period
B- Maximum value reported at apparent upwind sample locations based on winds predominantly from south through southeast (four sample points--the eastern- and southern-most sample locations); may approximate quality of air moving on site at the time sampled was conducted.
C- Maximum value at apparent downwind sample locations based on winds predominantly from south through southeast (seven sample points--at the northern-most sample locations); may approximate quality of air moving off site at the time sampling was conducted.
* Data is from reference (1)


Table 2 Groundwater, On Site and Off Site
ContaminantMaximum Concentration *
in ppb
Year--1990***
Selection Comparison
Value
On SiteOff SiteppbSource
2-methylnaphthaleneA-1,800
B-ND
C-NDNA
dibenzofuranA-7J
B-ND
C-NDNA
methyl butyl ketoneA-610J
B-ND
C-NDNA
phenanthreneA-410
B-ND
C-NDNA
aluminumA-120,000
B-ND
C-80,000NA
calciumA-51,000
B-2,400
C-17,000NA
cobaltA-93
B-ND
C-22NA
ironA-120,000
B-ND
C-36,000JNA
leadA-190
B-ND
C-4015AL
magnesiumA-29,000
B-540
C-17,000NA
nickelA-210
B-ND
C-ND200RMEG
potassiumA-20,000
B-ND
C-11,000NA
sodiumA-180,000
B-57,000 **
C-36,000JNA
Note: Samples were not filtered
A-On site monitoring wells
B-On site industrial wells
C-Off site monitoring wells, several hundred feet southeast and northeast of property
* Data is from reference (1), except for that marked **
** Data is from reference (2)
*** Concentrations from 1988 sampling activity were less than for 1990 sampling.


Table 3 Surface Soil, On Site and Off Site
ContaminantMaximum Concentration *
in ppb
Selection Comparison
Value
On Site (year)Off Site*** (year)ppbSource
2-methylnaphthalene100,000 (1990)NDNA
benzo(a)anthracene79,000J (1990)140J (1990)NA
benzo(b/k)fluoranthene18,000J (1990)180J (1990)NA
benzo(ghi)perylene91J (1990)NDNA
endrin ketone26 ** (1988)NDNA
4,4-DDD62J ** (1988)ND3CREG
ideno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene61J (1990)NDNA
naphthalene240,000 ** (1988)NDNA
phenanthrene180,000J (1990)98J (1990)NA
aluminum15,000 (1990)3,100 (1990)NA
calcium84,000 ** (1988)3,000 (1990)NA
cobalt2 (1990)NDNA
copper25 ** (1988)12 (1990)NA
iron20,000J (1990)5,100J (1990)NA
lead53 ** (1988)53 (1990)NA
magnesium170 ** (1988)ND NA
mercury0.32J (1990)0.40J (1990)NA
nickel76 (1990)2 (1990)NA
sodium680 ** (1988)NDNA
* Data from reference (1), except for data marked **
** Data from reference (2)
*** Sampled a few hundred feet north of property


Table 4 Subsurface Soil, On Site and Off Site
ContaminantMaximum Concentration *
in ppb
Year--1990
Selection Comparison
Value
On SiteOff Site **ppbSource
2-methylnaphthalene170,000NDNA
benzyl butyl phthalate920NDNA
chrysene160JNDNA
naphthalene380,000NDNA
phenanthrene45,000NDNA
aluminum14,000230NA
calcium1,400J670NA
cobalt3434NA
copper27140NA
iron42,000J2,900JNA
lead9872NA
magnesium1,300720NA
mercury1.3J0.32JNA
nickel7236NA
potassium860NDNA
sodium2,100NDNA
* Data from reference (1)
** Sampled near bayou


Table 5 Sediment, On Site and Off Site
ContaminantMaximum Concentration*
in ppb
Year--1990
Selection Comparison
Value
On SiteOff SiteppbSource
2-methylnaphthaleneA-200,000
B-2,500
C-27,000
D-240
E-ND
NA
benzo(a)anthraceneA-4,500
B-ND
C-ND
D-140J
E-ND
NA
benzo(b/k)fluorantheneA-1,600J
B-ND
C-ND
D-220J
E-ND
NA
benzo(ghi)peryleneA-880J
B-ND
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
chryseneA-6,400
B-820J
C-ND
D-280J
E-ND
NA
dibenzofuranA-290J
B-ND
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
ideno(1,2,3-cd)pyreneA-41J
B-ND
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
naphthaleneA-200,000
B-10,000
C-200,000
D-2,300
E-ND
NA
phenanthreneA-97,000
B-1,400J
C-ND
D-430J
E-ND
NA
aluminumA-630,000
B-4,300
C-2,000
D-1,900
E-140
NA
calciumA-16,000,000
B-2,600
C-1,700
D-34,000
E-ND
NA
cobaltA-2,000
B-29
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
copperA-22,000
B-19
C-81
D-38
E-ND
NA
ironA-14,000J
B-8,800J
C-7,100J
D-4,100J
E-180J
NA
leadA-12,000
B-210
C-31
D-21
E-ND
NA
magnesiumA-220,000
B-ND
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
mercuryA-ND
B-ND
C-0.41J
D-0.54J
E-ND
NA
nickelA-3,300
B-11
C-3
D-ND
E-ND
NA
potassiumA-270
B-ND
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
sodiumA-6,400
B-ND
C-ND
D-ND
E-ND
NA
A-Ditches and drainage holding ponds
B-Within diked tank area
C-Former cooling pond
D-Off-site ditch, east side of Three Rivers Road; sampled by Bayou and south of bayou
E-Background--off site
* All data from reference (1)


Table 6 Surface Water, On Site and Off Site
ContaminantMaximum Concentration *
ppb
Selection Comparison
Value
On Site (year)Off Site (year)ppbSource
naphthaleneA-ND
B-26J ** (1988)
C-NDNA
aluminumA-47 ** (1988)
B-76 ** (1988)
C-860 (1990)NA
calciumA-ND
B-3,200 ** (1988)
C-4,600 (1990)NA
ironA-250J ** (1988)
B-460J ** (1988)
C-1,500J (1990)NA
magnesiumA-150 ** (1988)
B-230 ** (1988)
C-NDNA
sodiumA-55,000 ** (1988)
B-64,000 ** (1988)
C-24,000 (1990)NA
Note: Samples were not filtered
A-On site former cooling pond
B-On site drainage holding pond
C-Off site ditch, sampled by bayou
* Data is from reference (1) except for that marked **
** Data is from reference (2)


Table 7 Summary--Completed Exposure Pathways

PATHWAY NAME:AMBIENT AIR
(on site)
AMBIENT AIR
(off site)
PROCESS CHEMICALSSURFACE SOILS
(on site)
SURFACE SOILS
(off site)
Source:Chemfax and otherindustriesLocal industriesChemfaxChemfax, possibly
area industries
Source
uncertain
Medium:AirAirProcess ChemicalsSurface SoilsSurface Soils
Exposure Point:On siteOff siteOn siteOn SiteOff site
Exposure Route:InhalationInhalationSkin contact,inhalationskin contact,
inhalation, ingestion
skin contact,
inhalation,
ingestion
ReceptorPopulation:WorkersWorkers, shoppers,various residents,studentsWorkersWorkersNearby workers &mental healthresidents
Exposure Period:Past, present, futurePast, present, futurePast, present, futurePast, present, futurePast, present, future
Estimated NumberExposed:30 to 60More than 500less than 5030 to 60unknown
Table Continues....


Table 7 (Continued) Summary--Completed Exposure Pathways

PATHWAY NAME:SEDIMENT, SURFACE
WATER
(on site)
DITCH
SEDIMENT,
SURFACE WATER
(off site)
Source:ChemfaxLocal industries
Medium:Sediment, surface waterSediment, surfacewater
Exposure Point:On siteOff site
Exposure Route:Skin contact, ingestionSkin contact
Receptor Population:Maintenance workersMaintenanceworkers
Exposure Period:Past, present, futurePast, present,future
Number Exposed:Potentially about 5Potentially about5


Table 8 Summary--Potential Exposure Pathways

PATHWAY NAME:PRIVATE WELL
(on site)
PRIVATE WELLS
(off site)
INDUSTRIALSEAWAY
Source:ChemfaxLocal industriesArea runoff, industries
Medium:GroundwaterGroundwaterSurface water, fish
Exposure Point:On siteOff siteOff site
Exposure Route:IngestionIngestion, inhalation,skin contactSkin contact, ingestion
Receptor Population:WorkersConsumers served byprivate wellsBoaters, fishermen,swimmers
Exposure Period:PastPast, present, futurePast, present, future
Number Exposed:Potentially about60UnknownUnknown


Table 9. Comparison of Estimated Exposed Dose to Health Guidelines for Chemfax Workers On Site, Other Nearby Workers and Various Residents Off Site.

ContaminantExposurePathwayHealth Guideline for Ingestion - mg/kg/day
ValueSourceExceeded by EstimatedExposure Dose
2-methylnaphthaleneSoil On SiteNoneNoneNone
Benzo(a)anthraceneSoil On Site

Soil Off Site

None

None

None

None

None

None

Benzo(b/k)fluorantheneSoil On Site

Soil Off Site

None

None

None

None

None

None

Endrin KetoneSoil On siteNoneNoneNone
4,4-DDD*Soil SiteNoneNoneNone
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyreneSoil On SiteNoneNoneNone
NaphthaleneSoil SiteNoneNoneNone
PhenanthreneSoil On Site

Soil Off Site

None

None

None

None

None

None

*4,4-DDD = p,p'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane.

Table 9 (Continued) Comparison of Estimated Exposed Dose to Health Guidelines for ChemfaxWorkers on Site, Other Workers and Various Residents Off Site.

ContaminantExposurePathwayHealth Guideline for Ingestion - mg/kg/day
ValueSourceExceeded by EstimatedExposure Dose
Aluminum Soil On Site
Soil Off Site
1
1
RfD*
RfD
No
No
CalciumSoil On Site
Soil Off Site
50
50/11.43
RDA** Adult
RDA Adult/Child
No
No
CobaltSoil On SiteNone NoneNone
CopperSoil On Site
Soil Off Site
0.02
0.02
ADI***
ADI
No
No
IronSoil On Site
Soil Off Site
0.14
1.13/0.14
RDA Adult
RDA Child/Adult
No
No
LeadSoil On Site
Soil Off Site
None
None
None
None
None
None
MagnesiumSoil On site15.6/5RDA AdultNo
MercurySoil On Site
Soil Off Site
0.002/0.007
0.002/0.007
I/A MRLa
I/A MRL
No
No
NickelSoil On Site
Soil Off Site
0.02
0.02
RfD
RfD
No
No
SodiumSoil On Site37.5-112 /15.45ADI AdultNo

*RfD = EPA's provisional Reference Dose.

**RDA = Calculated from Recommended Dietary Allowance.

***ADI = Calculated from the range of Estimated Safe and Adequate Dietary Intake.

aI/A MRL = Intermediate and Acute Minimal Risk Levels.


APPENDIX C -- RESPONSE TO PUBLIC COMMENTS

The Chemfax, Inc. Public Health Assessment was available for public review and comment fromapproximately October 1 to November 30. The comment period was announced in localnewspapers. Copies were made available at the public library, and copies were sent to severalindividuals and organizations. A summary of comments received and our responses arepresented in this section. The list of comments does not include any that raised health effect and other issues previously addressed in the Community Health Concerns Evaluation section.

COMMENT 1.Some of the chemicals at Chemfax are listed chemicals requiring reportingand safe handling; none are particularly dangerous.

Response:

Essentially all chemicals have a capacity to pose a hazard to public health;many pose a hazard at very low concentrations and human exposure levels. The document has not been changed as a result of this comment.

COMMENT 2.The public health hazard determination stated in Paragraph 1 in theConclusions Section is based on testing by EPA and others in the past. That sampling is disputed as being subject to errors and irregularities. Three key air samples (CF-AT-03, CF-AT-04, and CF-AT-05) and a keysoil sample (CF-SS-02) were taken in the immediate vicinity of processoperations where a minor spill of raw material had occurred the day of thesampling. As a result, those data points reflect then current operationsconditions that are not present today.

Response:

ATSDR's public health hazard determination for workers is based on air,soil, and sediment data. Reference information show that air sampling wasconducted in the process area on May 31, 1990 and beyond the processarea on May 31, June 1, and June 5 of that year. Concentrations weregreatest in the process area; ATSDR considers some of the levels reportedthere to be of public health concern for the workers. For later samplingelsewhere on the property, some of the lower concentrations detected areconsidered substantive from a worker health perspective. ATSDR alsonotes that references show two soil samples designated CF-SS-02 weretaken; one in 1988 and one in 1990. The soil sample the commenteridentifies as being in the process area was taken in 1988. Thus, the minorspill mentioned as a confounding factor for the ambient air data wouldhave been cleaned up in 1988, long before the 1990 air sampling. Ourrecommendation for additional ambient air sampling (CharacterizationRecommendation 1., Page 27 of the Public Comment Release) is for thepurpose of clarifying air quality under present operations. ATSDR'srereview of reference material shows that Sample CF-SS-02 (taken in soilin 1989) was not the single example of elevated PAHs; a few soil andsediment samples taken in 1991 within and beyond the process area alsohad some elevated PAHs.

ATSDR concludes that the available air, soil, and sediment data weresufficient bases for our public health hazard determination. The documenthas not been changed as a result of this comment.

COMMENT 3.The only substantial finding of contamination is for ambient air quality(which the commenter says is based on disputed testing--see Comment 2). Neither the groundwater, soil, surface water, or other media tests containany definitive findings of significant contamination beyond permissiblelimits.

Response:

The media contaminant test data sections (Pages 8, 9, and 10 and Tables ofthe Public Comment Release) do not express permissible limits. Instead,the contaminant information presented there is analyzed further andpertinent elements are discussed in the Public Health Implications Section. The most important public health issues then are summarized in theconclusions. Note that Conclusion 1. (Page 26 of the Public CommentRelease), says that there may be adverse health effects associated withworker exposure to air, soil, and sediment. The document has not beenchanged as a result of this comment.

COMMENT 4.The document does not identify any significant public health danger otherthan a possible exposure of workers to benzene, for which the risk isapparently manageable by protective clothing.

Response:

See response to comment 2.

COMMENT 5.The need for further testing should be carefully evaluated based upon thedemonstrated insufficiency of EPA's ambient air test.

Response:

See response to Comment 2.

COMMENT 6.The other sources of air releases in the neighborhood should be positivelyruled out before Chemfax is singled out as a public health hazard.

Response:

The public health hazard determination for Chemfax is based on workerexposures via soil and sediment, in addition to air. ATSDR believes thatthe available sampling data support that determination. Ambient airsampling has been recommended (Characterization Recommendation 2.,Page 27 of the Public Comment Release) for the area potentially affectedby other industries. The document has not been changed as a result of thiscomment.


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