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PUBLIC HEALTH ASSESSMENT

CENTRAL WOOD PRESERVING COMPANY
SLAUGHTER, EAST FELICIANA PARISH, LOUISIANA


APPENDICES

APPENDIX A: FIGURE 1

Demographic Statistics
Figure 1. Demographic Statistics


APPENDIX B: TABLES

Table 1.

Maximum Concentrations in On-Site Soil. ( 0-2 feet depth). Presented in Site Inspection Report, Ecology and Environment, Inc., 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1999. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern South Property North Property Comparison Values
  Max. conc. detected (mg/kg)1 Background Max. conc. detected (mg/kg) Background mg/kg Source
Inorganics
arsenic 430 14 6900 14 20 child EMEG3
chromium, total 610 22 3500 22 200 RMEG4
copper 360 5.3 4400 5.3 20 [15]
PAHs
benzo(a)pyrene 1.5 N/A2 260 N/A 0.1 CREG

1mg/kg - milligrams per kilogram
2N/A= Not available
3child EMEG= Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
4RMEG= Reference Dose Media Evaluation
[15]= EPA Region 6 Web site


Table 2.

Toxicity Equivalency Calculation for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons detected in On-Site Soil (0 to 2 feet depth). Presented in Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1999. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern Max. conc. detected (mg/kg)1 Toxic Equivalency Factor Products
  South Property North Property   South Property North Property
PAHs
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 20 1.2 5 100 6
Benzo(a)pyrene 1.5 260 1 1.5 260
benzo(a)anthracene 2.0 280 0.1 0.2 28
benzo(b)fluoranthene 2.4 440 0.1 0.24 44
benzo(k)fluoranthene 2.0 400 0.1 0.2 40
indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 0.5 130 0.1 0.05 13
anthracene 0.81 300 0.01 0.0081 3
benzo(g,h,i)perylene 0.49 3.5 0.01 0.0049 0.035
chrysene 2.9 550 0.01 0.029 5.5
acenaphthene 1.3 240 0.001 0.0013 0.24
fluoranthene 12 860 0.001 0.012 0.86
fluorene 1.3 210 0.001 0.0013 0.21
phenanthrene 3.9 420 0.001 0.0039 0.42
pyrene 8.1 720 0.001 0.0081 0.72
Benzo(a)pyrene
TOXIC EQUIVALENT
      102.26 401.99

1mg/kg - milligrams per kilogram


Table 3.

Maximum Concentrations in Off-Site Sediment on the Unnamed Creek. (0-2 feet depth). Presented in Remedial Investigation Report, 1992 -1995. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern Max. conc. detected (mg/kg)1 Background Comparison Values (mg/kg) Source
Inorganics
arsenic 126 14 20 child EMEG3
chromium 257 22 200 RMEG4
PAHs
benzo(a)pyrene 9.4 N/A2 0.1 CREG5
benzo(a)anthracene 9.5 N/A 0.56 LDEQ RECAP6
benzo(b)fluoranthene 16 N/A 0.56 LDEQ RECAP
benzo(k)fluoranthene 16 N/A 5.5 LDEQ RECAP
dibenz(a,h)anthracene 3 N/A 0.33 LDEQ RECAP
indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene 7.8 N/A 0.56 LDEQ RECAP

1mg/kg = milligrams per kilogram
2N/A= Not available
3child EMEG= Environmental Media Evaluation Guide
4RMEG= Reference Dose Media Evaluation
5CREG= Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1x10-6 excess cancer risk.
6LDEQ RECAP= Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality Risk Evaluation/Corrective Action Program


Table 4.

Toxicity Equivalency Calculation for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons detected in Off-Site Sediments (0 to 2 feet depth) on the Unnamed Creek 1992-1995. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern Max. Conc. Detected (mg/kg)1 Toxic Equivalency Factor Product2
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene 3.0 5 15
Benzo(a)pyrene 9.4 1 9.4
benzo(a)anthracene 9.5 0.1 0.95
benzo(b)fluoranthene 16 0.1 1.6
benzo(k)fluoranthene 16 0.1 1.6
indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 7.8 0.1 0.78
benzo(g,h,i)perylene 6.0 0.01 0.06
chrysene 17 0.01 0.17
acenaphthene 0.5 0.001 0.0005
fluoranthene 22 0.001 0.022
phenanthrene 5.7 0.001 0.00067
pyrene 17 0.001 0.017
Benzo(a)pyrene
TOXIC EQUIVALENT
    29.59

1mg/kg - milligrams per kilogram
2product- (max. conc. detected)(toxic equ. factor)


Table 5.

Maximum Concentrations in On-Site (North and South Property) and Off-Site Soil/Sediment on the Unnamed Creek ( 0-2 feet depth). Presented in Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1999. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern On-site Creek Soil/Sediment Off-site Creek Soil/Sediment Comparison Values
  Max. conc. detected (mg/kg)1 Background Max. conc. detected (mg/kg) Background mg/kg Source
Inorganics
arsenic 1,100 11 590 11 20 RMEG3 child
chromium, total 2,500 16 2,800 16 200 RMEG child
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Benzo(a)pyrene 860 NA 9.4 NA 0.1 CREG4
acenaphthene 7,100 NA 0.5 NA 3,000 RMEG child
fluoranthene 21,000 NA 22 NA 2,000 RMEG child
fluorene 12,000 NA 0.69 NA 2,000 RMEG
pyrene 5,300 NA 17 NA 2,000 RMEG child

1mg/kg - milligrams per kilogram
2NA= Not available
3 RMEG= Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
4CREG= Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide for 1x10-6 excess cancer risk.


Table 6.

Toxicity Equivalency Calculation for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons detected in On-Site and Off-Site Soil/Sediments (0 to 2 feet depth) on the Unnamed Creek. Presented in Baseline Human Health Risk Assessment, 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1999. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern Max. conc. detected (mg/kg)1 Toxic Equivalency Factor Products
  On-Site Soil/ Sediments Off-Site Soil/ Sediments   On-Site Soil/ Sediments Off-Site Soil/ Sediments
Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene ND 3.0 5 0 15
Benzo(a)pyrene 860 9.4 1 860 9.4
benzo(a)anthracene 1,200 9.5 0.1 120 0.95
benzo(b)fluoranthene 1,200 16 0.1 120 1.6
benzo(k)fluoranthene 600 16 0.1 60 1.6
indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene 270 7.8 0.1 27 0.78
anthracene 15,000 29 0.01 150 0.29
benzo(g,h,i)perylene 150 6.0 0.01 1.5 0.06
chrysene 5,600 17 0.01 56 0.17
acenaphthene 7,100 0.5 0.001 7.1 0.0005
fluoranthene 21,000 22 0.001 21 0.022
fluorene 12,000 0.69 0.001 12 0.00069
phenanthrene 48,000 5.7 0.001 48 0.00067
pyrene 5,300 17 0.001 5.3 0.017
Benzo(a)pyrene
TOXIC EQUIVALENT
      1,488 29.89

1mg/kg - milligrams per kilogram


Table 7.

Maximum Concentrations in On-site and Off-site Surface Water. Samples collected in 1999. Central Wood Preserving, East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminant of Concern On-site Surface Water (µg/L)1 Off-site Surface Water (µg/L) Comparison Values
µg/L Source
Arsenic 220 29 50 EPA MCL3
Chromium, total 110 23 100 EPA MCL
Manganese 6,600 1,000 50 EPA Secondary MCL

1 µg/l = micrograms per liter
2 NA - Not available
3 MCL= Maximum Contaminant Level


Table 8.

Maximum Concentrations in Off-site Groundwater (Residential Well). Samples collected in 1999. Central Wood Preserving. East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana.
Contaminants of Concern Maximum Concentration Detected (µg/L)1 Comparison Values
(µg/L) Source
Inorganics:
aluminum 409 200 Secondary MCL2
iron 1,070 300 Secondary MCL
sodium 28,500 20,000 EPA DWEL3
Semi-volatiles:
bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate 19.6 3 CREG4

1 µg/L - micrograms per liters
2 MCL - secondary Maximum Contaminant
3 DWEL - Drinking Water Equivalent Level
Level for aesthetic qualities of drinking water
4 CREG - Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide


Table 9.

COMPLETED EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
Pathway Names Exposure Pathway Elements Time
Source Environmental Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population
Soil (SP) Site Soil On-site* Ingestion
Dermal contact
CWP workers Past
Trespassers Present
Future
Soil (NP) Site Soil On-site Ingestion
Dermal contact
CWP Workers Past
Trespassers Future
Sediment Site Sediment On-site Ingestion
Dermal contact
CWP Workers Past
Trespassers Present
Future
Air Site Soil Sediment On-site Inhalation CWP Workers Past
Residential well Not site related Groundwater Tap water Ingestion
Dermal contact
Residents Present
Past
Future

* On-site= CWP site and adjacent property (all within the fence).


Table 10.

POTENTIAL EXPOSURE PATHWAYS
Pathway Names Exposure Pathway Elements Time
Source Environmental Media Point of Exposure Route of Exposure Exposed Population
Air CWP Site Airborne soil particulates Off-site Inhalation Residents
Trespassers
Present
Future
Sediment CWP Site Sediment Off-site unnamed creek bottom and banks Ingestion
Dermal contact
Residents
Trespassers
Past
Present
Future


APPENDIX C: NEEDS ASSESSMENT SUMMARY AND QUESTIONAIRE

July 2000 Needs Assessment Summary

In July 2000, SEET staff administered a Needs Assessment (NA) to approximately 10 homesadjacent to the CWP site. The heads-of-household were asked about their health problems and aboutthe health conditions of other household members. There were 30 health conditions reported byadults (over 18 years of age). No health problems were reported by 73% of the adult population.Health concerns reported for children were allergies, anemia, and chicken pox. The heads-of-household were also asked about their other environmental health concerns. Seven, both males andfemales, reported having no concerns. The other concern expressed was allergies. Follow-up to thecommunity will be in the form of a mail out of the Executive Summary of the Needs Assessmentto the 10 households.

Executive Summary of Responses to the Needs Assessment/Questionnaire on a Community living near the Central Wood Preserving Superfund Site, Slaughter, LA
CERCLIS NO. LAD 008187940
February 2, 2001

On July 22, 2000, three staff members from the Office of Public Health (OPH), Section ofEnvironmental Epidemiology and Toxicology administered a Needs Assessment (NA) in acommunity adjacent to the Central Wood Preserving (CWP) site in Slaughter, Louisiana (EastFeliciana Parish). The community surveyed borders the east side of the site and consists ofapproximately 10 homes.

The heads-of-household completed a two-page survey and a shorter survey for each householdmember. A total of nine households (30 participants), all African American, completed a surveyadministered by OPH staff on a door-to-door basis. OPH staff interviewed twenty-one (70%)female participants and nine (30%) male participants. The age range of the household members wasfrom 1 to 64 years of age. There were seven female (78%) heads-of-household and two males (22%)heads-of-household. All heads-of-household had either worked or lived in this area from 6 to 64years. The age of the houses ranged from 10 months to more than 60 years.

The heads-of-household were asked about their health problems and about the health conditions ofother household members. There were thirty health conditions reported by adults (over 18 years ofage). Twenty-two heads-of-household (73%) of the adult population reported not having any healthproblems. Other responses include conditions such as allergies, anemia, cancer, chest pains, chickenpox, rheumatism, and sinus. Health concerns reported for children were allergies, anemia, andchicken pox.

Data were analyzed regarding whether or not the head-of-household visited a doctor or hospital andwhether or not they had visited either within the last six months. Five of the heads-of-household hadseen a doctor and four heads-of-household had been to a hospital within the last six months. Theonly hospital cited was Lane Memorial.

The heads-of-household were asked about the unnamed creek near their home that feeds into LittleSandy Creek. Three heads-of-household reported that their children played in this ditch. Accordingto eight of the heads-of-household, flooding is not a problem in the area.

Finally, the heads-of-household were asked about their other environmental health concerns. Seven,both males and females, reported having no concerns. The only concern expressed was allergies. No health needs that OPH can offer assistance with were identified.


APPENDIX D: GLOSSARY

List of Acronyms
CWP Central Wood Preserving
NP North Property
SP South Property
ATSDR Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
OPH Office of Public Health
SEET Section of Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology
EPA Environmental Protection agency
NPL National Priorities List
CV Comparison Values
OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administration
SI Site Investigation
TRI Toxic Release Inventory
RI/FS Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study
XRF X-Ray Fluorescence
SIR Standard Incidence Ratio
LDEQ Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality.
LDEQ RECAP Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality Risk Evaluation/Corrective Action Program
LSH Louisiana State Highway
NA Needs Assessment
VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds
SVOCs Semivolatile organic compounds
PAHs Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
RfD Reference Dose
RDA Recommended Daily Allowances
EMEG Environmental Media Evaluation Guides
MRL Minimal Risk Level
CREG Cancer Risk Evaluation Guide
RMEG Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guide
DWEL Drinking Water Equivalent Level
LOAEL Lowest Observed Adverse Effects Level
MCL Maximum Contaminant Level
SMCL Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level
CPT/ROST Cone Penetration Testing/Rapid Optical Screening Tool
CV Comparison Values
TEFs Toxic Equivalent Factors
bgs below groundwater surface

Definitions of Selected Terms

ATSDR:
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. The ATSDR is a federal health agency in Atlanta, Georgia that deals with hazardous substances and waste site issues. ATSDR gives people information about harmful chemicals in their environment and tells people how to protect themselves from coming into contact with chemicals.


Background Level:
A typical or average level of a chemical in the environment. Background often refers to naturally occurring or uncontaminated levels.


Cancer Risk Evaluation Guides (CREGs):
CREGs are estimated contaminant concentrations that would be expected to cause no more than one excess cancer in a million (10-6) persons exposed over their lifetime. ATSDR's CREGs are calculated from U.S. EPA's cancer potency factors (CPFs).


Comparison Values:
Estimated contaminant concentrations in specific media that are not likely to cause adverse health effects, given a standard daily ingestion rate and standard body weight. The comparison values are calculated from the scientific literature available on exposure and health effects.


Concentration:
The amount of one substance dissolved or contained in a given amount of another. For example, sea water contains a higher concentration of salt than fresh water.


Contaminant:
Any substance or material that enters a system (the environment, human body, food, etc.) where it is not normally found.


Dermal:
Referring to the skin. Dermal absorption means absorption through the skin.


Dose:
The amount of a substance to which a person is exposed. Dose often takes body weight into account.


DWEL:
Drinking Water Equivalent Level. Protective level of exposure related to potentially non-carcinogenic effects of chemicals that are also known to cause cancer.


Environmental Contamination:
The presence of hazardous substances in the environment. From the public health perspective, environmental contamination is addressed when it potentially affects the health and quality of life of people living and working near the contamination.


Environmental Media Evaluation Guides (EMEGs):
EMEGs are based on ATSDR minimal risk levels (MRLs) that consider body weight and ingestionrates. An EMEG is an estimate of daily human exposure to a chemical (in mg/kg/day) that is likelyto be without noncarcinogenic health effects over a specified duration of exposure to include acute, intermediate, and chronic exposures.


EPA:
U.S. Environment Protection Agency. The federal agency that develops and enforces environmental laws to protect the environment and the public's health.


Exposure:
Contact with a chemical by swallowing, by breathing, or by direct contact (such as through the skin or eyes). Exposure may be short term (acute) or long term (chronic).


Ingestion:
Swallowing (such as eating or drinking). Chemicals can get in or on food, drink, utensils, cigarettes, or hands where they can be ingested. After ingestion, chemicals can be absorbed into the blood and distributed throughout the body.


Inhalation:
Breathing. Exposure may occur from inhaling contaminants because they can be deposited in the lungs and absorbed into the blood.


LDEQ:
Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality


LDHH:
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals


Media:
Soil, water, air, plants, animals, or any other parts of the environment that can contain contaminants.


Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL):
The MCL is the drinking water standard established by U.S. EPA. It is the maximum permissiblelevel of a contaminant in water that is delivered to the free-flowing outlet. MCLs are consideredprotective of public health over a lifetime (70 years) for individuals consuming 2 liters of water per day.


mg/L:
Milligrams per liter (a measure of concentration in water, 1 mg/L is equal to 1 part-per-million.


µg/L:
Micrograms per kilogram (a measure of concentration in water, 1 µg/L is equal to 1 part-per-billion and 0.001 mg/L).


mg/kg:
Milligrams per kilogram (a measure of concentration in soil or tissue, 1 mg/kg is equal to 1 part per million and 1000 µg/kg).


µg/kg:
Micrograms per kilogram (a measure of concentration in soil or tissue, 1 µg/kg is equal to 1 per part billion and to 0.001 mg/kg).


Minimal Risk Level (MRL):
An MRL is defined as an estimate of daily human exposure to a substance that is likely to be withoutan appreciable risk of adverse effects (noncancer) over a specified duration of exposure. MRLs arederived when reliable and sufficient data exist to identify the target organ(s) of effect or the mostsensitive health effect(s) for a specific duration via a given route of exposure. MRLs are based onnoncancer health effects only. MRLs can be derived for acute, intermediate, and chronic duration exposures by the inhalation and oral routes.


No Apparent Public Health Hazard:
This public health conclusion category is used for sites where human exposure to contaminated media may be occurring, may have occurred in the past, and/or may occur in the future, but the exposure is not expected to cause any adverse health effects.


National Priorities List (NPL):
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) listing of sites that have undergonepreliminary assessment and site inspection to determine which locations pose immediate threat to persons living or working near the release. These sites are most in need of cleanup.


OPH:
Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, Office of Public Health


Parts per billion (ppb)/ Parts per million (ppm):
Units commonly used to express low concentrations of contaminants. As example of each, one partper billion (ppb) of trichloroethylene (TCE) equals one drop of TCE mixed in a competition-sizeswimming pool and one part per million (ppm) equals one ounce of trichloroethylene (TCE) in one million ounces of water.


Potentially Exposed:
The condition where valid information, usually analytical environmental data, indicates the presenceof contaminant(s) of a public health concern in one or more environmental media contacting humans(i.e., air, drinking water, soil, food chain, surface water), and there is evidence that some of thosepersons have an identified route(s) of exposure (i.e., drinking contaminated water, breathingcontaminated air, having contact with contaminated soil, or eating contaminated food).


PRP:
Potentially Responsible Party. A company, government or person that is responsible for causing thepollution at a hazardous waste site. PRP's are expected to help pay for the clean up of a site.


Public Health Assessment:
The evaluation of data and information on the release of hazardous substances into the environmentin order to assess any current or future impact on public health, develop health advisories or otherrecommendations, and identify studies or actions needed to evaluate and mitigate or prevent human health effects; also, the document resulting from that evaluation.


Public Health Hazard:
This public health conclusion category is used for sites that pose a public health hazard due to theexistence of long-term exposures to hazardous substances or conditions that could result in adverse health effects.


Reference Dose Media Evaluation Guides (RMEGs):
ATSDR derives RMEGs from U.S. EPA's oral reference doses. The RMEG represents theconcentration in water or soil at which daily human exposure is unlikely to result in adverse noncarcinogenic effects.


Risk:
In risk assessment, the probability that something will cause injury, combined with the potential severity of that injury.


Route of Exposure:
The way in which a person may contact a chemical substance. For example, drinking (ingestion)and bathing (skin contact) are two different routes of exposure to contaminants that may be found in water.


SEET:
Section of Environmental Epidemiology and Toxicology


SMCL:
Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level. Maximum level of a contaminant in water delivered tothe free flowing outlet of the ultimate user, or of contamination resulting from corrosion of piping and plumbing caused by water quality.


Superfund:
Another name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), which created ATSDR.


Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs):
Substances containing carbon and different proportions of other elements such as hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, sulfur, or nitrogen; these substances easily become vapors or gases. A significant number of the VOCs are commonly used as solvents (paint thinners, lacquer thinners, degreasers, and dry cleaning fluids).

CERTIFICATION

This Central Wood Preserving Company Public Health Assessment was prepared by the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals/Office of Public Health under a cooperative agreement with the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). It is in accordance with approved methodology and procedures existing at the time the public health assessment was begun.

Alan W. Yarbrough
Technical Project Officer, SPS, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


The Division of Health Assessment and Consultation, ATSDR, has reviewed this public health assessment and concurs with the findings.

Richard Gillig
for Chief, State Program Section, SSAB, DHAC, ATSDR


Table of Contents

  
 
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