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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

BAYOU BONFOUCA
SLIDELL, ST. TAMMANY PARISH, LOUISIANA


APPENDIX A: ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

FIGURE A1. Bayou Bonfouca Site.

FIGURE A2. Monitoring Well Location Map.

FIGURE A3. Interpreted Extent of Creosote Plume in Groundwater.

FIGURE A4. Soil Sample and Waste Pile Locations.

FIGURE A5. Bayou Boring Locations and Section Boundaries.

TABLE A1. * Groundwater Analytical Summary: Surficial Aquifer Organic Parameters.

TABLE A2. * Groundwater Analytical Summary: Surficial Aquifer Inorganic Parameters.

TABLE A3. * Groundwater Analytical Summary: Shallow Artesian Aquifer Organic Parameters.

TABLE A4. * Groundwater Analytical Summary: Shallow Artesian Aquifer Inorganic Parameters.

TABLE A5. Groundwater Analytical Summary: Design Investigation Organic Results.

TABLE A6. Groundwater Analytical Summary: Design Investigation Inorganic Results.

TABLE A7. Summary of Waste Pile Results: Design Investigation.

TABLE A8. Surface Soil Organic Analytical Results: Design Investigation.

TABLE A9. Surface Soils Organic Analytical Summary: Design Investigation.

* Results based on the original and supplemental remedial investigations (1,2).


Figure A1. Bayou Bonfouca Site




Figure A2. Monitoring Well Location Map.




Figure A3. Interpreted Extent of Creosote Plume in Groundwater.




Figure A4. Soil Sample and Waste Pile Locations.




Figure A5. Bayou Boring Locations and Section Boundaries.



Table A1.

Surficial Aquifer Organic Contaminants
Contaminant Concentration Range (ppb) Comparison Value (ppb) Date Reference
2-4-dimethyl phenol 41-690 200 Child RMEG 1984-5 1
2-methylphenol 10-38 None 1984-5 1
4-methylphenol 10-530 None 1984-5 1
napthalene 33-110000 20 LTHA 1984-5 1
benzo(a)anthracene 10-360 0.1 MCL proposed 1984-5 1
chrysene 10-300 0.2 MCL proposed 1984-5 1
acenaphthylene 10-25 None 1984-5 1
phenanthrene 150-4060 None 1984-5 1
dibenzofuran 170-1200 None 1984-5 1
2-methylnapthalene 190-1700 None 1984-5 1
acenapthene 170-1600 600 child RMEG 1984-5 1
fluoranthene 30-2500 400 child RMEG 1984-5 1
fluorene 74-1300 400 child RMEG 1984-5 1
pyrene 74-910 300 child RMEG 1984-5 1
benzo(b)fluoranthene 150 0.2 MCL proposed 1984-5 1
benzo(k)fluoranthene 130 0.2 MCL proposed 1984-5 1
benzo(a)pyrene 120 0.2 MCL proposed 1984-5 1
Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 50 0.4 MCL proposed 1984-5 1
benzo(g,h,i)perylene 40 None 1984-5 1
dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 14 None 1984-5 1

Table A2.

SURFICIAL AQUIFER INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS
Contaminant Concentration Range (ppb) Comparison Value (ppb) Date Reference
aluminum650-268000None1984-51
arsenicND-18003 EMEG1984-51
bariumND-3960700 child RMEG1984-51
berylliumND-18.10.008 CREG1984-51
cadmium3-407 child EMEG1984-51
chromiumND-4900.2 MCL p1984-51
cobalt94-134None1984-51
copperND-15601300 MCL1984-51
iron2860-290000None1984-51
leadND-86015 EPA Action Level1984-51
manganese2606-675350 child RMEG1984-51
nickelND-270200 child RMEG1984-51
zinc612-410003000 child RMEG1984-5 1
vanadiumND-88230 child EMEG1984-51

Table 1.

SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFER ORGANIC CONTAMINATION
Contaminant Concentration Range (ppb) Comparison Value (ppb) Date Reference
acenaptheneND-1800600 child RMEG1984-51
2,4-DimethylphenolND-310200 child RMEG1984-51
fluorantheneND-920400 child RMEG1984-51
napthaleneND-13000 20 LTHA1984-51
benzo(a)anthraceneND-1200.1 MCL proposed1984-51
chryseneND-1100.2 MCL proposed1984-51
fluoreneND-1200400 child RMEG1984-51
phenanthreneND-3300None1984-51
pyreneND-800300 child RMEG1984-51
dibenzofuranND-1200None1984-51
2-methylnapthaleneND-1500None1984-51
benzo(b)fluorantheneND-460.2 MCL proposed1984-51
benzo(k)fluorantheneND-370.2 MCL proposed1984-51
benzo(a)pyreneND-420.005 CREG1984-51
Indeno(1,2,3,-cd)pyreneND-220.4 MCL proposed1984-51
benzo(g,h,i)peryleneND-21None1984-51

Table A4.

SHALLOW ARTESIAN AQUIFER INORGANIC CONTAMINATION
Contaminant Concentration Range (ppb) Comparison Value (ppb) Date Reference
aluminumND-6030None1984-51
arsenicND-443 child EMEG1984-51
barium101-753700 child RMEG1984-51
berylliumND-12.60.008 CREG1984-51
calcium19000-64790None1984-51
iron248-15440None1984-51
magnesium6420-18480None1984-51
manganese132-116250 child RMEG1984-51
potassiumND-8060None1984-51
vanadiumND-<20030 child EMEG1984-51
sodium38300-57800None1984-51

 

Table A5.

GROUNDWATER ANALYTICAL SUMMARY ORGANIC PARAMETERS Referenced from the Design Investigation (3), Table 5-11, and sampled in 1988-9.
Parameter Maximum Measured Value (ppb) Reference Value (ppb)
VOLATILE COMPOUNDS:
Benzene 83 1.0 CREG
SEMI-VOLATILE COMPOUNDS:
2,4 - Dimethylphenol 2,200 200 RMEG
2 - Methylnaphthalene 26,000 None
Dibenzofuran 20,000 None
Bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 780 None
POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC COMPOUNDS:
Naphthalene 160,000 20 LTHA
Acenaphthylene 1,500 None
Acenaphthene 28,000 600 Child RMEG
Fluorene 25,000 400 Child RMEG
Phenanthrene 60,000 None
Anthracene 11,000 3000 Child RMEG
Fluoranthene 18,000 400 Child RMEG
Pyrene 11,000 300 Child RMEG
Benzo(a)Anthracene 3,000 None
Chrysene 3,000 0.2 MCL proposed
Benzo(b)Fluoranthene 1,300 0.2 MCL proposed
Benzo(k)Fluoranthene 1,300 0.2 MCL proposed
Benzo(a)Pyrene 3 0.005 CREG
Ideno(1,2,3-cd)Pyrene 2 0.4 MCL proposed
Benzo(g,h,i)Perylene 3 None
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guideline (@ 1E-6) or CREG.
MCL proposed Proposed Maximum Contaminant Level
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
LTHA Lifetime Health Advisory for Drinking Water (EPA)




Table A6.

GROUNDWATER ANALYTICAL SUMMARY INORGANIC PARAMETERS Referenced from the Design Investigation (3), Table 5-12, and sampled during 1988-9.
Parameter Maximum Measured Value (ppb) Reference Value (ppb)
Aluminum 176,000 None
Arsenic 43 3 Child EMEG
Barium 15,000 700 Child RMEG
Calcium 212,000 None
Cobalt 28 None
Iron 94,200 None
Lead 73 15 A MCL
Magnesium 74,800 None
Manganese 3,070 50 Child RMEG
Potassium 59,400 None
Vanadium 190 30 Child EMEG
Zinc 1,130 3000 Child RMEG


Table A7.

SUMMARY OF WASTE PILE ANALYSES Referenced from the Design Investigation (3), Table 5-8, and sampled in 1988.
SOURCE TOTAL PAH's (ppm)
Waste pile # 1
Soil, Average 7,000
Soil, Range 2,110 - 11,000
Combined waste piles 1A, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7
Soil/Waste 1,200
Waste pile #4
Waste, Average 4,500
Waste, Range 2,450 - 6,490
Waste pile #8
Soil 230
Waste 44,000
Dredge Spoils along EDC
Soil/Waste 2,800


Table A8.

SURFACE SOIL ORGANIC ANALYTICAL SUMMARY Referenced from the Design Investigation, Table 5-6 and sampled during 1988.
Parameter Detected Maximum Value Detected (ppm) Reference Value (ppm)
VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
2-Butanone 0.076 None
SEMI-VOLATILE COMPOUNDS
4-Methylphenol 180 None
Dibenzofuran 4,500 None
2-Methylnaphthalene 6,100 None
4-Chlorophenyl-phenyl-ether 54 None
bis(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate 300 None
Di-n-octylphthalate 4 None
4-chloro-3-methylphenol 3 None

Table A9.

SURFACE SOIL ORGANIC ANALYTICAL SUMMARY Referenced from the Design Investigation (3), Table 5-7, and sampled in 1988.
Parameter Detected Maximum Value Detected (ppm) Reference Value(ppm)
POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH)
Naphthalene 23,226 None
Acenaphthylene 635 None
Acenaphthene 5,300 3000 Child RMEG
Fluorene 5,600 2000 Child RMEG
Phenanthrene 16,000 None
Fluoranthene 6,600 2000 Child RMEG
Pyrene 4,600 2000 Child RMEG
Benzo(a)Anthracene 1,200 None
Chrysene 1,119 None
Benzo(b)Fluoranthene 340 None
Benzo(k)Fluoranthene 550 None
Benzo(a)Pyrene 490 0.1 CREG
Ideno(1,2,3-cd)Pyrene 240 None
Dibenzo(a,h)Anthracene 60 None
Benzo(g,h,i)Perylene 170 None

CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guideline
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide

 

 

APPENDIX B: HEALTH OUTCOME DATA

Health Outcome Data Sources

FIGURE B1. Census Tract Map

TABLE B1. Census Tract Population

TABLE B2. Lung Cancer Data

TABLE B3. Malignant Melanoma Data

TABLE B4. Urinary System Data

TABLE B5. All-Sites Cancer Data

TABLE B6. La. & St. Tammany Parish Moving Average Cancer Rates

 


Figure B1.
Census Tract Map



APPENDIX B:
HEALTH OUTCOME DATA ANALYSIS

A comparison population is required to evaluate if an excess of disease has occurred in the site population. South Louisiana, which includes the site population, is the most valid comparison available because it reflects the socioeconomic status and geographic region of the site. Furthermore, the data for South Louisiana is collected in a similar manner, in terms of quality and completeness, to that of Slidell. Data for South Louisiana is also available for the corresponding time period, 1983-1986. It should be noted that some cancer rates for South Louisiana are higher than the national rates.

Tables B2 - B5 present descriptive data for the Greater Slidell area. Age-specific incidence ratios, annual incidence rates per 100,000 population and standardized morbidity ratios were calculated for each cancer site. To compute a standardized morbidity ratio, incidence rates for South Louisiana were weighted to the site population of Greater Slidell, generating an expected number of cases. The ratio of total observed number of cases to the total expected number of cases yields a standardized morbidity ratio which is equivalent to the relative risk. For standardized morbidity ratios greater than 1, Chi-Squares and P values were calculated to determine if the difference between the observed and expected number of cases is due to random variation or if the difference reflects an actual elevated rate for the Slidell population when it is compared with South Louisiana. If the P value is less than .05, then the difference in standardized morbidity ratios is statistically significant and is not due to a chance variation.

An evaluation of the standardized morbidity ratios for lung, malignant melanoma, urinary system, and all-sites cancers indicates that residents of the Greater Slidell Area experienced morbidity rates greater than South Louisiana for lung and all-sites cancers (Tables B2-B5). The standardized morbidity ratio for lung is 1.48 and 1.50 for all-sites. These ratios are statistically significant; the difference between the expected and observed number of cases is not due to chance. Age-specific incidence ratios were calculated for each cancer site; the ratios and P-values are included in the tables.

The Office of Vital Statistics collects cancer mortality data coded by anatomic site and parish of residence. Using records from 1962 to 1980, mortality rates for St. Tammany Parish were compared with the State's (Table B8). For all cancer, the trend in rates from 1962 to 1980 was lower for St. Tammany Parish than Louisiana. The opposite trend was observed for lung cancer: St. Tammany rates were consistently higher than the State's. For the period 1968 to 1978, St. Tammany's rates were 23 % higher than the State's. For lung cancer the mortality rate for 100,000 population from 1968 to 1978 was 52.7 for St. Tammany compared with 42.9 for the state. The high rates of lung cancer for St. Tammany Parish cannot be associated with the Bayou Bonfouca site.

HEALTH OUTCOME DATA SOURCES

LOUISIANA TUMOR REGISTRY:

The Louisiana Tumor Registry (LTR) is a population-based registry which covers all hospitals, radiation centers and pathology laboratories in the state. The LTR was first established in 1974 by Charity Hospital of Louisiana at New Orleans as a cancer registry for the New Orleans area and as a participant in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). In 1979, it was transferred to the state's Office of Public Health as a pilot for a statewide registry. Since 1983, LTR has gradually expanded by region and coverage of the entire state was achieved in 1988.

The LTR is composed of 5 regional registries; each region is responsible for the complete ascertainment of all cancer cases diagnosed and/or treated in its residents. A monograph was produced in 1990 that includes all cases of cancer diagnosed during the period January 1, 1983 through December 31, 1986. The monograph lists frequency of incident cases by age, adjusted incidence rates by race and sex and region, cumulative rate (age 0 - 74) and average annual age-adjusted rates. Incidence rates are computed with population estimates by age, sex, and race for each geographic region. The population estimates used are from the U.S. Bureau of the Census and Louisiana Tech University (Figure B1). In addition to the monograph, number of cases by cancer site, zip code, age, and sex are maintained on computerized database. This information is available from 1983 to 1987 for all of Louisiana.

OFFICE OF VITAL STATISTICS:

The Office of Vital Statistics has officially collected vital statistics in Louisiana since 1877 when the Louisiana Legislature transferred the Orleans Parish Vital Records Registry to the Louisiana Board of Health. The office is a participator in the national birth and death registration system and provides stillbirth and marriage data to the National Center for Health Statistics and Induced Abortion data to Centers for Disease Control. Certificates of vital events and reports of communicable diseases are available by address from 1960 to the present upon request. In addition, a monograph displaying trends in disease by Parish is produced annually.

TABLE B1.

CENSUS TRACT POPULATIONS
CENSUS TRACT NUMBER POPULATION
408.01 3,632
408.02 931
408.03 5,107
409.00 3,714
410.01 10,762
410.02 3,286
411.01 1,471
411.02 5,292
411.03 1,902
411.04 3,813
412.03 1,016
TOTAL 40,926

Census Tracts New Orleans, LA SMSA, 1980.

 

Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population,
Standardized Morbidity Ratios (SMR),
Age-Specific Incidence Ratios,
and Annual Incidence Rates by Primary Cancer Site in the Greater Slidell Area, 1983-1987.

Table B2.

LUNG CANCER (Lung, Trachea, & Bronchus)
AGE OBS CASES(1) SLIDELL POP. SLIDELL RATES SO LA RATES EXPECT CASES(2) O/E RATIO
>5 0 3600 0.00 0.35 0.06 0.00
5-9 0 3719 0.00 0.10 0.02 0.00
10-14 0 3945 0.00 0.10 0.02 0.00
15-19 0 3867 0.00 0.36 0.07 0.00
20-24 0 3157 0.00 0.46 0.07 0.00
25-34 1 7441 2.69 1.60 0.60 1.7
35-44 7 5630 24.87 17.68 4.98 1.4
45-54 30 4154 144.44 97.78 20.31 1.5
55-64 59 3050 386.89 267.41 40.78 1.4
65-74 45 1518 592.89 427.94 32.48 1.4
>75 27 845 639.05 338.64 14.31 1.9
TOTAL 169 40926 113.69
ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATE: 169/204630 82.59
STANDARDIZED MORBIDITY RATIO: 169/113.69 1.48 *
Chi-Square = 26.55
P-value < .001


Table B3.

MALIGNANT MELANOMA
AGE OBS CASES SLIDELL POP. SLIDELL RATES SO LA RATES EXPECT CASES O/E RATIO
>5 0 3600 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
5-9 0 3719 0.00 0.10 0.02 0.00
10-14 1 3945 5.07 0.38 0.07 13.34
15-19 0 3867 0.00 0.72 0.14 0.00
20-24 0 3157 0.00 1.94 0.31 0.00
25-34 0 7441 0.00 5.50 2.05 0.00
35-44 7 5630 24.87 8.56 2.41 2.90
45-54 3 4154 14.44 10.16 2.11 1.42
55-64 3 3050 19.67 12.14 1.85 1.62
65-74 1 1518 13.18 18.67 1.42 0.71
>75 2 845 47.34 35.75 1.51 1.32
TOTAL 17 40962 11.88
ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATE: 17/204630 8.31
STANDARDIZED MORBIDITY RATIO: 17/11.88 1.42 

(1) Observed cases in Slidell from 1983-87.
(2) Expected cases in Slidell if South LA rates apply.



Table B4.

URINARY SYSTEM
AGE OBS CASES SLIDELL POP. SLIDELL RATES SO LA RATES EXPECT CASES O/E RATIO
>5 0 3600 0.00 2.02 0.36 0.00
5-9 0 3719 0.00 0.19 0.04 0.00
10-14 0 3945 0.00 0.38 0.07 0.00
15-19 0 3867 0.00 0.18 0.03 0.00
20-24 0 3157 0.00 0.39 0.06 0.00
25-34 1 7441 2.69 1.72 0.64 1.56
35-44 3 5630 10.66 7.73 2.18 0.38
45-54 4 4154 19.26 24.78 5.15 0.78
55-64 14 3050 91.80 61.58 9.39 1.49
65-74 11 1518 144.93 127.26 9.66 1.14
>75 3 845 71.01 180.14 7.61 0.39
TOTAL 36 40926 35.19
ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATE: 36/204630 17.59
STANDARDIZED MORBIDITY RATIO: 36/35.19 1.02


Table B5.

ALL-SITES CANCER
AGE OBS CASES SLIDELL POP. SLIDELL RATES SO LA RATES EXPECT CASES O/E RATIO
>5 8 3600 44.44 16.1 2.90 2.76
5-9 2 3719 0.76 8.5 1.58 1.27
10-14 3 3945 15.21 9.4 1.85 1.62
15-19 4 3867 20.69 14.3 2.76 1.45
20-24 1 3157 6.34 21.1 3.33 0.30
25-34 37 7441 99.45 52.9 19.68 1.88
35-44 65 5630 230.91 153.5 43.21 1.50
45-54 112 4154 539.24 410.2 85.20 1.31
55-64 204 3050 1337.70 932.2 142.16 1.43
65-74 202 1518 2661.40 1677.3 127.31 1.59
>75 155 845 3668.64 2367.6 100.03 1.55
TOTAL 793 40926 530.02
ANNUAL INCIDENCE RATE: 793/204630 387.53
STANDARDIZED MORBIDITY RATIO: 793/530.02 1.50*
Chi-Square = 130.51
P Value <.001




Table B6.

ALL PRIMARY SITES OF CANCER EXCEPT LUNG CANCER
CASE OBS. SLIDELL POPN SLIDELL RATE PER 100,000 S. LA RATE PER 100,000 EXP. CASE O/E AGE RATIO
< 5 8 3600 44.44 15.9 2.87 2.79
5-9 2 3719 10.76 9.2 1.72 1.17
10-14 3 3945 15.21 10.4 2.05 1.46
15-19 4 3867 20.69 14.3 2.76 1.45
20-24 1 3157 6.34 20.6 3.25 0.31
25-34 36 7441 96.76 52.1 19.39 1.86
35-44 59 5630 209.59 139.1 39.17 1.51
45-54 83 4154 399.61 326.2 67.76 1.23
55-64 148 3050 970.49 690.0 105.23 1.41
65-74 161 1518 2121.21 1314.6 99.78 1.61
> 75 130 845 3076.92 1963.3 82.95 1.57
TOTAL 635 40926 426.91
SMR X2 TEST p-VALUE ANNUAL RATE EXPECTED RATE
1.49 101.42 P<0.01

310.32

208.63


APPENDIX C

RESPONSIVENESS SUMMARY

LOPH received five letters from citizens living near Bayou Bonfouca during the public comment period which extended from December 6, 1993 through February 6, 1994. One resident expressed concern about seminal vesicle cancer in the community. The other four letters expressed concerns about noise from the incinerator, emissions from the remedial activity, and radioactive material that were once stored onsite.

  1. One letter addressed a citizen's concern that contaminants from the site cause seminal vesicle cancer. The resident mentioned he never used the bayou for fishing or water sports.

    SEE Response:

    PAHs are probable human carcinogens. Cancers associated with exposure to PAH's are lung, skin, and urinary tract. Long-term exposure with the contaminant detected at Bayou Bonfouca may increase a person's risk of developing these cancers. However, the contribution of risk from the contaminant is difficult to determine in the absences of knowledge about other known risk factors like lifestyle, behavior, diet, and medical history.

  2. Concern about noise from the incinerator.

    SEE Response:

    Several complaints made by area residents about noise from the incinerator prompted EPA to muffle the noise and reduce the decibel level of the incinerator. On two site visits conducted after the incinerator was muffled in February 1994, SEE staff did not hear any loud noise from the incinerator. Complaints from residents about the noise from the incinerator have stopped.

  3. Concern about emissions from the incinerator.

    SEE Response:

    The incinerator burns sediments, soils, and wood fragments at high temperatures and effectively destroys any toxic materials in the burning process. Material that is incinerated is 99.99% destroyed by the design removal efficiency set up by EPA. The major products of combustion are carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter which are emitted through the incinerator's smoke stack. The fluids generated from remedial activity are processed by the water treatment facility onsite. LDEQ is conducting air monitoring during site remediation.

  4. Concern about lead in crabs in the bayou.

    SEE Response:

    Elevated levels of lead and mercury were detected in three blue crabs collected from the bayou during 1980. The research was performed by the Center for Bio-Organic Studies at the University of New Orleans. Lead and mercury have never been associated with the site. Metals typically persist in the environment whether their presence is the result of human activity or naturally occurring. In 1987, the LDEQ and the Department of Health and Hospitals issued an advisory against the consumption of fish and shellfish from the bayou. This health advisory should be followed to prevent any exposure to the lead and mercury found in the blue crabs. No additional sampling has been done for biota in the bayou but this Public Health Assessment recommends more sampling and analyses of edible biota from the bayou.

  5. Concern about large cylinders marked with the radioactive symbol on the site roughly five years ago (1988).

    SEE Response:

    LDEQ and LDHH have no knowledge or record of any radioactive material on the Bayou Bonfouca site. If residents have any other information to offer, LDEQ, LOPH and EPA will investigate all environmental contamination information given.


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